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Full text of "English-Russian grammar, or, Principles of the Russian language for the use of the English"

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BERKELEY 

LIBRARY 

UNIVERSiTY OF 
CALIFORNIA 



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J.W. KOLCKMANN, 
rfof-Buehhfindlep I. M. der 

KAl'^ftlN VON DEUT8CHLAN0, 

2, LAii^HAiA eU^c, LOUSOH, W. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/englishrussiangrOOreifrich 



ENGLISH-RUSSIAN 



GRAMMAR 



02X71- 



ENGLISH-RUSSIAN 

GRAMMAR 

OR 

PRINCIPLES 

OF THE 

RUSSIAN LANGUAGE 

B"OR THE USE OF THE ENGLISH 

with synoptical Tables for the Declensions and Conjugations, graduated 

Themes or Exercises for the application of the grammatical Rules, 

the correct Construction of these Exercises and the 

Accentuation of all the Russian words 

BY 

CH. PH. REIFF 



Jonrt^ dbition tartfuUg xzbmti 



PARIS 

M A I S O N N E U V E AND Co. 

25, QuAi Voltaire, 25 

1883 



PRESERVATION 

;OPY ADDED 

)RIGINALTOBE 

DETAINED 

APR2U994 



LEIPZIG. — PRINTED BY W. DRUGULIN, ORIENTAL AND OLD STYLE PRINTER. 



g^e^ss^s^ia^e5sse24g^2^i£^25g^si 



AlA\/\/ 



n 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

TO THE THIRD EDITION 



HE first edition of this Grammar was published 
at St-Petersburg in 1821, in French, under the 
title of Grammaire russe a Vusage des etrangers qui 
desirent connaitre a fond les principes de cette langue. 
Up to that period all the elementary books, relat- 
ing to the study of the Russian language, had been 
formed on the model of the Latin, which, without 
any sufficient reason, had been considered the type, 
according to which all other tongues must be re- 
gulated. Since that time the works of the Russian 
grammarians Gretsch and VoSTOKOF, the philo- 
logical Researches of Pavsky on the formation of the 
Russian language and the Essay on the comparative 
Grammar of the Russian language by Davydof, 
and other works on the same subject, have solved 
many grammatical difficulties and definitely, fixed 
the principles of the language. 

The above works I have carefully consulted in 
writing the new edition of my Russian Grammar 



4 Mt^ 



VI PREFACE. 

for the use of strangers. This edition, completely 
remodelled, consists of two parts. The first is the 
Grammar properly so called, in which I have endeav- 
oured to give the rules with a clearness and pre- 
cision which may render their retention by the 
memory easy. The second part consists of Themes 
or graduated Exercises on each particular rule, where 
I have placed the Russian words below the English, 
to serve as vocabulary. The solution or correct 
construction of these Exercises will be found at the 
end of the Grammar. 

In order to render the work as extensively useful 
as possible to foreigners, I have published it simul- 
taneously in three languages, French, English and 
German. Philologists who may wish to see the 
subject treated more in detail, can consult my 
French translation of the Russian Grammar of Mr 
Gretsch, under the title of Grammaire raisonnee de 
la Langue russe, precedee d^une Introduction sur 
Vhistoire de cet idiome, de son alphabet et de sa 
Grammaire, and published at St- Petersburg in 1 829. 

CH. R. 

Carlsruhe, September 1862. 



5S^5S:^fi5^S5$^^58*^Sfi^^^2S^e5^ 



PUBLISHER'S NOTE 

TO THE FOURTH EDITION 



N the Fourth Edition of the English-Russian 
Grammar of the late Ch. Reiff, which we now 
place before those who wish to acquire, by an easy- 
way, a thorough knowledge of the principles of the 
Russian language, no changes and alterations have 
been made. There was no sufficient reason of modi- 
fying and remoulding a work, the practical character 
and admirable arrangement of which have been 
appreciated by more than one competent judge. 
The book thus being on the whole and in sub- 
stance left in its original shape, particular attention 
could be given to the correctness of the edition 
both regarding typographical errors and the just- 
ness of language. — Great pains have also been 
taken to render the entrance of the study of 
Russian more accessive by adopting a phonetic 
method for the transcription of Russian words in 
English; in which regard the First Part of the 
grammar has undergone an entire renovation. 



VIII PREFACE. 

Mr. Chamizer- Lenoir, a linguist well-known by 
his deserving exertions in this province, has com- 
mitted himself to the task; and this scholar did his 
best in preparing the work for the press, and in 
carefully revising the sheets as they passed through 
the same. \ 

We hope that this handy and neat new edition 
of a book, which, in spite of some scientific short- 
comings, ^^has do7ie and still can do real service", 
will find the indulgence and patronage of the Public. 

We feel at last much indebted to the Oriental 
Printing- Office of W. Drugulin for the excellent 
getting up and carrying through of this volume. 

M. & Co. 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR 



PART FIRST 



LEXICOLOGY. 

I. — This Russian Grammar is divided into four Division. 
parts, viz: 

I. Lexicology (cjiOBOnpon3Be;teHie), or words con- 
sidered as sounds of the human voice and as 
the elements of speech. 

n. Syntax (cJioBOCO^HHeHie), or agreement and 
construction of words in sentences. 

ni. Orthography (npaBoniicanie), or the proper 
use of letters to represent words. 

IV. Prosody (cjIO^oy;^apeHie), or Orthoepy (npa- 
Bop'&^ie), i. e. the manner of uttering words 
with regard to their accentuation. 



2 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

of il'e'ttis ^' — ^^ being the especial province of this science to 
explain every thing concerning the knowledge of 
words, it considers these first of all as mere sounds, 
and afterwards as the elements of speech. In respect 
then to mere sounds, words are composed of letters 
(6yKBH); and a collection of these letters or signs 
representing the particular sounds of which the words 
of a language are composed, is called Alphabet 
(a36yKa). 

Alphabet. 3. — The Russian Alphabet now in use contains 
36 letters, the roman and italic types of which, as 
used in printing, also the caligraphic characters or 
hand- writing, with their modern and ancient appella- 
tion, and their corresponding value of sound, are re- 
presented in the following table. 

The Russian Alphabet is borrowed from the ecclesiastical 
Slavonic, which besides contains the following eight letters: 

called 3Sji6, yKT), OT-L, lOCT., 0, H, KCH, HCH for which now 

are substituted 3, y, OT, H), 0, fl, KC, nc. 

The letter ft has hitherto not been comprised among the 
number of the letters of the Alphabet; for which reason it is 
placed at the end of it. — Russian printers have for some time 
now pretty generally substituted the small capital T for the 
common m, and this t we have made use of, both in this 
Grammar and in our Dictionary. 



FIRST PART. — Lexicology. 





RUSSIAN ALPHABET. 




Types. 

roman. italic. 


Caligraphic characters. 


Appellation. 

ajicient modern. 


Value. 


Rtmning-hand. 


Roimd-haiid. 


Proper Accidental 
sound, sound. 


1. A a A a 

2. B 6 E 6 


SY a 


6La<« 


a3T> a 
6yKH de 


a e 

(/ar) {»z^^) {no) 

b p 


3- B B Be 


^ ^ 


* ^ 


B-BAH Be 


V f 


4. r r r 2 


^. 


3" , 


r.iarojLT. re 


g,gh;k,h,kh,v 


5-/ A Ad 


^<^^ 


(Sb~lo^ 


406p6 46 


d t 


6. E e E e 

7. jKm. Mow 


S e 
Mofo 




ecTB e 
jKHBexe Hce 


ya, a yo, t 

{vsxyate, fyayoke, 
gate) no) 

zsh sh 


8. 3 3 3 5 

9. H H // u 

10. I i / i 

11. K K Kk 




83 
1€k 


3eM.ia 3e 
H/Ke II 

1 (decxmepuii- 
Hoe) 

KaKO Ka 


z s 

ee, i ye 

fycipin) 

ee,i{in//«) 

k gh,kh 


12. A A A A 


c/^ U 


.X ^ 


JH)4H 9Ab 


1,11 


13. M M Mm 


^y^ ^ 


tM ^ 


MucaeTO dWb 


m 


14. H H H H 


M-» 


IK? V, 


Hain-B 3HT, 


n 


15. 

16. n n 77 « 

17. P p Pp 




JC n 


OHT, 

noKOH ne 
pubi api, 


a (inyar) 

P 

r 


18. C c C c 


W c 


G e 


CIOBO 301. 


s,ss z 



I* 



4 
Types. 


Caligraphic characters. 


MMAK. 

Appellation. 


Value. 


roman. italic. 


Round-hand. 


Running-hand, 


' ^ f\ — — ^ 

ancient, modem. 


Proper Accidental 
sound, sound. 


19. Tim T m 


^^ 


5Tt m 


TBepAO Te 


t d 


20. Y Y yy 


^K 


JTp 


y y 


oo,u(in/«/5) 


21. 4> * 4> ^ 


^/ 


** 


*epTT, 3*T> 


f,ph 


22. X X X X 


^a, 


do CO 


x-Bpi, xa 


kh,c^ 


23. 1^ u u ^ 


9^^ 


21; n 


ULi ue 


ts 


24. ^i 1 ^ -i 


'T* 


ie t 


^epBB qe 


ch,tsli sh 


25. mm Ulm 


Muc 


aiTu. 


ma 


sh 


26. mm lZ(ai^ 


m-r 


aiiiu, 


ma 


sh-tsh sh 


27. Li, 'fc 3 


^* 


^3 6 to 


-Bpi, 


e w/^/^ 


28. tl bi M bi 


,«^:*< 


i)i^ 


■Epbl 


t thick we 


29. t t ^6 


J^-e 


ob t> io 


■BpL 


y w«/(? 


30. S -B i Ih 


m^ 


13) '(b 


flTL 


yah, S yo 


31. 3 3 3 5 


So 


9 e 


a 


e (in i7iet) 


32. H)k) JO/o 


J(P^ . 


30« 


K) 


you u Fr. 


33. a a ^ ;? 

34. e Be 






a 
eiiia 


ya ye, e 

(in^yard) {\nyet, 
met) 

f 


35. Vv Tr 


^^ 


V . 


liaama 


ee, i {m/>m) 


36. H H # i:r 


(/Wi^ 


CrL U 10 


HCtRpaTKOfl 


y ww/^ 



^y^ 



FIRST PART. — Lexicology. 
RUSSIAN WRITTEN ALPHABET. 

^ yy ?C<^a^X ^^ 




c^^^/f;^ t^co^^d; c4^^t^^y/^ 






RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



Division of 4. — The 36 letters of the Russian alphabet contain 

the letters. r / /■ \ • 

1 2 vowels {TJiSiCEhm), viz: a, e, 11, 1, 0^ y, bi, -£, 3, k), a, r, 
of which the following five: e, "£, fl; K), li, may be 
called diphthongs (^ByrjiacHHfl) ; 3 semi-vowels (no^iy- 
rjiacHLifl) : !>, i>, % and 2 1 consonants (corjiacHLia), viz : 
6, B, r, A, SK, 3, K, Ji, M, H, n, p, c, T, O; X, ^, H, in, m, e. 
5. — The vowels and semi- vowels, with regard to 
their sounds, sxQhard, soft ox moderate ; and the con- 
sonants, according to their degree of intensity, are 
strong, feeble or liquid, viz : 



I. VOWELS. 



m. CONSONANTS. 



a 
d 
bi 


y 



and those cor- 
responding : 



2. Soft: 
. a. 
. e 

. u, i 
• 6 (io) 



3. Moderate: 



%. 



II. SEMI-VOWELS. 



^■Hard:i^t.tlt:n^-^fi^ 



T., H 



^•Strong:i^^if^i^:)2.Feeble: 
n 6 

* B 

K r (g lat.) 

X r (h /fl/.) 

Ill HI 

T A 

C 3 



U (TC) 

^ (Tin) 



(A3 
(4Hf !> 



These three 

have no 

sign of 



m(inTffl) (at43KJ their own. 
3. Liquid. 

A, M, H, p. 



6. — According to the particular organ of speech 
which gives utterance to the consonants, they are di- 
vided into: 

1. Gutturals (ropTaHHtia), pronounced in the throat : 
r, K, X. 

2. Palatals (no;tHe6Hi,ia), uttered by the palate: 

JI, H, p. 

3. Dentals (3y6Hbia), sounded by the aid of and 
against the teeth : ;i;, t. 



FIRST PART. — Lexicology. "7 

4.' Lingual (flsbinnaa), articulated by means of ap- 
plying the tongue closely to the upper teeth : 11;. 

5. Labials (rydnbifl), produced between the lips: 
6, B^ M, n, o. 

6. Lispings (ineneJieBaTLifl), produced by a whistling 
of the tongue against the palate : 3, c. 

7. Hissings (mnnflmifl), sounded by a whistling of 
the tongue against the root of the lower teeth : 
3K, ^, m, m. 

The vowel v and the consonant have not been included in 
the divisions, being found only in a few words taken from the 
Greek, and the former, with regard to pronunciation, being 
identical with h, and the latter with *. 

7. — In the foregoing; table of the letters we have Pronuncia- 
pointed out \}i\€\x proper and accidental sounds] the letters. 
proper sound being the one they usually have, or when 
used separately, whereas they receive their accidental 
sound from a particular situation. This accidental 
sound, and more especially with regard to the vowels, 
depends upon the tonic accent (y/i;apeHie), of which 
more hereafter (§12). 

The rules we are about to give of the pronunciation of the 
Russian letters, are taken from the dialect of Great-Russia, such 
as it is spoken at the Court, among the poHshed and hterary 
world. Other dialects of the Russian tongue are those of Little- 
Russia, White-Russia, Novgorod, Soozdal and that of Olonetz; 
all of which however differ not more materially from the Mos- 
covite dialect, than by their pronunciation and the use of some 
particular expressions. 

8. — The vowels, in the Russian language, are voweis. 
differently pronounced according to the place they 
occupy in a, word, or as they are accented or not. 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



A, a. < 



fa.{\r\/ar): a36YKai, alp/iade^; Kauidi, 

I oat-meal. 

re (m/(^z): yHiaCT>, dread; ^acb'l, 

. . 1* 1 , watch; ^6ina4fc, horse. 

Accidental sound/ ' 



'jo ^\r\. go): Cojfcuiaro, great; xy- 

This vowel a is pronounced as ah or ^ (in fat) ; 
but : i) It has the sound of short e after the hissing con- 
sonants (hc, h, m, m) in the middle of a word, when 
not accented ; at the end of words however, whether 
accented or not, it retains its proper sound. — 2) In 
the termination aio of the genitive of adjectives, 
when accented, it has the sound of long o. Thus the 
above words are pronounced: ahzbooka, kahsha, 
obsskesSj tshessee, Ibhshad, bahlshbhva, khudbhva. 

(_, , (yz. {xxs. yard): hmb, ditch: MiiCO, 

Proper sound, ^ ^ v -^ / 
q- J L meat; seMJa, earth. 

' Accidental sound, C"' ^ <'"^'" =*<?"■ ^"'""' "'- 

y (, BflTB, nine. 

The vowel R, when accented, has the sound of 
the diphthong yah [yahma, myahso, zemlyah) ; but 
if not accented, it is pronounced ye (in yap) at the 
beginning of words and syllables, and e (in get) after 
a consonant {yadrb, davet). At the end of words, 
whether accented or not, it preserves its proper 
sound; thus sapa, dawn; BpeMa, time, are pronoun- 
ced zaryahy vrdimyah. The pronoun ea, of her, 
is pronounced yaybh, and the syllable Cfl of prono- 
minal verbs is pronounced sah as : CTapaiLca, to exert 
one's self {stahrahtsah). 

ysL, a. {in j/ate, gate) BAUWh, one; cie, 



Proper sound, , , , , 

' ^' Accidental sound,|>'°> ° ''"-^"^''^ 6ep63a fo>M-<;-«; 



FIRST PART. — Lexicology, 9 

At the beginning of words and syllables the vowel 
e is pronounced yai, but after a consonant purely as 
long a or short e; the above words therefore are pro- 
nounced yaideen, seeyate, sairtse. This vowel, when 
accented, sounds like jf^ (inj^^z^^), or, after a hissing and 
the lingual consonant (hi, h, in, m, n), like oh in the follow- 
ing cases, viz: i) when standing before a consonant 
followed by one of the hard vowels, a, o, y, u, 5; 
2) at the end of words; 3) in the termination em 
or eil of the instrumental singular case of feminine 
nouns; 4) before the gutturals (r, k, x) or the simple 
hissing sounds (at, m), which do not allow of a hard 
vowel after them; 5) in the present tense of verbs, 
although followed by a soft vowel. Thus the words 
eiiKa, Jir; CJieati, tears; jie^ti), ice; JKHTLe, life; Moe, 
my; seMJieio, by the earth; ^ajieKm, distant; HeceuiL, 
thou earnest; bqcqiq^ you carry ; mejiKi), silk; .aniie, 
face; ;^ymeio, with the soul, are pronounced yblka, 
slybzee, lyot, zsheetyb, 7nah-yb, zamlybyou, dalybkee, 
nessybsh^ nessybtai, shblk, leetsb, dooshbyou. It is 
this pronunciation yo or that it is customary now 
to point out by a diaeresis over the vowel e; 6epe3a, 
Hce'jiTLiH, ejiKa, &c,, and in this manner it has been 
distinguished, throughout this Grammar. This vowel 
e serves besides to give the French pronunciation 
of eu, as in MoHiecKte {Fr, Montesquieu). 

r_, , fya, a Cm yate, irate): 'hWh, I eat; 

Proper sound, <; \ -^ ^ o / 

.g ^ I L Bipa, faUh. 

' * Accidental sound,/^^ ^'""^'^'^ '' ^»^'^"' ''''''' ^«^'^^^' 
I, sta7's. 

This vowel /& at the beginning of words and syl- 
lables sounds likeyai; but after a consonant like long a 
or short e {yaiin, vaira) . However after the consonant H 



lO RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

the diphthongal sound is felt rather stronger; thus 
H'feT'L; no; HtMOH, dumb, are pronounced nyet, nyamby. 
When accented, this vowel has the sound oiyoh only 
in the words rnis^ta, nests; aBis^^M, stars; ciitJia, 
saddles; ii;b'£ji'L, he flourished; o6p'BJi'L, he found; 
also in their derivatives and compounds, as: 3Bi- 
340HKa, little star; rH'BSAHniKO, little nest; pasuiBi.i'L, 
it bloomed; which are pronounced gnybhzda, 
zvybhzdee, syohdla, tsvybll, ahbrybll, zvybhzdotshkay 
gnybhzdishko, rahztsvybll. 

p. r Proper sound, o: AOMd, at home; noCJ'B, after. 

' ' \ Accidental sound, ah: xopomo, ze;<?//; KOJOKOja, bells. 

The vowel o, when accented, keeps its proper 
sound ; but if unaccented, it takes the sound of ah ; 
wherefore the above words are pronounced dbma, 
pbslai, kharahshbh, kalakalah. It must be observed 
however, that after an accented syllable, the sound 
of that vowel is extremely short; thus the word 
KOJIOKOJI'L, bell, is pronounced kbhlokol or kbhlk'L 

pr r Proper sound, ee: htth, to go; Mep't, peace. 

' * \ Accidental sound, yee; HMl, to them; CTdClhU, articles. 

The vowel ii, at the beginning of the various in- 
flections of the pronoun of the third person (hm'l, 
iix-L, hmh), and after the semi-vowel 6, is pronoun- 
ced as a diphthong, yee/n, yehnee, yeekh, stahtyee. 
But in every other instance it preserves its proper 
sound, only that after a preposition terminating with 
the semi-vowel z, it takes the thick sound of u, thus 
the words bt, H36'B, i7i the room; ci> HBanoM'L, zvith 
John; ^pe;^I>IIAyI^iH, precedent, are pronounced as 
if written ebis^fh, chieduoMS, npedbidfuiiil. 

TT J Proper sound, e thick: CMHT), son; AhCTeu.bl, batterers. 

' ' \ Accidental sound, we: rpiidw, mushrooms; MM, we. 



FIRST PART. — Lexicology. II 

The sound of this vowel u is a thick utterance 
of e, and to get any thing like a perfect idea of 
this sound, it is necessary to hear it from the mouth 
of a Russian. After the labials (6, b, m, n, <d) it 
sounds very nearly like we pronounced very short ; 
thus the words rpH6bi, mushrooms; bbi, you; mbi, 
we; CHonbi, sheaves; niKaobi, cupboards, are pro- 
nounced grebwe, vwe, mwe, snapwe, sJikafwe. The 
Polish language represents this sound by the letter y. 

■j^ jProper sound, you, long u\ lort, south; .IK)6.IK), I love, 

* * (^Accidental sound, u French : BpwccejLL, Brussels. 

This vowel /o has properly the diphthongal sound 
you or long u; wherefore the pronunciation of the 
above words is youk, lyoublyou. In foreign words 
only it takes the place of the French u, as in the 
word BpwcceiiB, Brussels (Fr. Bruxelles.) 

I, i, y, y, 9, 3, y, Y. — These four vowels, whether 
accented or not, always keep their proper sound, 
as in the words iepeii, priest; Mipx, the world; 
yajHHi., stipper; nary 6a, loss; stot'l, this; Mvpo, 
holy chrism, which are pronounced yerey, meer, 
obzsheen, pahgoobah, allot, m,eero. For the use of 
i and v (instead of ii) see Orthography. 

9.— The semi-vowels (T), l, ii), which are placed, Semi- 

vowels 

the two first after the consonants, and the last after 
the vowels, are only half uttered vowels, 3 being 
half of the vowel 0, and h or ii half of the vowel u. 
T), -L, L, L. — The hard semi-vowel 3 entails on 
the consonant that precedes it, a strong and harsh 
sound, as though that letter was double, and has 
even the effect of causing a feeble consonant to be 
pronounced like its strong corresponding sound; 



12 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

thus the words: ciaH'L, shape; BflSi., ehn-tree; 
mecTi,, perch; KpoB-L, roof; ctojI'L, table; 6paT'L, 
brother; hliji'l, flame; rycap'B, hussar; 061., from; 
rjia;t'L, hunger; CGMTb, this; 'ixhwh, flail, are pronoun- 
ced stann, vyass, shesst, krohff, stoll, brahtt, peel, goo- 
sarr, ohpp^ glahtt, semm, tsepp. On the other hand, 
the soft semi- vowel 6 confers a liquifying {Fr. mouille) 
and slender sound on the preceding consonant; thus 
the words: ciaHL, become , Ba3L, marsh; mecTB, six; 
KpoBL, blood; CTOJIL, so much; 6paTL, to take; ntiJii,, 
dust\ rycapL, goose-herd; 06l, the Obi; rjia/tt, 
smoth road; cgml, seven; iitnL, chain, are pronoun- 
ced stahf (like gn in the French Allemagne), vyaz\ 
shesst^ krov\ stohl\ brahtt, peel\ goosar', ohb\ glad\ 
sem^, tsep\ by causing the i to be slightly vibrated 
and to expire, as it were, within the mouth; the 
sound and the mechanism for producing it, being 
closely allied to what is heard in the French words 
peril, soleil, campagne, cigogne, ligne. After the 
hissing consonants (ac, H, m, m) the sounds of the 
semi-vowels s and 6 are the same and differ in 
nothing from each other ; thus the words HoafL, knife, 
and po^L, rye; MG^t, sword, and ofhHh, to cut; 
KaMbiiu'L, reed, and MbiniL, mouse; Toiui., fasting, 
and HomL, night, are pronounced nohsh and rohsh, 
metch and setch, kahmeesh and meesh, tohsh^tsh and 
7iohsh'tsh. 

H, H. — The soft semi-vowel ii is pronounced very 
rapidly and short along with the vowel that pre- 
cedes it, and with which it formes but one syllable ; 
thus the words ^afi, give; hgh, drink: Moii, my; 
myfi, chew; bM, blow; Kapin, brownbay, are pro- 



FIRST PART. — Lexicology . 



13 



B,B. 




' bl-i 


il,;t, 


^^ 




3, 3. J 


1 





nounced ^^^ or like di in ^?>, /^^^ mo\ zshu^, vdy 
karee[, givin gutterance to a short ^" after the vowel. 

10. — The consonants, in the Russian language, Consonants, 
as will be seen below, have also various sounds, viz : 

' p: 6a6a, old woman; 6o6t>, bean; 6a6Ka, cockle. 

f: BOH^,aw^jj/;poB'l>,^/^<r/5;BT6pHHKT>, Tuesday. 

^.'1 <; /•■ AHO, bottom; p04T>, kind; BOAKa, brandy. 

sh: atAy, Iivait ;w^Wi>^ husband; AQ-XXA^spoon. 

J.'SBOHT., sound; r.iaST., eye; CKaSKa, story. 

The feeble consonants 6, e, d, oic, 3, retain their 
proper sound before the vowels, before the liquid 
and other feeble consonants, observing that die 
(French j) is now represented in English by zsk. 
But before the strong consonants and at the end 
of words terminating in the hard semi-vowel (t), 
they assume the utterance of their corresponding 
strong letters (n, o, t, m, c). Thus the above 
words are pronounced babahy bohp, bapka, vohnn, 
rohff, ftbkrneek, dno, rott, vbhtkah, zsh^doo, 7noosJt^ 
ohshkah, zvomi, glahss, skaska. In words where 3d 
is followed by u, the letter d is silent: thus.nos/tHO, 
late; npa3;iHHK'L, feast, are pronounced pbhzno, 
prahzneek. The word j^oat^iHK'L, rain, is pronoun- 
ced dbhzsli! zsheek. 

Proper sound,^^-^ : ropa, mountain; nOTli6eA'b, perdition. 

f k: jij^yvTij/riend; MormiH, w>^^ could. 

h: rocnoAB, Lord; Bora,'^ God. 

kh, d^: Bori), God; .lemii, light. 

, v: KpaCHaro, red; ero, of him. 



r, r. I 



Accidental sound, 



In the beginning and in the middle of words the 
consonant 2 preserves its proper sound, being arti- 
culated with a slight vocalized aspiration, something 
like the Hibernian g when pronounced hard {gharah, 



14 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

pahgheebel). The accidental sound takes place in 
the following cases: i) At the end of words and 
before the consonant m, it takes the hard utterance 
oiu {drook, mbhkshe). — In the words Focno^b, Lord; 
6jiaro, well, and the various inflections of the noun 
Borrb, God (Bora, Bory, BoroM-L) it is an aspirated 
{Jiospbhd, blaho, bohhah, bbhhoo, bohhomm). — 3) In 
the words Borij, God, and j66TT},poor; before a strong 
consonant, as JierKm, lz£-/it; Jierne, lighter-, Horm, 
the nails, and in the foreign words ending in p2o, 
as neTep6ypri., Petersburg; KeHHrc6epr'L, K'dnigs- 
berg, it takes the hard guttural sound of x (Germ. 
6)f bo^^ oobb6), lyb6)kee, lai&jtshai, nbh6)tee, paiterbobr^, 
kainigsber6)). — 4) In inflections azo, mo, 020, eio, of 
adjectives and pronouns, it is pronounced as v 
{krasnahvah, yaivbh). — 5) In words derived from for- 
eign languages, it is pronounced either g or aspirated 
h, according to the original sound which it is in- 
tended to supply, as in the words . reorpaoia, geo- 
gj^aphy; ry6epHifl, government; repoii, hero; rocnn- 
TajiB, hospital. 

(^ Proper sound, k: KpeCTTi, cross; 3epKajO, mirror. 
I r^/5.- KT. Bory, to God; kt> seMji, 

' I Accidental sound, <( to the earth. 



[ ^y^kh,6): KTO, who; Kh KOMy, to whom. 

The consonant k when placed before the feeble 
consonants 6, r, ji,, m, ^, takes the sound of its cor- 
responding feeble z {gh' bbhoo, gh' zahnlai), and be- 
fore the consonants k, T; h, it takes the articulation 
of X (khio, kh'kahmob). In every other instance it 
preserves its proper sound {kresst, zdirkahlo). 



FIRST PART. — Lexicology. 15 

r Proper sound, s: cecipa, sister; cocame, suction. 

r. o <; . . , , , f 0.- CT> B6rOMT>, with God; c3tiBaTb, 

^' ^' ] Accidental sound, <! '. ., 

! \^ to mvite. 

i Proper sound: t: TexHBa, bow-string; xeTKa, aunt. 
. . , , ^ id: OTAaiB, to give back; HteHHTbda, 

Af'nnpnl-nl snnnn.< 



I Accidental sound, < 



marriage. 



The strong consonants c and m before the feebles 
6, r, ;t, Hi, 3, assume the articulation of their cor- 
responding feeble consonants 3 and d; thus the words 
above are pronounced scsstra, sahsaniyai, z^bbhhoni, 
zzeevat\ teteeva, tybhtkah, ahddat^, zsheneedba. When 
cm. is followed by u, the consonant m is not at all 
sounded, as in the words nocTHLiH, of le7it; nac- 
THBIH, partial, pronounced pbhsnee, tshasnee. The 
consonant c, before the strong hissing sounds m and 
n, takes the utterance of m; thus cinHBait, to sew; 
CHaciie, happiness, are pronounced sJHsheevaf, 
sh'tshastiyai, 

„ r Proper sound, ch or tsh: qaci, hour; qen^iiKT), a caf.' 

' * i^ Accidental sound, sh: HTO, what; napoqHO, on purpose. 

The compound consonant n (xin), which is pro- 
nounced the same as the English digraph ch, takes 
the simple sound of m, or English sh, in the word 
^TO, and before the consonant h; thus we pronounce 
the above words tshas, tsheptsheek, sh'toh, nahrbhshno. 
However the word tohho, precisely, is pronounced 
tbhtshno^ to distinguish it from ToniHO, / feel sick, 
which is pronounced tbhshno. The Poles represent 
this letter by cz. 

r Proper sound, shtsh: mnXT), shield; 6B0mT>, fruit. 
^^ I«-1 Accidental ,^^^^^[^^'- ^^^^^o^u of fruit ; mmbmil^l,, 

\^ L helper. 



i6 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



The compound consonant m (mini), which has 
the three distinct sounds of sh-t-sh or s-t-sh, and 
which the Poles represent by szcz, has the simple 
sound oim before the consonant «; the above words 
consequently are pronounced sh!tshitt, or stchitt, 
bhvoshHtsh, and ahvahshnoy, pahmbhshnik. 



n, n. ^ 

X, X. 
m,ni. 



n, ^. 



. . (p: naBJHHt, pea-cock; CTOjnx, column. 
. . jy or ph: *OHapb, lantern; CKy*La, 

scull-cap. 
. . \kh. Germ, c^ : xpaMt, temple; 4yxT>, 
^Proper sound, <^ odour. 

sh, Fr. ch, Germ. \6), Pol. sz: majauiT., 

cottage, 
ts, Germ.g: iiapB,>^/wf; HQ^QJXh, pepper. 



0^ /; eeaipi), theatre; AeiiHbl, Athens. 

These six strong consonants keep their proper sound, 
and consequently the above words are pronounced/^- 
vleen, stohlp, fahnar, skoofya, khrahmm, dookh, shah- 
lash, tsar, pahrets, fe-ahf?^ afeenee, observing that x 
is pronounced as in the Scotch loch or German 
jDac^. For the use of the consonant e, which is 
pronounced the same as ^, see Orthography. 

jI^ jl 1 r /; .laA^, accord; .iflAt, ill-luck. 

M, M. Proper soundJ^'-' «'^'^^' ^' ^^^^' '^'^^'' '^^^^ 
JJ g I \ n: TpOHt, throne; TpOHB, touch. 

P^ p. J ^r: paAT., glad; pflAt, rank. 

The liquid consonants preserve their proper sound, 
being strong or soft in their utterance according to 
the vowel or semi- vowel that follows; consequently 
the above words are pronounced latt and lyat, vsahnm 
and vbhsem; tro hmi dind tron^ ; rahtt 2X\Aryahtt. It 
is necessary to observe here that the Russian con- 
sonant A; before the hard vowels and strong con- 



FIRST PART. — Lexicology. 17 

sonants, by no means resembles the usual English /, 
in as much as in. that situation it is pronounced with 
much greater force, and which is obtained by a 
strong pressure of the tongue against the upper 
teeth. The Poles represent this sound by / with 
a bar (1). The other three sounds correspond with 
those of the English language, only that the ^ has 
a stronger trill^ partaking more of the Irish utterance 
of this letter. 

II. — A vowel, either by itself, or joined to one Jj^^^J^^ 
or more consonants, with or without a semi-vowel, 
forms, in the Russian language, a syllable (cJior-L, 
CKJia;t'L) ; and one or several of these, used to repre- 
sent a thought or sensation, form a word (cjiobo). 
Words consequently may be monosyllables (oaho- 
CJioaiHHfl) or polysyllables (MHorocJiOHtHHfl), according 
to their being compounded of one or more syllables, 
as: H, and; fl, /; oh-l, he; aii, ah] ceii, this; ;tBa, 
two; Q,T^2ixrh, fright , 3ii-Ma, winter; ;to-p6-ra, road; 
;to-6po-;t'B-TeiiB, virtue; ;i;o-6po-;t'B -leJiB-HLiH, vir- 
tuous, &c. 

The Russian language contains a few words that have no 
vowel at all, or whose vowel has changed into a semi-vowel; 
such are the particles BT>, KT>, CT), d-L, HCT., Xb (instead of eo, 
KO^ CO, 6bl, 0/ce, AU). These words, called assyllabics (6e3Cj6H{- 
HBia), are joined to the syllables of the preceding or following 
word, as : Wb AOMT), in the house; Kt OKHy, towards the window; 
C.T> to66h), -with thee; ecJH 61., if; OAHaKO HCL, however; TO^fflO 
JB, is it right so? 

12. — In polysyllabic words there is always one Tonic 

ititt- ri- accent. 

syllable that experiences a greater stress of the voice 
than the rest; thus in the words Majio, little; ro- 
TOBO, ready; roBopHxe, speak, the syllables Ma, mo, 
pit, are more discernably audible than the syllables 



1 8 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

AOj 20, 60, me. This modification of the voice is in 
fact what is meant by tonic accent (yj^apenie), and 
is indicated by a little mark over the vowel. The 
accented syllable is called long (;^6JI^iH), the others 
short (KpaxKie). 

The accent is no longer printed in Russian books, except to 
distinguish some homonymous words and grammatical inflections 
of similar forms, as 3aM0Kl), castle, and saMOKt, lock; cjoea, of 
the word (gen. sing.), and CJOBa, words (nomin. plur.), as will 
be seen in Part IV, Prosody. It is here the place to observe 
that in the Russian language there is no rule by which to deter- 
mine the accent, and that in one and the same word is it fre- 
quently shifted from one syllable to another; for which reason 
all the words used in this Grammar are printed with the accent 
they ought to have. 

The following Reading-exercise, in which the reading of the 
Russian text is facilitated by an imitation of the sounds accord- 
ing to English utterance, and an interlinear literal translation 
added, it is confidentially hoped, will materially assist the learner 
to make himself master of the rules we have given on the 
pronunciation of the letters and words of the Russian language. 

READING-EXERCISE. > 

B^epa BT> mecTB ^acoBt yipa noixajH mm 

Ftshera f shest tshessofF ootra pah-yaikhalee mwe 

Yesterday at six d clock of the morning went we 

Bepx6MT> BT> n6TCAaMi>. Hn^ero h-btt. cKy^nie a'TOii 

verkhomm f Potsdam. Neetshaivo nyet skooshnaiyai aitoy 
on horseback to Potsdam. Nothing there is duller than this 

4op6rH: Bes^i oyCoKifl liecoKi., ii hu KaKHx-B saHHMaiejL- 

dahroghee: vezdai gloobohkee pessok, ee neekahkeekh zaneemahtel- 
road: every where a deep sand, and not jany interest- 

Hbixt npe^MeTOB'B bt> r.ja3a He nonaAaeica. Ho bhat> 

neekh praidmaitofF v' glahzah nai pahpahdayetsah. No veet 

ing object^ to the eyes not presents itself But the sight 



FIRST PART. — Lexicology. 19 

UoTCAaMa, a oco6^iiBO CaHi-CycH, oienb xopomi). Mm 

Potsdahmah, ah ahsahbleevo San-Soosee, otshain kharosh. Mwe 
of Potsdam^ and above all of Sans-Souci, {is) very fine. We 

OCTaHOBIUHCbB^TpaKTHp-BjHe AO-fiSHtaH ^0 TOpOACKHXT. BOpOTTj. 

ahstahnahveelees f trakteerai.nai da-yaizsh'zshayahda garadskeekh vahrot. 
stopped at the hotel, not arriving to the city- gates. 

OiAOXHyBT. H saKaaae-L o6i>A'h, mm nom^iii bt. 

Addahkhnoov ee zakazahv ahbyaid, mwe pashlee v' 

Having rested ourselves and ordered a dinner, we went into 

r6po4T>. y BopoTT, 3aniica^H Hama HMena. Ha napaAHom. 

gorot. 00 varot zahpeesahlee nashee eemainah. Nah parahdnom 

the town. At the gates one wrote our names. On the parade- 

M'BCT'B npoTHBt ABopua, yHwacL rsapAia: npeKpacHMe 

maistai prohteef dvahrtsah, ootsheelahs gvahrdyah : praikrahsneeyai 
place opposite the palace, exercised the guards: very fine 

mm-, npeKpacHBie myhahpm! Biia'b ABopiia co 

lyoudee, praikrahsneeyai moondeeree I Veed dvahrtsah sah 

men, superb uniforms! The sight of the palace from 

GTopoHM caAa o^eHb xopomt. FopoAt, BOo6me 

starahnee sahda otshain kharosh. Ghorod vah-ahbstshai 

the side of the garden (is) very fine. The town in general 

npeKpacHO BbicTpoeHT>; bx do^/ibuidii yjiHU-b MHoro 

praikrahsno vwestroyain; v' bahlshoy ooleetsai mnogo 

{is) well built; in the great street {there are) many 

Be.jHKO.jiiraMX'b aomobt,, CTpdeHHbixi. ox^acTH no o6pa3uy 

vaileekahlaipneekh dahmof, stroyainneekh attshahstee pah ahbrahztsoo 
of magnificent houses, built partly on the model 

orpoMH-BHinnx-b pHMCKHX-b na.aaTT> H Ha c66cTBenHbia AeHbrn 

agromneysheekh reemskeekh pahlaht ee na sobstvainneeyah deynghee 
of the vastest Roman palaces and at the own expences 

noKOHHaro Kopoj[H: OHXAapiui hxt,, Kony xoii^n.. Tenepb 

pakoynahvahkahralyah: on dareel yeekh, kamoo khahtail. Taiper 
of the late king: he gave them, to whom he chose. Now 



3AaHia nycTbi, 


\U\i. 


SaHHMaiOTCA 


idahneeyah poostee. 


eelee 


zaneemahyootsah 


edifices {are) empty, 


or 


are occupied 



20 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

ciH orpoMHfcia 

seeyee agromneeyah 
the vast 

cojAaxaMH. — Bt. HoTCAaMt ecit pyccKan uepKOBb eoa'b 

sahldahtamee. — F' Potsdahmai yest rooskayah tsairkov pahd 

by soldiers. — At Potsdam there is a Russian church under 

Ha43HpaHieMT) ciaparo pyccKaro coJAaia, KOTopwH 3KBBeTT> 

nahdzeerahneeyem starahvah rooskahvah sahldatah, kahtoree zsheev'yott 
the care of an old Russian soldier, who lives 

laMT* CO BpeMenT, uapcTBOBania IlMnepaxpHuw Ahhbi. Mm 

tahm sah vraimain tsarstvovaneeyah eemperatreetsee ahnnee. Mwe 
there since the times of the reign of the empress Anne. We 

Haciijy Mor^H CMCKaii ero. J^ki^Ahm ciapHKi* 

nahseeloo maghlee seeskaht yaivo. Dr'yakhlee stahreek 

wkh difficulty could find him. The decrepit old man 

CHAi^-B Ha 6o^BfflHX'B KpecjaxT., H yc^LimaBT), ^to 

seedail na bahlsheekh kreslahkh, ee oosleeshahv shto 
was sitting in a large arm-chair, and having heard that 

MLi PyccKie, npoTflnyj-B kt. HaMi pyKH, 11 

mwe rooskeeyai, prahtyahnool k' nahm rookee, ee 

we {are) Russians, he extended towards us the hands, and 

4po5KamHMT> rojocoMTbCKasajT.: CAdea Eozy! CAaea Eozy! 

drahzshastsheem golossom skahzahl : slavah Bohoo I slavah Bohoo I 
with a trembling voice he said: Glory to God! Glory to God! 

Ohi xoTi^x roBopHTB cnepBa ct> HaMH no-pyccKH: ho mbi 

ohn khahtall gahvahreet spervah s' nahmee pah-roosskee : no mwe 
He wanted to speak at first witJi us in Russian: but we 

ci> TpyAOMi Morjii paayMiit 4pyn> 4pyra. HaMi na/iJeacajo 

s' troodom mahglee rahzoomait droog droogah. Nam nahdlaizshahlo 
with difficulty could understand each other. To us it was obliged 

nOBTOpHTB nOTTH KaHCAOG CjIOBO. jjIIOHAeMTG BT> IjepKOBB 

pahvtahryaht pahtshtee kazshdoyai slovo. „Pie-dy6mtai f tsairkov 

to repeat almost each word. „Let us go into the church 



FIRST PART. — Lexicology. 21 

BoJKiio, CKa3aji> ohi, h noMojHMca bm'BCT'B, xoth hwh-b 

Bozsheeyou, skahzahl on, ee pahmohleemsa vmaistai, khahtyah neenai 
of God, said he, and let us pray together, although to-day 

H HtTi npasJiHHKa." Cep^ue Moe Hano^HHJLOCb 

ee n'yet prazneekah." Sairtse mah-yoh napohlneelos 

even there is not any holiday.^*' Heart my filled itself 

SjaroroB-BHieMT., KorAa OTBopH^acB Asept b-l ^epKOBb, 

blahahgahvaineeyaim, kaghda ahtvareelas dvair f tsa'irkov, 

with devotion, when opened itself the door into the church, 

FA'S CTOJLKO BpeMeHH LiapcTByeTt oyfioKoe MOwiianie, 

ghdyai stolko vraimainee ' tsarstvooyet gloobokoyai mahltshaneeyai, 
where so much of time reigns a profound silence, 

GABa nepepuBaeMoe cjaduMH BSAOxaMH h thxhm'b rd^ocoM'B 

yaidvah perereevayaimoyai slahbemee vzdohkhahmee ee teekheem gholossom 
hardly interrupted by the feeble groans and the soft voice 

CTapqa, KOTopbia no BOCKpeceHtaMi. npaxoAHit lyAa qHiaib 

startsah, kahtohree pah vahskraisainyahm preekhohdeet toodah tsheetaht 
of old man) who on the Sundays comes there to read 

CBaTiHinyw h31 KHiiri, nparoTOB^fliomyH) erd Kh 

svyahteyshooyou eez kneegh, preegahtahvlyayoustshooyou yaivoh k' 
the most holy of the books, preparing him to 

6.iaHteHH0H Bt^HOCTH. B-b UepKBH BCe ^liCTO. I^epKOBHblfl 

blahzshainnoy vaitshnostee. F' tsairkvee fsyo tsheesto. Tsairkovneeyah 
the happy eternity. In the church all {is) clean. Church- 

KHHra H yxBap-b xpanaTca bt> cyHAyK-B. Oti BpeMeHH AO 

kneeghee ee ootvahr khrahnyatsah f soondookai. Aht vraimenee doh 
books and ornaments are kept in a trunk. From time to 

BpeMeHH ciapHK'b nepednpaeT-b HX-b ct> mojlhtboio. ,3acT0 

vraimainee stahreek perebeerayait yeekh s' mahleetvoyou. „Tshasto 
time the old man arranges them with prayer. „ Often 

OT-b Bcerd cepAua, CKasaji. ohi*, coKpymaioGb a o tomT), iito 

aht fsaivo sairtsah, skahzahl on, sahkrooshayous yah ah tomm, shto 
from all the heart, said he, grieve myself I of that, that 



2 2 , , RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

no cMepTH Moefl, Koxopaa orb Mena Kone^HO yate He 

pah smairtee mah-yey, kahtorayah aht mainyah kahnaishno oozshai nai 
a/Her death my^ which from me certainly already not {is) 

/la^eKO, He KOMy dyAeii. CMOipiTb 3a uepKOBLio." — Ci 

dahlyohko, nai kahmoo boodait smahtrait zah tsairkovyou." — S' 
far^ no person will watch over the church.^'' — During 

nojqaca npofiujiH mm bt. ceMi. cBameHHOMT. m-bct-b, 

poltshahsa probwelee mwe f saim svyahststshainnom maistai, 
half an hour remained we in this holy spot, 

npocTHJHCL CT. no^TeHHbiMT> ciapuKOMi, H HOHtejajLH eMy 

prahsteelees s' pahtshtainneem stahreekom, ee pahzshailalee yaimoo 
bade farewell with the venerable old man, and wished him 

THXOH CMepTH. KapaM3um. 

teekhoy smairtee. Kahrahmzeen. 

an easy death. 

Elements 1 3. — Words, when considered as the elements of 
speech, are either denominative (sHaMeHaie^iLHHa) 
or auxiliary (cjiyaie6HMfl). The former express the 
idea of objects, of their quaHties or actions ; the latter 
merely design the connexion that exists among the 
denominative words ; thus in this phrase : IlTEmBi 
jiexaiOT'L no Bos^yxy, a pbi6H atHByx'L Bt boa'B, 
birds fly in the air, and fishes live in water, the 
denominative words are: nmuvjbi, Aemdmnz, eosdyxy, 
pbi6bi, dicueyms, eodih, and the auxiliary words are : 
nOy a, 63. The former are called the parts (nacTii), 
and the latter the particles of speech (HacTHitBi pi^ii). 
The parts and particles of speech, in the Russian 
language, may be brought under nine different heads ; 
namely: 



FIRST PART. — Lexicology' 23 



I. PARTS OF SPEECH: 



1. The substantive (hmh cymecTBHxeJiLHoe). 

2. The adjective (hmh npHJiaraxeJiLHoe). 

3. The pronoun (MtciOHMeHie). 

4. The verb (rJiaroji'L). 

^. The participte {ajm^icTie). 

6. The adverb (nap-BHie) and the^^r2^;2<3^(^'£enpH^acTie). 

U. PARTICLES OF SPEECH: 



7. The preposition (npe;i;ji6r'L). 

8. The conjunction (cok)3'l). 

9. The htterjection (MeJK;i;oMeTie). 

Certain languages, such as the French, German, English and 
others, make use of a distinctive word before a common noun, 
whenever employed in speech, unless the same be sufficiently- 
determined by the accompanying word; thus the French say; 
le chapeau, la plume; the German : ber §Ut, bte ^eber, and the 
English: the hat, the pen. If the common noun, however, be 
taken in an indeterminate sense, it is then preceded by another 
word ; as : tin chapeau, une plume; eitt §Ut, eitte f^eber ; a hat, 
a pen. This kind of word is called article (^^eHT>), and dis- 
tinguished in those tongues by the definite and indefinite article. 
In French the articles are: le, la, les, and un, tcne, des; in Ger- 
man: ber, bte, 'ti^i^, \At, and eitt, eine; in English: the and a or 
an. The Russian language has no articles, it being left to the 
sense of the sentence to indicate whether the common noun is 
taken in a determinate or indeterminate sense. This deficiency 
is sometimes also supplied by other words, such as tOTT), this, 
to indicate a determinate, and HiKOTOptlii, certain, to indicate 
an indeterminate sense; as: Torm ^e^oeiKT., KOTopOMT) bm 
rOBOpHie, nprniie^'L kO MH^, the man of whom you speak, is come 
to me; HlhKOmopblU ^SiAOWhKh npHluejt KO MH-B, a man is come 
to me. 

14. — All words, whether parts of speech or par- Division 

. , . , ... ^ , . . . , of words. 

tides, are either primitive or derivative, simple or 
coinpound, Th.^ primitives (nepBOo6pa3HBifl) are such 



24 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

as are not formed from other words; e. g. cajx^, 
garden; Htena, woman-, 6'BiitiH, white; hchtl, to live. 
The derivatives (npoiiSBO^tHBia) are such as are for- 
med from words already existing in the language, 
e. g. ca;56BHHK'L, gardener; atencKm, wofnanly; 
6'BjiH3Ha, whiteness; nepeatHTB, to over-live. Com- 
pounds (cJioacHBia) are formed of two denominative 
words; e. g. caAOBO^tCTBO, horticulture, from ca/^-L, 
gardejt (lat. hortus), and boahtb, cultivate; Tpy;^o- 
JiH)6ie, love of work, from xpy/t'L, work, and 
irH)6HTB, /d? love. All other words, whether primi- 
tive or derivative, are simple (npocxB'ia). 

Roots i^, — Every word, whether primitive or derivative, 
simple or compound, is formed from roots (KopHH), 
or from radical syllables and letters, which become 
words by the junction of other roots. Thus in the 
words: 3pio, I see ; spinie, the sight; apHMBiH^ vi- 
sible; aopKiii, sharp-sighted; o6o3p'BTB, to exa^nine, 
the root is the syllable 30P or the mixed conso- 
nant 3P, which becomes significant by the addition 
of the syllables w, ibuie, UMbiii, Kiil, 060, &c. — The 
roots may be divided into principal and secondary. 
i) T\vQ principal roots (rJiaBHBie) are such as serve to 
form denominative words, or parts of speech; such are 
the roots bh^, ok, pyK, whence the words bh^'b, sight; 
OKO, eye; pyna, hand, are formed. 2) The secondary 
roots (^pH;^aTO^HBIe) are those from which, in the 
first place, auxiliary words or particles are formed, 
e. g. HB-B, of; B-B, in; CB, with; and which afterwards 
serve to form words by being united with the prin- 
cipal roots; e. g. bh^hbih, visible; ohkh, spectacles; 
nopyHHTB, to commit. Thus the secondary roots 



FIRST PART. — Lexicology. 25 

are : a) initial (npe/^i>Hii;ymie), placed at the beginn- 
ing of words, and called prefixes or prepositions, 
e. g. y-xojut, departure; o/Ti-Kasi., refusal; and b) 
final (nocJi'B4yH)iii,ie), which form the terminations 
of words, and are called suffixes, e. g. Bo;^-«^ water; 
3eM-^/?; earth; Kipic-miu, red; jiiji-amb, to do. 

In order to trace Russian words properly so called, that is 
to say Slavonian words, to their roots, the learner will do well 
to proceed in the following manner. Let us take as examples 
the words npeH36MTOqeCTBOBaTb, to superabound, and saCBHAi- 
Te^bCTBOBanie, attestation. After taking away the initial secon- 
dary roots npe and 5«, and the finals eamh and eauie^ there remain 
the words iiadbiTOiieCTBO, abundance, and CBHAiTejbCTBO, testimony, 
which are derived from ii3di>iT0KT), superfluity, and CBHA'fiTeJt 
(in Slavonian cerbdrhmeAb), witness. These last mentioned are 
themselves derived from H36blTb, to abound, and CBiA^Tb, to 
know; words which are formed of the prepositions U37> and C3, 
joined to the simple verbs 6blTb, to be, and BiA^Tb or B^Aaib, 
to know, from whence- if we take away the terminations of the 
infinitive, there remain 6bl and eJb^. We thus see the root of 
the word npeH3(5biTOieCTBOBaTb is em; the steps of its forma- 
tion being apparent: dblTb, H36blTb, H36biTOKl, H36blTOTieCTBO, 
HsSbiToiiecTBOBaTb, npeH36brroqecTBOBaTb ; the word sacBHAi- 
TejbCTBOBame has B'fi/^ for its root, whence are derived : BiA'BTb 
or BlBAaib, CB'BA'ETb, CB^AiTe.ab (in Russian ceudihmeAb), CBHAi- 
Te.JbCTBO, CBHAiieJbCTBOBaTb, SaCBHAiTewIbCTBOBaTb, sacBHAi- 

xejibCTBOBaHie. 

Every Russian word of Slavonian origin may be submitted to 
the same process of dissection, and the learner will find the 
following words appropriate as an exercise: He3aBHCHM0CTb, in- 
dependence;. neiiSM'BpHMbiH, immensurable ; npeAC-BAaxejbCTBOBaTb, to 
preside; COCTpaAaHie, compassion; HSoSptTaie^bHOCTb, invention, 
inventive faculty; BCnOMOraiejlbHblft, atixiliary; ^leCTOJlbdie, ambi- 
tion; yAOBjeTBOpiiTe.«bHbm, satisfactory; nyTemeCTBeHHiiKl>, tra- 
veller; 3aK0H0AaTe.lbCTB0, legislation; SeMJieAi^b^eCKiH, agricul- 
tural; qapeABopeqi., courtier. 



2 6 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

Inflections 1 6. — The parts of Speech, or denominative words, 

of words. 1 1 r 

are distinguished from the particles, or auxiHary 
words, by being subject to sundry inflections (naMt- 
Henifl), which are usually of two kinds: constant 
(nocTOflHHBifl) and accideiital (cjiyqamiBia). — i) The 
constant inflections are met with in the structure 
of derivative and compound words. This is what 
is called the formatioii (o6pa30BaHie) of a word; 
e. g. nap6, king; i];ap?/iffl, queen; naupCKiil, royal; 
Vi^k^cmeo, kingdom; nA-pcmeeuHbu'ly of the kingdom; 
nab^cmeoeamb, to reign; nkipcmeoeame, reigning. — 
2) The accidental inflections are the different termi- 
nations and prepositions which a word takes, and 
which without changing its nature serve to express 
some circumstance connected with the idea desig- 
nated by the word; e. g. pyKflf, the hand; pyKO/o, 
witJi the hand; pvKW; the hands; BHHcy, / see; 
BiiAUtub, thou seest; 6ijibiii, white; 6'i,ATbumiii, whiter; 
no6'i>Jiibe, a little whiter, &c. 

Metapiasms 1 7. — Thc different inflections of which words are 

of words. ' . r '^^ 

susceptible, undergo, m order to facilitate the pro- 
nunciation, metapiasms (nepeM-EHLi), which at times 
change even the final letters of the radical word. 
These metapiasms or alterations consist in the per- 
mutation (saMBHa) of one letter for another; in the 
epenthesis (BCxaBKa) and prosthesis (npncxaBKa) of 
some letters, and in the apocope (yctHenie) and syyi- 
cope (ii3i>flTie) of others. 
Permutation 18.— Thc pcrmutation of letters, in the Russian 
language, arises from the circumstance that some 
vowels cannot be placed in juxta-position with cer- 
tain consonants ; thus the hissing, guttural and lingual 



FIRST PART. — Lexicology. 27 

consonants (at, h, m, m; r, k, x; 11;) cannot be 
joined with some vowels; the vowels H, e, JO, and 
the semi-vowel b, never admit immediately before 
them either the guttural consonants (r, k, x), in any 
inflection, or sometimes the dental and lisping con- 
sonants (;?, t; 3, c); and further the vowel 11, in the 
derivation of words, never admits before it either 
the gutturals or the lingual (r, k, x; n), which are 
then changed for the hissing consonants (m., h, m, 
m), as is seen below. 

PERMUTATION OF LETTERS. 



1. The consonants r, 4, 3, ^ f change into at. 

2. The consonants K, T, n, , ^ 1 change into n. 
^1. > before fl, e, H, K), b, < , .* . 

3. The consonants X, c, 1 7 j 7 j 7 change into m. 

4. The consonants CK, CT, j L change into m. 

5. The vowel a, \ . f changes into a. 
^ „, , y after r, K, x; w, q, m, m; i^, <( , *" 

6. The vowel K), j » > ' ) 5 > "^^ -^J |^ changes into y. 

7. The vowel u, after r, K, x; JK, 1, m, m, . . . changes into H. 

8. The vowel 0, after at, 1, lu, m; i(, changes into e. 

9. The vowel 'B, after the vowel i, changes into H. 

10. The smi-vowel b, after a vowel, changes into B. 

11. The semi-vowels b and Hj.before a consonant with Ti, change into e. 

12. The semi-vowel "b, before two consonants, , . changes into 0. 
Examples: i) cjyHtHTL, ^0 serve; BHHcy, I see; p-BJKfc, ait, from 

cJiyzd^ servant; eiidrbmb, to see; pihJamb, to cut; 2) MyquTb, 
io torment; CB-fi^a, candle; Oie^eCTBO, native land, from MyKa, 
torment; ceibms, light; omeii,7i, father; 3) THUie, slower; npouie- 
Hie, petition, from muxz, slow; npocfimb, to ask; 4) nmy, I seek; 
^Hme, purer, from UCKamb^ to seek; Hucmz, pure; 5) CjyHta 
(for CJiyo/CH), serving; 6) BOJKy, (for eoo/Cfb), I lead; 7) pyKH, 
the hands; My}KH, the men (for pfKbl, Mfo/Cbl); 8) na^meMt 
(for ndAbllfOMZ), with the finger; 9) Bt PocciH (for <?3 Poccilh), 
in Russia; io)"He4'BJia, week, has for its genitive plural ne^-Bjib; 
whilst mea, the neck, has men; 11) cyAtda, destiny; KOnifiKa, 
copeck, have in the genitive plural cyAedt, KOnieKT) (for cy^b6'b^ 
KOnrbiiKZ) ; 12) bo MH'B, in me; CO BCfiMt, zuith all {(or ez MHFb, 
cr> ecrbMd). 

These permutations are subject to certain exceptions. The 
dental consonants (4, t) sometimes preserve the Slavonian per- 



28 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

mutation m^ and m, as rpaHv^aHliHl, citizen; niiiua, aliment, from 
2padz, city; numdmb, to nourish. When the accented vowel e 
is pronounced (after JK, % m, m, n), the vowel may be 
used, as xopomd, wel/; nje^o, shoulder; flfiijo, ^^^. It still remains 
to be observed that in words where r, K, X, U, are changed 
before h and k, as HO/KKa, a little foot; ei^HUH, eternal; naCTyniKa, 
shepherdess; JiH^HMii, personal (from Hozd^ foot; eihKZ, an age; 
nacmfx'd, shepherd; AUUfti, individual), the change is not required 
by the letters H and /i, but arises from the circumstance that 
formerly the semi-vowel 6, before which the consonants r, K, X, 
II, change into a;, ^, ui, was employed before those consonants 
{HOOicbKa^ eihKbHblU, &c.), but has been suppressed in modern 
orthography. 

Epenthesis iQ. — Epetithesis, or the insertion of a letter in the 

and pros- ' 

thesis, middle of a word, and prosthesis, or the addition of 
a letter at the beginning of a word, take place both 
to facilitate the pronunciation, and to unite letters 
which cannot be placed in juxta-position. The vowels 
and e are inserted between two consonants at the 
end of words, and thus serve as a connecting link 
between the two roots of a compound word; e. g. 
oroHb, fire; Biiepi), wind (instead of the Slavonian 
oiuh, emmps); saKOHoMTCJit, legislator; seMJieonii- 
canie, geography. The consonant A is inserted also 
after the labials (6, b, m, n, o), when they ought 
to be followed by /o ox e ; e. g. jmdAVd, I love; 
jifsmk^jiQy cheaper (from Aio6umh, to love; deiueeOy 
cheap). The consonant h is also epenthetic in 
B«ymaTi>, to suggest; no;t«HMaTfc, to take up; Ha 
«er6, against him. The consonant e is sometimes 
added at the beginning of a word, before the vowel 
o; e. g. eoceMfc, eight (instead of the Slavonian 
OCbMb); eocxpLiH, sharp; eoTHHHa, patrimony (used 
familiarly for ocmphiii, omnuHO). The same is the 



Lexicology, — the substantive. 29 

case with the vowel in opacaHOH, of rye (for 
po/caudu). 

20. — Apocope, or the cutting of a letter at the^^^pocope^ 
end of a word, and syncope, or the elision of a 
letter in the middle of a word, are employed to 
facilitate or soften the pronunciation, e. g. co mhoh, 
with me; hto6'L, in order that; ^BHHyiB, to move; 
o6'£maTb, to promise; 6jiecHyTL, to shine; nojxopa, 
one and a half (instead of co mhok), y,mo6hi, deuz- 
nyrtib, o6ejbmdmb, 6jiecmHymb, nojiemopd). 

THE SUBSTANTIVE. 

21. — The substantives (cymeciBHiejiLHBia HMeHa)Dwmon^of 
in the Russian language are of two kinds: common 
nouns or appellatives {YL2i^m\2iTQJihRhiSi), as: ^eJiOB'BKT>, 
7nan; r6po;i;T>, town; ptKa, river; and individual or 
proper nouns (c66cTBeHHi>ifl), as: Bjia^HMip-L, Vla- 
dimir; MocKBa, Moscow; Bojira, the Volga. — Among 
the common nouns we distinguish a class called 
collective (co6HpaTe.M>HLifl), such are: ^2C^(iK^, people ; 
CTa;^o, herd; ji-feCL, forest; also material nouns 
(BemecTBeHHBifl), such are : MjKa, flour; Macjio, oil; 
36JIOTO, gold. — The proper names of men are of 
three kinds: a) christian names (KpeciHHfl iiMGHa), 
as : AjieKcaH/tp'B, Alexander; JEeB^, Leon ; Ojitra, 
Olga; J[k)66bl, Amy; b) patronymic names (oxne- 
CTBeHHBifl), as : A.ieKcaH^tpoBiiH'L and A.ieKcaH^poBHa, 
son and daughter of Alexander; .Ilbobhh'l and 
iLbBOBHa, S071 and daughter of Leon ; and c) family 
names (nposBHEHHtm, oaMHJiLHLm), as: itepataEHHT., 
Derzhavin; OpiioB'B, Orlof; HojiropyKiii, Dolgorooky ; 
ToJiCTOH, Tolstoi. 



30 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

Properties 22. — The properties of substantives in the Russian 

of nouns. r / \ i / \ 

language are, the gender (po;ri>), the aspect (BH^tTE,), 
the 7iumber (hiicjio) and the case (na/neai'L). The 
two former are constant inflections, belonging to the 
formation of nouns; the two latter are accidental 
inflections, employed in the declension. 

Genders. 23. — In the Russian language there are three 
genders: the masculine (MyacecKiii), the feminijie 
(ateHCKiii) and the neuter (cpejiHifi). The genders of 
nouns are known, in the names of animate beings, 
by their signification, and in the names of inanimate 
and abstract objects, by their termination. 

1. The masculine gender comprehends the names 
of animate beings of the male sex; e. g. OTeut, 
the father; repoii, the hero ] itapi>, the king; lOHoma, 
a young man; A^/tH, an uncle; wcfeHHJio, a money- 
changer; noj^MaciepLe, a journeyman; and also, such 
names of inanimate and abstract objects terminating 
in -L, if, and -some which end in ii, e. g. Jiowh, the 
house; nOKOH, repose; Kopa6jlB, a vessel. 

2. The feminine gender comprehends the names 
of animate beings of the female sex; e. g. cecxpa, 
the sister; HflHa, a nurse ; ;tOHB, the daughter; Ejih- 
caBeTi., Elizabeth; Kjiio, Clio; also the names of 
inanimate and abstract objects terminating in a, h, 
and some which end in i»*, e. g. KHHra, a book; 
nyjfl, a ball; ^o6po;t'BTejiL, virtue, 

3. The neuter gender comprehends the names of 
animate beings where the distinction of sex is not 
evident, as: ahtA and HW, a child; HyjijOBiime, a 
monster; and also the names of animate and abstract 



'Lexicology. — the substantive. 31 

objects terminating in 0, e, and ma, e. g. 36.10TO, 
gold] Mope, the sea; BpeMfl, the time. 

As regards the rules relating to the genders, the following 
observations are of importance: 

1. The nouns which designate any particular species of ani- 
mals, form an exception to the rule which declares the gender 
of nouns designating animate being to be determined by their 
signification. These nouns are, according to their termination, 
either masculine, as: ^e.lOB'BKT), a man: H0C0p6n>, a rhinoceros; 
COKOjII, a falcon; OKyHL, a perch; or feminine, as: o6e3bflHa, an 
ape; co6aKa, a dog; Jioma^B, a horse; myKa, a pike. 

2. To determine the gender of nouns terminating in 6, the 
following rules may be given: 

1) Besides such nouns as designate animate beings of the 
male sex, the following are masculine: a) The names of the 
months, as: flHBapb, January; iiOJL, July; 4eKa6pL, December, 
&c. h) The names of active objects, or agents, although in- 
animate, terminating in TBAb, as: ^ECAUJeAh, the numerator; 
MHOaCHTejB, the multiplier, &c. c) The common nouns designat- 
ing animate beings, as: ryCB, a goose; ^OCL, an elk; &c., with 
the exception of some names of animals which are feminine, 
such as: Jioma^t, a horse; ce^lBAb, a herring; BOmB, a louse; 
MBIUIB, a mouse; *opeJB, the trout, and some others, d) The 
names of towns, lakes and places, whether Russian or foreign, 
as: iIpocjaBj!B, Yaroslav; GeBacTonOJB, Sebastopol; BpiOCCejiB, 
Bruxelles, with the exception of KaSaHB, Kazan; AcTpaxaHB, 
Astrachan; TeepB, Tvair; BepcaJB, Versailles; By AOUh, 'Boulogne; 
Mapce^lB, Marseilles; HcnaraHL, Ispahan; SpuBaHB, Erivan. 

2) The following laxe feminine : a) All the names of abstract 
objects, e. g. H(H3hb, life; ^eCTB, honour, &c., with the excep- 
tion of 4eHB, the day; nepe^eHB, an extract; BOnjB, cries; BHXpB, 
a whirlwind; and foreign words, such as: KOHTpojB, control; 
napojB, parole; cneKTaKJB, spectacle; CTIUB, style, b) The names 
of rivers and countries; e. g. 06b, the Obi; GudripB, Siberia, &c., 
except AnaAbipB, Anadir, c) The common names of inanimate 
objects; e. g. 6pOBB, the eyebrow; BtTBB, a branch; uepKOBB, a 
church, &c., except the following which are mascuhne: 



32 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



a^K0r6-JB, alcohol. 
a.lT&pb, an altar. 
<5eM6Jb, B-flat. [tunic. 
6euiM6Tb, Tartar under 
6h34hb, mizzen-sail. 
6EAh, a billiard ball. 
O^lflrapb, massicot, [sail. 
fipdMceJb, top-gallant 
fipeACHb, a drag-net. 
6yKB&pb, ABC-book. 
6i0.iJeT6Hb, a bulletin. 
B6Kce4b, bill of exchange. 
B^H3e.4B, a monogram. 
B0^4upb, a tubercle. 
rB034b, a nail. 
r-iar6.aB, a crane. 
rop6i44b, a sleeve-board. 
rocnHT&.flb, a hospital. 
rp66eHB. a comb. 
rpH*e.ib, a slate-pencil. 
rpySAB, a fungus. 
AeroTB, tar. 
4BH&pb, denarius. 
403K4b, rain. 
AflrHJb, angelica. 
;Ke-iy4l>, an acorn. 
JKOHKHJb, the jonquille. 
ao^lOTCHb, golden-rod. 
3y6&pb, a toothed plane. 
HBepeHb, a splinter. 
Hflfiapb, ginger. 
KaJpHJb, a quadrille. 
Ka.ieH4S.pb, almanach. 
K&MCHb, a stone. 
KapT6*e.ib, potatoes. 
KS:UieJb, a cough. 
K^re.lb, a skittle. 
K6pBe.lB, chervil. 
KH.lb, the keel (of a ship). 
KHneHb, hot-spring. 
KHc6.ib, a sourish jelly. 
KHCT^Hb, bullet tied to a 
K6roTb, a claw, [string. 
K63Mpb, a trump. 
K0-i64e3b, a well. 
K6nMTCHb, wild nard. 
Kop&6jb, a ship. 
K6peHb, a root. 
KOC&pB, chopping knife. 



KOCTbUB, a crutch-stich. 
K6»ieHB, a head of cab- 
KpeMCHB, a flint, [bage. 
KpeMJB, citadel, castle. 
Kp6H4e4B, a cracknel. 
Kyfi&pB, a top. 
Ky4cpB, curly hair. 
KyKO.^B, corn-cockle. 
Ky.flB, a mat-sack. 
wi&repB, a camp. 
-lanoTB, a bast-shoe, 
.lapb, a large chest. 
.l6»eHb, foundation beam. 
jfiKOTb, the elbow. 
.aOMOTb, a slice. 
Mfipccib, top-sail. 
M6pre.ib, marl. 
MHH4&.lb, almonds. 
MHTK^^b, calico. 
MOHacTbipb, a convent. 
My*e.«b, a moufFle. 
HamaTupb, sal ammoniac. 
HHKOJb, nickel. 
H6roTb, a finger-nail. 
Hy.lb, a cipher, zero. 
ordHb, fire. 
op4pB, the stole. 
n^Hi^upb, coat of mail. 
neHb, a stump. 
nepHCTH.»b, a peristyle. 
nepK&4b, shirting calico. 
n6pcTeHb, a ring. 
nHCT6.ib, a pistole. 
nJ&MeHb, flame. 
nJ&CTupB, a plaster. 
nJeieHB, wattled hedge. 
nopT*6.«B, a portfolio. 
n6pnieHB, a piston. 
np6Je>KeHb, place chafed 

by lying. 
np6THBeHb, dripping-pan. 
Iip6«HJb, a profile. 
uy3bipb, a bladder. 
nynwpb, a pimple. 
nycTbjpb, a vacant space. 
nyib, the road. 
n'bHfl3b, money. 
p&niKy.^b, blue-black. 
p&ninH./lb, a rasp. 



pCBCHb, the rhubarb. 

peMCHb, a strap. 

pyfijb, a rooble. 

py^b, the helm. 

cfiHTeHb, honey-tea. 

cep4-lb, a seraglio. 

CK^a4eHb, a necklace. 

C-iH3eHb, the slug. 

CJOB&pb, a dictionary. 

cp6c JCHb, double branche. 

CT&BeHb, a window- 
shutter. 

CT&KceJb, stay-sail. 

CTfine^b, stocks, launch. 

CT66eJb, a stalk. 

CT^pJKcHb, core {of a boil). 

CTHX&pb, the surplice. 

cy4&pb, a winding-sheet. 

cyx&pb, a rusk, biscuit. 

K'jnOvib, the poplar. 

Tp6H3e.ib, the curb. 

TpK>*eJb, a truffle. 

Ty*eJb, a slipper. 

yro-»b, charcoal. 

ypoBCHb, a level. 

«HTH.lb, a match, \house). 

♦JHre-ib, a wing (^ « 

oOH^pb, a lantern. 

♦yxTCJib, flad side of a 

XM-fi-ib, the hop. [sword. 

x64eHb, an object in mo- 
tion. 

xpycTa.«b, crystal. 

ijHpKyJb, pair of compas- 

it6K0jib, the socle, [ses. 

leKM^Hb, cosack upper- 
coat. 

qepHOT&Jb, bay-leaved 
willow. 

iHXHpB, new wine. 

me.iy4b, the scab. 

nie*eJb, a bushel. 

niKBdpeHB, pole-bolt {of 
a coach). 

mnH.iB, a capstan. 

inT6Mne-iB, a stamp. 

mTHJb, a calm. 

maB6-lb, sorrel. 

lajkdeTSh^ rubbish. 



Lexicology. — the substantive. 33 

"Bpb, the letter b. flKOpb, an anker. accHb, the ash-tree. 

3wlb, the letter A. flHiApb, sea-amber. fl^M^Hb, barley. 

3. Words taken from foreign languages and ending in M, y^ 
Wi as: KOJiidpH, a humming bird; Kana^y, the kakatoo; peBK), 
the review, are masculine, when they signify an animate being, 
and neuter when signifying an inanimate object. The other 
parts of speech, used as substantives, are neuter; e. g. rpOMKOe 
ypa, a noisy hurrah; nepBoe H'BT'L, the first no; necHOCHOe fl, an 
insupportable I. 

4. Some nouns, terminating in a and ^, and designating ani- 
mate beings, with some quality attached, are of the common 
gender (66miM), being both masculine and feminine. The 
following are examples : 

6poAflra, a vagabond (;««« or w<9;;m«). o6Hc6pa, a glutton (mart ox woman). 

6pH)3rA, a grumbler. nj^Kca, a weeper. 

BOpo>Keji, a fortune-teller. nopyKa, a surety. 

BticKO^Ka, an upstart. nycT0M6jifl, a chatterer. 

B'BTpeHHita, a volatile person. nbflHHi^a, a drunkard. 

ryJHKa, a lazy person. paauHfl, a loiterer. 

46Ka, a clever fellow. p6BHfl, a person of the same age. 

3a6lHKa, a squabbler. py64Ka, a slasher. 

3aHKa, a stutterer. . canoyqKa, a self-taught person. 

3'BB^a, a ninny, a cockney. CBaT6iua, a bigoted person. 

KpHBom6a, a wryneck. CHpoT&, an orphan. 

-laKOMKa, a dainty person. Te3Ka, a namesake. 

.^'£6014, a left-handed person. ydifii^a, a murderer or murderess. 

MOThira,'a prodigal person. yMHH^a, a clever person. 

neB'b}K4a, an ignorant person. xaH^KS, a hypocrite. 

5. The genders of words signifying relationship, as also the 
names of animals, are distinguished in various ways. Some- 
times by the employment of different words; e. g. OTeu'B, the 
father, and MaiB, the mother; CLIHT), the son, and 40^6, the 
daughter; dpaxT), the brother; and cecipg,, the sister; 6mkt>, the 
bull, and KOpOBa, the cow; n-BTyXT), the cock, and KypHE[a, the 
hen; 6apaHT>, the ram, and OBi^a, the sheep, &c. Sometimes the 
same word and the same gender are applied to both sexes; 
e. g. 4pyn>, a friend; Bpari), an enemy; TOBapHmx, a companion; 
^Tfl, a child {male and female); oc66a, a person; occasionally 
the same word is used but with common gender, as has already 
been said. Usually however masculine nouns, if used to desig- 
nate feminine objects, change their termination. In these, which 
are called movable nouns (^BHauiMbia), for the masculine ending 

3 



34 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

are substituted the feminine terminations: a, H, Ka, oeKa, usa, 
UU,a, HUUia, UHM, ma, and some others, the preceding conso- 
nant being at the same time often changed, as is seen in the 
following examples : 

KyMt, godfather; KyM&, godmother. luyii; niyTdBKa, a buffoon, m. and/. 

naBJUH'b, peacock; n^ea, peahen. jcbt*, a lion; ^bBui^a, a lioness. 

rocn04HHTi, master ;rocnoJKa, mistress. HMnepiTopt, emperor; -paTpH]5a, em- 

TecTb, father-in-law; Ten^a, mother- press. 

in-law. TKpem,, priest; ncpHl^a, priestess. 

4yp&K'b; 4ypa, a fool, m. and/. K&p-ia; K&p.iHi^a, a dwarf, m. and /. 

K03e.«'b, a he-goat; KOaS, a she-goat. WHie-lb; »HTe.ibHHi^a, inhabitant, w. 

rocTb; r6CTbfl, a guest, m. and/. and/. 

HryMeHT>, an abbot; HryMCHbH, an MOH&XT>, a monk; moh^xheh, a nun. 

abbess. KHasb, prince; KHHruHfl, princess. 

Jryni; Jirfsba, a liar, m. and / rep6H, hero; repOHHH, heroine. 

COC-Bfl-b; cocBARa, a neighbour, m. fion., a god; 6orHHfl, a goddess. 

and/. rpa*l, count; rpa4>UHii, countess. 

CAjTkj man-servant; -;K4HKa, maid- oncKyHi; oneKyHma, a guardian, m. 

servant. and/ 

nacTyx-B, shepherd ; -yniKa, shepherd- Be.iHK&H'b, giant ; BeJHK&Hiua, giantess. 

ess. K0p6.lb, king; KOpoJ^Ba, queen. 

KpecTbaHBH-b; KpecTbflHKa, peasant, 6ap6H'b, baron; 6apOH6cca, baroness. 

7n. and / rocya&pb; rocy^ApwHa, sovereign, m. 

caM^A'b, a male ; C&MKa, a female. and / 

xo3HHH'b, host; xo3flHKa, hostess. cxapHRTb, an old man; ciapyxa, an 

}KH4'b, a Jew ; WHA6BKa, a Jewess. old woman. 

'iHKTb, siskin; qH>KeBKa, hen-siskin. uiBeuT., sempster; niBea, sempstress. 

merojib, a beau; meroJHxa, a belle. CBeKOpT., father-in-law ; CBeKp6Bb, 

n6BapT., a cook; nOBapaxa, a cook- mother-in-law. 

maid. 

It remains to be observed that in professional names the 
Russian language makes a distinction between the name of the 
wife of a professional man, and the name of a woman who, 
herself, exercises a profession; e. g. iiHCneKipiica, inspedress, and 
OHCneKTOpma, ^vife of an inspector; JCKapKa, a woman who prac- 
tices medicine^ and jeKapiiia, wife of a doctor; ABOpHnqa, a female 
door-keeper^ and ^BOpHH^HXa, wife of a door-keeper; y^HieJBHHBia, 
schoolmistress ; and y^HTejbiiia, wife of a schoolmaster (from UH- 
cnenmopz, Aenapb, deopuuKZ and ymmeAb). 

Aspects. 24. — Objects may present themselves to us in 
different forms, as greater or less, prettier or uglier, 
than ordinary ; and the Russian language has diffe- 
rent inflections to express these aspects. 



Lexicology. — the substantive. 35 

1. The augmentative nouns (yseJiHHiiTeJiLHLm), 
"which terminate in the masculine in ume, una; in 
the neuter in umfi, and in the feminine in uiu,a, re- 
present the object in a magnified form, at the same 
time adding the idea of ugliness or deformity; e. g. 
MyacHHHiii,e , a great clownish peasant; itypaHHHa, 
a great blockhead; JiHHHme, great face; Jiannma, 
a great paw (from Mydicum, dy^mz, Ji\iu,e and 
Jidna). 

2. The diminutive nouns (yMeHLniHieJiBHHa), which 
present the object diminished in size, end, in the 
masculine in um, OKd, eK5, ejis, nm; in the neuter 
in KOj u,e, and in the feminine in Ka, una, e. g. 
CTOiiHK'L, little table; nepBaK-L, little worm; 3aB6;^eIl;'L, 
little manufactory; ^tepeBi^o, little tree; pyHKa, little 
hand; Beiii,Hii;a, little thing (from cmoAd, uepeb, 
3ae6ds, depeeo, pyud and eemb). From these dimi- 
nutives others again are formed, as: ciojiiiHeK'L, 
^epBa^eKi,, pyqeHKa, BemHHKa. 

Besides these diminutives, which lessen the force 
of the primitives, and which may be termed phy- 
sical diminutives, there are further: a) diminutives 
of tenderness, friendship, or in one word, of feeling, 
which terminate in ymua, louiKa, eubua, as : 6aTE)inKa, 
dear father; MaiyuiKa, dear mother ; MaMGHLKa, dear 
mamma (from 6dmHj, jnamb and jndMa) ; and b) di- 
minutives of contempt or slight, presenting the ob- 
ject in an unfavourable point of view; these termi- 
nate in uiUKO, umua, enua, e. g. ^omhuiko, a miser- 
able little house; Jionia^eHKa, a miserable little horse. 

Christian names admit also diminutives, both in a 
favourable and unfavourable sense; thus HBanx, 

3* 



3 6 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

John; IleTpTb, Peter \ CeptH,. Sergius, become as 
diminutives of feeling Banfl, IleTa, Cepenca, and as' 
diminutives of contempt BaHBKa, IleTLKa, CepeacKa. 
These diminutives, by which the primitive nouns are 
Hmited and changed, can only be learned by practice. 
The diminutives properly so called, which indicate the small- 
ness of objects, are very commonly employed in Russian, while 
diminutives of feeling and contempt are seldom used except in 
familiar language. The same remark applies equally to the 
augmentatives. 

Numbers. 2^. — In Russian, as in English, there are two num- 
bers; the singular (e;tHHCTBeHHoe ^hcjio), as: ctojH), 
the table; KHHra, a book; okho, the window; and 
th^ plural (MHOJKecTBenHoe), as: ctojibi, the tables; 
KHHrn, books; OKHa, the windows. 

The Slavonian, like the Greek, has a third number, the dual 
(4B6i1CTBeHHOe), which has been retained in certain Russian in- 
flections, as will subsequently be seen. 

Some substantives are only used in the singular; such are 
most proper names, and the names of material and abstract 
objects; e. g. cepe6p6, silver; aCHOCTb, evidence; .jrodOBB, love. 
Others are only used in the plural; the following are of this class. 

Masculine gender. Neuter gender. Feminine gender. 

KBaci(u[, alum. 66^HJa, white lead. Capio-lbKH, the needle game. 

4164H, people. BQp6Ta, yard-gate. HMHHEHU, a name-day. 

o66h, tapestry. 4pOB^ fire-wood. h6}KHHI^u, scissors. 

onHjiKH, saw-dust. Kp^C-ia, an arm-chair. ok6bh, fetters, chains. 

01KH, spectacles. nepH.ia, a balustrade. 6Tpy6H, bran. 

npor6Hhi, post-fare. HHCbMeH^, letters. p04HHH, delivery. 

nflJbl^bi, a sewing-frame. paMCH^, shoulders. pH-lt, a hurdy-gurdy. 

cy^KH, a cruet stand. yCT&, mouth. C&HH, sledge. 

THCKH, a press. qepHH-ia, ink. cyMepKH, dawn. 

npiniu, snuffers. qpeCJa, the loins. cyTKH, day (24 hours). 

Some names of towns are only used in the plural; such are: 
Bt.JBUbl, BaSHHKH, KpeCTUbl, of the masculine gender, and BpoH- 
HHqtl, XoJMOropLi, and the foreign names : Aghhbi, Athens; 
fl'CCLI, lassy; GiiBbl, Thebes, of the feminine gender. 



Lexicology. — the substantive. 37 

26. — The cases are different inflections which nouns Cases, 
assume to indicate the mutual relation of objects. 
The English language has strictly speaking but one 
case, the genitive; the mutual relation of v^ords 
being indicated either by a preposition or by the 
position of words in a phrase. In the Russian 
language there are seven cases, which may be known, 
in the names of animate beings, by putting the 
questions: Kmo, Kozo, Komy, kozo, KWMd, kom5? 
and in the names of inanimate objects by the ques- 
tions: umo, %ez6, uemy, nmo, njhM5, uems? These 
are: 

1. The nominative (HMeHHTe.aLHHH naAem-L), which 
gives the name of an object in a phrase in answer 
to the question umo or nmo'^ e. g. 

Kmo y^HTCfl? YHeHUKZ. Who studies? The scholar. 

Umo npeAt hhmt> jeaCHii? What is before him? A book. 
Knuza. 

2. The genitive (po^HTejiLHfcm), which indicates 
possession, and which answers to the question koio 
or neio? and also neii, ubR, ube? In English this 
case is expressed by the preposition of, or by an 
apostrophic s; e. g. 

X03flHHi> [Kezo?) doMa. 1\iQu\a.%\.^x {of what?) of the house. 

4oMT> («ew.^) cocihda. The house {of whom?) of the 

neighbour. 
QyinaftCfl {kozo?) Mdmepu. Obey {whom?) thy mother. 

3. The dative (^aieJitHLm), which designates the 
person or thing to which an object relates, and 
answers to the question KOMf or ueMy? In Eng- 
lish the dative is usually indicated by the preposi- 
tion to; e. g. 



^8 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

KoMy CJ-BAyeii cia Harpa4a ? To whom does this recompense 

YH,eHUKy. come? To the scholar. 

9e.w/ TU o6paAOBajca ? KmzJh. With what were you delighted? 

With a book. 

4. The accusative (BiiHHiejibHMH), which commonly 
called in English grammars the objective, answers 
to the question KOio or nmo ? e. g. u , ^^ 

Koz6 TM xeajiHUib? yWeHUKd. Whom aojou praise ? 73^<?j<r^/ar. 
Tmo TBI KyniUTj? Knmy. Wliat have you bought? A book. 

5. The vocative (sBaxejiLHfciii), which expresses 
the name of the person or object addressed; e. g. 

YKeHUKZ, 6yAb npiue5KeHT>! Scholar, be attentive! 

Eootce, cnacii I^apa! God, save the Emperor! 

6. The instrumental (TBopHxeJiLHLiH) or causa- 
tive, which designates the means or cause, and 
answers to the question KibM^ or uwMd? In English 
the prepositions wit/i and bj/ are commonly used 
for this purpose; e. g. 

KfbMZ 4OB6.JLHBI? VieHUKOMZ. With whom is one satisfied? 

IVith the scholar. 
VntMZ OWb SadaBJaexca? Khu- With what does he amuses him- 
eofo. self? JVith a book. 

7. The prepositional (npe^tJiOHCHBiii) or locative, 
which answers to the questions kom5 or nems? 
63 K0M5 or 63 ueM3? &c. This case, which in 
ecclesiastical Slavonian is called narrative (cKasa- 
TeJiLHun), is termed in Russian prepositional, because 
it is always accompanied by one of the prepositions 
Bt, in; Ha, on; or 06'L, of; no, after; npn, near 
to; e. g. 

KOMZ rOBOpaTT>? 06z yne- Of whom do they speak? 0/ 

HUKJh. the scholar. 

55 'ze^ws TH Hax64Hmb YAOB 6.1b- In what do you find pleasure? 

CTBie? Bz KHUZTh. In a book. 



Lexicology. — the substantive. 39 

Two of these seven casual inflections, the nomi- 
native and vocative, are called direct cases (npaMbie), 
because they simply give the name of the object; 
the remaining five are timed oblique (KOCBGHHEie). 

27. — The chans^e of the inflections in nouns, show- Declension 

' ° of substan- 

ing the numbers and cases, is called declension tives. 
(cKJiOHenie), and substantives are divided, according 
to the manner in which they are declined, into re- 
gular and irregular. 

28. — Reg-ular substantives, according- to their ter-Reguiarsub- 

° ' *=* stantives. 

mination, have three declensions : the first for nouns 
with the 7nasculine termination, (x, ii, i>) \ the second 
for those with the neuter termination (0, e, ma), and 
the third for those with the feminine termination 
(a, fl, h). Each of these declensions has three in- 
flections, one hard, and two soft, as exhibited in 
the table below. The two following observations 
relative to this subject are important. 

I. The vocative is always like the nominative, 
except in the words BoiT), God; Focno^iL, Lord; 
IncycL, Jesus; XpiiciocL, Christ; Oieix'L, Father, 
which, in an invocation of the Deity, preserve the 
Slavonian inflection ; Eooice, Focnodu, lucfce, Xpucme^ 
O'mne. 

2. — The accusative, singular of maserfitte nouns 
in the two first declensions, and plural in all three, 
is like the 7iominative when the noun designates an 
inanimate or abstract object, and like the genitive 
in the names of animate beings. 

Masculine nouns, ending in ameJlb and umeJlh, and designat- 
ing inanimate agents, such as SHaMeHaiejL, the denominator; 
A'B.aHTe.JB, the divisor (in arithmetic), are decHned Hke the names 
of animate beings, and consequently their accusative is like the 



40 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



genitive. The same is the case with the names of inanimate 
objects which have been borrowed from animate, as: cnyxHHKT., 
a satellite (of a planet). The word H^OJl, idol, has its accusative 
like the genitive, whilst in its synonymes KyMupi) and HCTyKaHT>, 
the accusative is like the nominative. The word .iime, signifying 
the face and an individual, is used in both its meanings like the 
name of an inanimate object, its accusative being always the 
same as the nominative. 

The collective nouns are always declined like the names of 
inanimate objects, though signifying a collection of animate 
beings, such as Hap6AT>, a nation; BOfiCKO, an army; CiaAO, 
a herd. 



DECLENSIONS OF REGULAR SUBSTANTIVES. 



!2! P 



FIRST. SECOND. \ THIRD. 

MASC. TERMINATION. i NEUTER TERMINATION.! FEM. TERMINATION. 



Hard infi. Soft infl. Hard inf. Soft inf. Hard inf. Soft inf. 



N. ^ 
G. a 

D. y 



■MR 

eHH 
eHH 



05 

< 

J3 '^ -f^ . . . like the Nominative or the Genitive. . . . | 
S V. like the Nominative 

5 It I 
en i ■•- 



H H 

-6 (H) H 
K) b 



oMTi eiwb eMi 

U B (H) % 



oM-b cM-b encM-b OM) (oh) eio(eH) Im) (bH)) 
% % (h) eHH % 'B (h) H 



N.' ^ H H a a ;KeHa u h h 

G. 08^(62)681 efi "b 6H(H, lH)eH'b 'b(eH) b(H,lH)eH 

D.j aM-b HMT. awb aM-b RWh enaMi. aiwb hmt. awb 

■^ A.j like the Nominative or the Genitive 

V.' like the Nominative 

I. I aMH HMH flMH [ aMH flMH CHaMH i aMH HMH HMH 

P. axT. axi axT. 1 ax'b hx^ enax-b axT. ax-b flx-b 



de"^ien°on^^ 29. — III declining the regular nouns, certain rules 
are to be observed, some of which are general, 
being common to all the three declensions, while 
others are special, being confined to one of the 
declensions or one of the inflections. 



Lexicology. — the substantive. 41 

1. According to what has already been observed (§ 18) re- General 
lative to the permutation of letters, a) the vowel 61, of the geni- """ ^^" 
tive singular and nominative plural, is changed for u after the 
guttural and hissing consonants (r, K, X; JK, H, m, m)\ b) the 
vowel 0, when without accent, of the instrumental singular and 
genitive plural, is changed for e after the lingual and hissing 
consonants (u; m, ^, ui, m), observing however that after the 
lingual (ii) the vowel may be used if it is accented; c) the 
vowel Tb of the dative and prepositional singular is changed for u 

after the vowel i (in nouns in iU, ie and in). (See the para- 
digms 2, 3, 8, 16, 20, 21, 26). 

2. A great number of nouns elide in the other cases (except- 
ing in the instrumental singular of feminine nouns in 6) the 
vowel e or 0, inserted in the termination of the nominative 
singular; but we must observe that in this elision the vowel e 
is changed for 6 after the consonant ^, and for U after a 
vowel. (See paradigms 2, 4, 10, 28). 

3. In such nouns of the II and III declension as have two 
consonants before the final vowel, the vowel or e \s> usually 
inserted between the two consonants in the genitive plural; in 
such cases hovirever the e is always substituted for the semi- 
vowels 6 and U. (See paradigms 12, 13, 20, 23). 

4. The genitive plural has some particular inflections: the in- 
flection eu (instead of oez and s) is pecuhar to nouns in O/CZ, 
V3, luz, uif^, iu,a, to those in o/ca, ua, lua, preceded by another 
consonant, and to those in be and in b/i; the inflection ii to 
nouns in e and /i preceded by a vowel, and the inflection iu 
to nouns in be and 6^, contracted from ie and ia. (See para- 
digms 3, 16, 21, 24, 25, 25). 

5. Such nouns as are only used in the plural, are declined 
according to the paradigm to which, by their termination, they 
belong. Thus among the masculine nouns, xopOMbi, edifice, is 
declined according to the ist paradigm (saKOHbl); lUHDUbl, 
snuffers, according to the 2d (OTl|bi); o66h, tapestry, according 
to the 6th (repoH); w!H)4H, men [instr. j!i04tMH), according to the 
9th (KOpo.lH); among the ^^/^/.jrnouns, fl]}QBk, firewood, according 
to the nth (caOBa); Kpecja, arm-chair {gen. Kpece.^^), according 
to the I2th (cieKJra); nHCbMena, letters, according to the i8th 
(BpeMena) ; among the feminine nouns, OKOBbl. chains, according 



42 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

to the 19th (KOpOBH); HOCIUKH, a hand-barrow {gen. HOCH.lOKT,), 
according to the 20th (naJKH) ; caHH, a sledge, and pLUi, a hurdy- 
gurdy, according to the 27th (CTpaCTH). 

6. Foreign nouns, whether common or proper, ending in g, U^ 
6/ a, n, b, are decUned Uke Russian nouns with the same ter- 
minations, whilst those in e, u, 0, y and /o, are indecUnable. 
The same is the case with family names of females, whatever 
may be their termination. Thus OMHuSyct, an omnibus; yloH- 
40HT., London, are declined according to the 1st paradigm (3a- 
k6ht>) ; KOHBofi, a convoy; BapK^aafi, Barclay, according to the 6th 
(repoil); BOAeeilwlb, a vaudeville; Epwcce^ib, Bruxelles, according 
to the 19th (KOpoJb); nieca, a piece, (of music, &c.); rieipapKa, 
Petrarch, according to the 19th (KOpoBa); KOjlOHifl, a colony, ac- 
cording to the 26th (MOJiHia); rasaHB /. a haven, according to 
the 27th (cTpaCTb). But K6*e, coffee; K0JH6pH, a humming-bird; 
4en6, depot (miHtary); paH^eBy, a rendez-vous; peBK), a review; 
KacieJLpe, Castlereagh; Mopo, Moreau, are indeclinable. The 
same is the case with the feminine family names ; as }KaHjlHCl., 
CTa.lE), &c. ; thus Ave say : y rocnOffiri TKaHJlUCZ^ at the house of 
Mrs Genlis; CCraHenie rocnOJKH CmaJlb^ the work of Mrs Stael. 
Special i. Nouns ending in eHOKZ, signifying the young ones of ani- 
mals, are masculine in the singular; but in the plural they pre- 
serve the Slavonian inflection nma or ama, and are neuter. 
(See paradigm 4). 

2. Nouns ending in HUum or aHum and in npuHZ or apuHZ, 
have peculiar inflections in the plural. (See paradigm 5). 

3. In the instrumental singular of the III declension, OH) is 
contracted in ow, ew in eu, and im in bH) ; thus we say : pyKOH) 
or pyKOii, with the hand; 3eM.ieK) or seMJefl, by the earth. (See 
paradigm 28). In the same manner the instrumental plural hmh 
of some nouns in 6 is contracted in bMU., the accent being in 
such cases placed on the last styllable; thus we say: JK)4bMH, 
with men; ^BepbMii, by gates; JOma^bMH, with horses (and not 
jitodHMUj deepAjHU, AoiuadHMu). 

4. The genitive singular of masculine nouns in g, 6, w, sig- 
nifying divisible matter, often takes, especially in familiar lan- 
guage, the inflection y and w of the dative (instead of a and 
R)', thus we say: *yHTl) cdxapy^ a pound of sugar; JOHvKa 
dezmfo, a spoonful of tar; ^aillKa ¥««?, a cup of tea. The same 



Lexicology. — the substantive. 43 

inflection (instead of Jh) is also found in the prepositional singu- 
lar, accompanied with the preposition 63 or Ha^ in some nouns 
in 3 and a, and in such cases takes the tonic accent; thus we 
say : bt> cady^ in the garden; na KpaK), on the brink. 

5. In compound substantives, the first word is also declined, if 
in its junction with the second it has preserved the termination 
of its nominative singular; thus I],apbrpa4T), Constantinople, is de- 
cHned according to the 9th and the ist paradigm: G. U^apflrpaAa, 
D. J^apiorpaAy, /. U.apeMT.rpaAOMt, P. D.ap'Brpa/i'B. With re- 
spect to the names of towns compounded of the adjectives HOB'b 
and 6ThA^., as HoBropOAT), B-fijlOOSepO, and to the common nouns 
formed of the numeral nOAZ, the half: as: no^AeHB, midday; 
nojro^a, half a year, we refer the student to our remarks on 
that subject in the declension of the adjectives and numerals. 

30. — By observing the above general and special Paradigms 
rules we shall be able to decline all the regular ciensions of 

substantives. 

nouns of the Russian language according to the 
following 28 paradigms. 

According to the ist paradigm (saKOH'L) are declined nounsFirst declen- 
in 5 (with the exception of those which belong to the 4 follow- ^^°°' 
ing paradigms), remembering however to change hi into U after 
the gutturals (r, K, x), and o into e after the lingual (u), and 
observing further, that several nouns of the 1st declension throw 
the accent on the inflections of the cases, some commencing 
with the genitive singular, others with the nominative plural, 
and others again with the genitive plural. Such are: 

Bap^H-B, the ram. G. 6ap&Ha. AW^t the gift, G. 4&pa; N.pl. flapbi. 

Bepi^nt, the cavern, Bepiena. 4o^rt, the debt, A6.«ra; 40JrH. 

KyMHp-b, an idol, KyMHpa. ^awh, a rank, iHHa; tiHHhi. 

BoJXB^, the magician, BOJXB&. IIIap-B, a ball, ni&pa; mapu. 

Bpar^, the enemy, Bpar&. Bori, a god; N.pl. 66rH, G. 6or6Bl. 

ilsuKl, the tongue, fl3l>lK&. Bopt, a robber; B6pH, BOpfiBTi. 

n-fiiyx-B, a cock, ntiyxa. TpoC-b, a coffin; rp66bi, rpo66Bl. 

MtCHU'B, a month, iwicai^a. ^yCli, an oak; Ay^M, 4y66B'B. 
Ky3H6^'b, the blacksmith, Ky3Hei^&. Bo^K*, the wolf; B6JKH, BOJlKdB'B. 

According to the 2d paradigm (OTeut) are declined the nouns 
in which the vowel e or of the nominative is elided in the 
other cases, observing at the same time the change -of e into 6 
after the consonant ./?, and into U after a vowel. Such are : 



44 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 





PARADIGMS OF THE THREE DECLEN 


Paradigms 
Terminati 
Declensioi 


S 


I N G U 


Nominat. and Vocat. Genitive. 


Dat. Accus. 




' hi 


3aR6He, the law ... 3aK6H-a . . 


• y . • . 




OTe'qi, the father . . . OTi^-i ..... 


•y • 


. a| . 






r* <; 3- 


uia^&itts, a cabin . . . ma^Adm-k . . 


•y • 


• -il • 






4- 


leAeHOKt, a calf . . . le-ieHK-a . . 


• y • 


. -^-5 .' 


. 


•^ 5- 


ABOp^HUHZ, a gentleman 4B0pflHHH-a . 


• y • 


• p 6 • 


^i 


f ^• 


rep6M, the hero . . . rep6-fl . . . 


. K) . 


• -s 1 • i 


g 


fi{ 7- 


CO^OBCM, a nightingale co.iOB-ba . . 


.bK) 


. S'o .1 


fx* 


I 8. 


r6HiM, a genius .... r6Hl-fl . . . 


. K) . 


• 'S « •! 




LB {9- 
Vio. 


K0p6Ab, the king . . . KOpoj-fl . . 
ordHft, the fire .... orn-H . . . 


.K) . 
. 10 . 




S J§ 




r r"- 

O < 12. 

^13- 


C36B0, a word .... c.«6B-a . . . 

CTBKAd, the glass . . . CTCKA-k . . 


•y • 
•y • 




1|: 




Q 


KOA&UKO, small ring . . K0-i6qK-a . . 


• y • 


-i ■"- . 




:z; 


TM- 


vi6pe, the sea M6p-a . . . 


. H) . 


• Il • 


1 i6. 


py>K6e, a gun py;K-bH . . 


. bK) 


<U i) 




MH-BHle, an opinion . . MHtHl-a . . 


. H) . 






Ii7- 


airuuse, n. a great child 4'bTHlit-a . . 


• y • 


4) 


^SH l8. 


BpdMA, the time .... BpSM-eHH . 


. era 


i 




r (-19. 


K0p6Ba, a cow .... Kop6B-u . . 


. % . 




•y • . 






a <( 20. 


TikAKa, a stick .... n^-iK-H . . 


. u . 




• y . . 




i 


Ui. 


B033/cd, a bridle .... b03}K-h . . 


.15 . 




• y . • 






1^22. 
23- 


HCA-B^fl, the week . . . He^'BJ-H . . 


. -B . 




. H) . . 




n-BCBfl, a song .... ntCH-H . . . 


. U . 




. K) . . 




3 


H<!24. 


CBd^, a pile CB^-H . . . 


. 6 . 




. H) . . 




H 


as. 

^26. 


cy46/i, the judge . . . cy4-bH . . . 


. b B . 




.blO . 






M6^Hi/J, a lightning . . M6^Hi-H . . 


.H . 




. H) . . 






. - Q. 


CTpacTfc, a passion . . CTp&CT-H . 


. H . 




. b . . 






JOHvb, the lie jhc-h .... 


.H . . 




. AC-AHh 






With respect to the use of the tonic accent in the declensions, the follow- 
ing rules are to be observed. 

1. Nouns of the 1st declension commonly preserve through all the cases 
both of the singular and plural, the accent of the nominative singular. But 
most polysyllabic nouns, the termination of which is accented, transfer the 
accent to the inflection of the genitive, and keep it on this syllable through 
all the other cases. Several monosyllables follow the same rule. Other mo- 
nosyllables preserve the nominative accent in the singular, but in the plural 
they transfer it to the inflections of the cases, some in all the cases, others 
from the genitive downwards. 

2. In the lid declension, the accent serves to distinguish the nominative 
plural from the genitive singular. On this account, those nouns which in 



Lexicology. — the substantive. 



45 



SIGNS OF REGULAR SUBSTANTIVES. 




L A 


R. 


PLURAL. 








Insirum. 

\ ■ 


Prep. 


Norn, and Voc. Genitive. Dative. 


Accus. 


Instrujn. 


Prepos. 






. OMT. . 


. -6 . . 


3aK6H-M .... OB-b . . aM-b . 




. aMH . 


. ax-b. 






. eMT. . 


. B . . 


OT^-M . . . . eBl . . kWh . 




. &MH . 


. ax-b. 




! . eM-b . 


. B . . 


majain-H . . . 6h . . . AM-b . 




. ^MH . 


. Ax-b. 




. OM-b . 


. *. .. 


TC^ai-a ....!.... aMT. . 




. aMH . 


.ax-b. 




. OMT, . 


. 1; . , 


4B0pflR-e . . . Tb . . . aMT. . 




. aMH . 


- ax-b. 




1 . CMT. . 


. -B . . 


rep6-H . . . . eB-b . . amt. . 




. AMH . 


. flX^. 




. beM-b . 


. b-B . 


C040B-bH . . . beBT. . bflM-b 


bfl 


. baMH . 


. bax-b. 




1 . eM-b . 


. H . • 


r^Hl-H eB-b . . flM-b . . 


^ « 


. AMH . 


. flx-b. 




.eM-b . 


.•B. . 


KOpOJ-H . . . . 6h . . HM'b . . 




.AMH . 


. flx-b. 






.eM-b . 


. -B . . 


orH-H 6h . . kwh . . 




. aMH . 


.ax-b. 






. OM-b . 


.*. . 


WOB-& . . . . Tb . , . &M-b . 


. &MH . 


.&XT.. 






.6M'b . 


.i. . 


CTeK4-a . . CTeKOJ-T. . aM-b . 


■^ s 


. aMH . 


. ax-b. 




. 


. OM'b . 


. -B . . 


K0J61K-H . K0^6leK-'b . aM-b . 


s^ 


. aMH . 


. ax-b. 






.eM-b . 


. -B . . 


Mop-K 6h . . kwh . 


i ^ 


. aMH . 


. flXTi. 






. beMT, . 


. bi . 


pyJK-bH . . . . CH . . bflM-b 


c 1 


. bHMH . 


. bax-b. 






. CMl . 


. H . . 


MH-BHl-a . . . . H . . . flM'b . 


^ s 


. AMH . 


. axT.. 






. CM-b . 


.%. . 


4tTHm-H . . . -b . . . aM-b . . 


= x 


. aMH . 


. axT.. 1 






. eneMTb 


. em 


BpeM-enA . . . ^Hi . . eH&M-b . 


■1:1 


. enAMH 


. eH&x-b. 






. OH) . . 


.-B. . 


K0p6B-M . . . . -b . . . aMT. . 


. aMH • 


. ax-b. 






. OH) . . 


. -B . . 


n&JK-H . . n&JOK-'b . aMT. . . 


IJ 


. aMH . 


• ax-b. 






. eH) . . 


. -B . . 


B63-yK-H . . . . 6B . . aM-b . 


. aMH . 


. ax-b. 






. eH) . . 


. B . . 


He/l-B^-H . . . . b . . . HM-b . 


A ja 


. aMH • 


. flx-b. 






. era . . 


. B . . 


nBcH-H . . ntceH-b . KWh . . 


^""^ 


. aMH . 


. flx-b. 1 






. eK) . . 


.15. . 


CB&-H H . . . RWh . . 


J^ 


. aMH . 


. ax-b. 






.bero . 


. b-B . 


cy4-i>H 6h . . bflM-b 




. baMH . 


. bax-b. 






. era . . 


. H . . 


M6J1HI-H . . . . H . . . HM'b . 




. AMH . 


. HX-b. 






• iK) . . 


.H . . 


CTpacT-H . . . . 6h . . aM-b . . 




. aMH . 


. ax-b. 






. .idHtbK) 


. A'/HVL 


JJK-H CH . . aM-b . 




.&MH . 


. ax'b. 





singular have the accent on the first syllable, transfer it in the plural to the 
last; while, on the contrary, those which in the singular have the accent on 
the last syllable, transfer it in the plural to the first, and keep it on that 
syllable through all the cases, both of the singular and plural. 

3. In the Hid declension a distinction between the genitive singular and 
nominative plural only takes place in such nouns in a and h, as have the 
accent on the termination. These nouns transfer the accent to the first syl- 
lable in the nominative plural, resuming in all the other cases the accent of 
the singular. Some of these nouns have also in the accusative singular the 
accent on the first syllable. Among the nouns in 6, there are several which 
transfer the accent to the inflections on the cases, from the genitive plural 
downwards. — The examples to these different rules here follow. 



46 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



OpeJlT), an eagle, G. op.ld. 
KoBep'B, a carpet, KOBp&. 
KpK)qeKT>, a hook, KpioqK&. 
AeBTi, a lion, JbBa. 
KyJeKi, a sack, KyjbK&. 
H'-ieM'b, the elm-tree, BJbM&. 
KoHeK'b, a skate, KOHbKA. 
Bo^^^., a wrestler, 6ou^&. 
Saeiti (and s&ai^'b), a hare, s&Si^a. 
On6eK'b, a calf's skin, on6HKa. 



BaT6p'b, a hook, G. 6arp&. 
IIoc6^T>. an ambassador, nocJl&, 
Ao6'b, the forehead, -ifia. 
HcaJdMT., a psalm, nca4M&. 
Pott., the mouth, pia. 
y«i4cT0KT>, a portion, yq&CTKa. 
CoH'b, sleep, CHa. 
y'ro-n>, an angle, yr-i&. 
3&M0KI, a castle, 3&MKa. 
3aM6Ki, a lock, 3aMK&. 



AccoVding to the 3d paradigm (uia^aun>) are declined such 
nouns in 5 with a hissing consonant (Hi, n, m, m), as form the 
genitive plural in eii; such are : 



na463K'b, the case, G. na^e^KA. 
n.iaie^K'b, the payment, n.iaie/KA,. 
Mop5KT>, a walrus, MopH«&. 
Ejkt., a hedgehog, OKA. 
Kjioq'b, the key, K.lK)q&. 
ylyqi., a ray, Jiyq&. 
Knpnuq'B, a brick, KHpnHq4. 
Meq%, a sword, Meq&. 



naj^iuT), the sabre, G. na^aniA. 
Akanhvavh^ the mayflower, J&H4Hnia. 
KapaHjAuiTi, a pencil, KapaHAauia. 
Topr&mT), the mercer, Toprani&. 
n^iamii, a mantle, n^am^. 
./lemt, the bream, Jen^A. 
ToBapamT., a comrade, TOB&pHma. 
O'EOm-b, a fruit, 6B0ma. 



According to the 4th paradigm {TejeHOKT>) are declined the 
names of the young of animals, ending in eHOKZ, which, having 
retained in the plural the Slavonian inflection Hma (or ama 
after Oic and v), are neuter and consequently belong, in the 
singular to the ist declension, and in the plural to the 2d. 
Some of these nouns however form their plural regularly in 
eHKU. Such are: 



flrneHOKT., a lamb; N. ^l, arnk'sa.. 
JKepefieHOKT., a foal; >Kepe6flTa. . 
UbinJeHOKT», a pullet; itMnaaTa. 

IIopoceHOK-b, a little pig; nopocflia. 

KoTeHOK-b, a kitten; KOTflxa. 
Pe6eH0K'b, a child ; pe6aTa. 



Oc^leHOK'b, a young ass; N.pl. oc^aia. 
Bo-iqeHOKl, a wolf's cub; Bojq&xa. 
Me4B'fi}KeH0K'b, a bear's cub; Me4- 

BliH{5,Ta. 

./IbBeHOK'b, a lion's whelp; N, pi. 

JbBeHKH. 

TaJieHOKT., a young awl; rajqeHKH. 
MuiueHOK'b, a young mouse ; MumeHKH. 



Also menoKi), a pup, G. meHKa, N. pi. meHaia and meHKii. 

According to the 5th paradigm {4B0pflHHHT>) are declined nouns 
in RHUHZ^ ahUHZ, npuHTi and apuHZ, which in the plural change 
UHZ into e, 2, aMZ, &.C.; such are: 

CeJiHHHH^, a villager; iV. //. ceAane. MipanHH-b, a layman; N.pL MlpaHC. 
KpHCTbaHHH'b, a peasant; KpecTbane. IIoceJaHHH^, a husbandman; noce- 

AAue. 



Lexicology. — the substantive. 47 

CeMMHHHl, the head of a family ; OrHHmaHHH'b, a freeman ; N. pi. orHH- 

N.pl ceMbfine. mane. 

PocciflHHHTi, a Russian ; PocciflHe. XpHCxl^HBHi., a Christian ; xpHCll&He. 

TpajK/iaHHHT), a citizen; rpayK4&He. BoapHHT), a lord; fioape. 

MtipaHHH'B, a burgher; MtmSHe. B6JrapHHT>, a Bulgarian; B64rape. 

According to the 6th paradigm (repofl) are declined the nouns 
in w, with the exception of those in iu and of some in ea, 
which belong to the two following paradigms. Such are: 
II0K6H, a room, G. nOK6fl. ./Fhiu&h, a scab, G. JHniaa. 

S.iojiB, a wretch, 3.104'6h. IlaH, a part, naa. 

Kaanaieifi, a treasurer, Kaanaqfifl. Ecu, the combat, G. 66a; N. pi. 6oh. 

Cap^H, a coach-house, cap^fl. Poh, a swarm, p6a; poii. 

C^yqaB, the occasion, CJyiaa. CipOH, the rank, CTp6a; CTpoH. 

HaJ6H, a desk, HaJ6fl. flag, the tea, q&a; laa. 

According to the 7 th paradigm (coJOBefi) are declined eight 
nouns in ew, as change the e of the nominative into 6 in all 
the other cases. Some Christian names in iu., in familiar language, 
are declined in the same manner. Such are: 

Bopo66H, a sparrow, G. Bopo6ba. ^Hpea, a furuncle, G. qapba. 

MypaB6H, an ant, MypaBba. BacHJlB, Basil, BacH^^ba. 

Pyq^H, a brook, pyiba. TpHrdplH, Gregory, rpHr6pba. 

Penefi, a little ribbon, penba. ./IeB6HTiH, Leontius, ./IeB6HTba. 

y'«TeH,a bee-hive, y.«ba. npOK6*lH, Procopius, IIpOK6*ba. 

Hv6pe6eH, the lot, »6pe(5ba. Hfh&tIh, Ignatius, HrH&Tba. 

According to the 8th paradigm (renifi) are dechned such 
nouns in ij/, as take the inflection u (instead of 76) in the prepo- 
sitional singular; such are : 

Bhk&pIh, a vicar, G. BHK&pia. BaHoq^pniB, a cup-bearer, G. bhho- 

HHBeHT&plB, an inventory, HHBeHiapla. q^pnia. 

KoMMeHT^piH, a commentary, -Men- MepKypiB, Mercury, MepKypia, 

T&plfl- C6prifi, Sergius, C6pria. 

Some substantives in t/, as nopiHOH, a tailor; KOpMmH, the 
pilots which are only adjectives used as substantives, are declined 
like the adjectives {§ 40). 

According to the 9th paradigm (KOpo^b) are declined the mas- 
culine nouns in 6, with the exception of those which belong to 
the following paradigm. Such are : 

Hte^y4b, an acorn, G. ;Ke.^y4a. rocy4&pb, a sovereign, G. rocy^&pa. 

Ko464e3b, a well, K0^64e3a. O^^Hb, a stag, oj^aa. 

yqaie^b, the teacher, yqaie^a. Me4B'B4b, a bear, Me4B-B4a, 

C66o.ib, a sable, c66oJa. I|apb, a king, i^apa. 

Cj^capb, a lock-smith, c^6capa. Kopafi-U., a vessel, Kopa6-ifl. 



48 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

4>0H4pb, a lantern, G. ♦onapa. r64y6b, a pigeon; r6Jy6H, rojy66H. 

4>flTHJb, a match, ♦HlH^a. astpb, a beast; asipH, 3BBp6fi. 

rycB, a goose; AT.//. rycH, G. ryc^B. ^epBb, a worm; q6pBH, qepB6H. 

According to the loth paradigm (orOHt) are declined such 
masculine nouns in 6, as elide the vowel e or o in all the other 
cases; such are: 

K&MeHb, a stone, G. k&mhh. K6peHb, the root; N. pi. K6pHH, G, 

CT66e4b, a stem, ct^Cjh. KopH^B. 

yl&noTb, a bast shoe, Akma. Y'ropb, an eel; yrpH, yrp6H. 

PeM^Hb, a thong, peMHH. H6rOTb, a nail; H6rTH, Hon^B. 

KpeM6Hb, a flint, KpeMHfl. K6roTb, a claw; K6rTH, KorT6B. 

,/IOM6Tb, a slice, .lOMTfl. II^pcTeHb, a ring; n6pcTHH, nepcTH^B. 

.^6K0Tb, the elbow; -i6kth, -iokt6h. 
In the list of masculine nouns in 6, given in § 23, which elide the vowel 
e or of the nominative, this vowel is printed in italics. 

Second According to the nth paradigm (CjIOBO) are declined the 
declension. . -, ^ . ,,.-,■, 

nouns m 0, and those m ^e, o/ce., le and w^e (with the excep- 
tion of such as belong to the following paradigm, of the dimi- 
nutives in KO and u,e and augmentatives in iu,e), observing how- 
ever the change of into e after the hissing consonants and 
the lingual (at, ^, m, ^), and remarking that several nouns of 
the lid declension transfer in the plural the accent from the 
first syllable to the last, and vice versa. Such are: 
Ti-io, the body, G. T'feja; N.pl. r^Ak. Jiss^^ the face, G. jhi^&; N.pl. .^H^a. 
Ct&^o, a herd, CT&4a; CTa4&, flH^e, an ^^g, aBit^-; flfii^a (G. aHitTb). 

3epKaJio, a mirror, 3^pKa-ia; 3epKaJ&. Il.ieqe, the shoulder, njei4; nJ^^a. 
O'aepo, a lake, 63epa; 03epa. ./I<5}Ke, the couch, G. and N.pl -i6afa. 

Bhh6, the wine, BHHa; Biina. Biie, an assembly, siqa. 

Ce46, a village, ceJf&; ceJa. HCH^iBme, a dwelling, ;KH.«Hma. 

Ko-iec6, a wheel, KOJec&; KO-ieca. Spijame, a spectacle, ap-fijama. 

40.10T6, a chisel, aO-IOt^; A0J6Ta. CoKp6Bame, a treasure, C0Kp6BHma. 

^440, «. a child, G. and A''.//. qA4a. ry^bCame, a promenade, ryjb6ama. 
Cb-Btb^o, a star, CBlsTHJa. Yqa^ame, a school, yqa^ama. 

M'BHa-io, m. a changer, Mbaa-ia. KjaAfiame, a cemetry, K^iaA^an^a. 

According to the 12th paradigm (cieKwIO) are declined those 
nouns in and e, preceded by two consonants, which usually 
insert the vowel e or in the genitive plural, observing at the 
same time that the nouns in u^e take the vowel e, and that 
the semi-vowel 6 between the two consonants is changed into e. 
Such are: 

Pe6p6, a rib; A'".//. p66pa, (?. p^dep-b. meM.i6,avice,A://.meMJa,G.meMe4'B. 
naTH6, a spot; nsTaa, naTeH-b. CyKH6, cloth; cyKHa, cyKOH-b. 

3epH6, a grain; 3epHa, 3epeH'B. Okh6, the window; 6KHa, dKOH-b. 



Lexicology. — the substantive. 49 

BpeBH6, abeam; N. pi. 6peBHa, G. qHC.i6, a number; N. pi. ^HCJa, G. 

6peBeHi. qHce^-b (and iHCJ-b). 

nHCbM6, a letter; nncbMa, HHceMTb. CepOTe, the heart; cep4Aa, cep46^'b. 

noJOTH6, linen; no-i6THa, nOji6TeH'B. Ko^bi^e, a ring; K6-li>i?a, K6Je^'I.. 

€■64-^6, a saddle ; C'BA-ia, Cfi4e4'b. KpbMbuS, a step ; KpwJbi^a, KpbijeAT.. 

It is necessary to observe that in nouns in 5^0, cmo, CKO 
and cmeo, the genitive plural is formed without the insertion 
of any letter; e. g. rH'SSAO, a nest; MiCTO, a place; BoficKO, an 
army; qyeCTBO, the feeling, — gen. plur. rH'B3AT>, M-BCTl, BOHCKT>, 
^yBCTBT,. 

According to the 13th paradigm (KOJEe^KO) are 'declined the 
diminutives in KO and u^e., which form their nominative plural 
in u (for those in KO) or in hi (for those in u^e), inserting the 
vowel e in the genitive plural. Such are: 

Cep46iK0, little heart; pi. cep46'ncH, 46H^e, little bottom; //. fl6Hi^u, 

-46iieK'b. [-T^ieKT.. 46Heit'b. 

MtCT^qKO, little place; MliCT^qKH, jy^AWifi^ mouth piece; 4y^Bi;u, 

KpbMbiniKO, little wing; KpbUwniKH, 4y•^e^'b. 

-JbimeK'b. Pbi Jbi(e, little snout ; pwJb^H, pujeicb. 

40MHIUKO, little house; 40MHIUKH, DojlOTSHi^e, a towel; ^0J0T6H^M, 

-MKIUCK'b. -T^Heni'b, 

According to the 14th paradigm (Mope) are declined those 
nouns in Jie and pe, which form their genitive plural in eU; e. g. 

116^6, the field ; G. n6^a, N. pi. n04fl, G. no^^S. 
r6pe, a grief; r6pH (not used in the plural). 

According to the 15th paradigm (pyjKte) are declined those 
nouns in be and in ee., which change in the genitive plural, be 
and ee into eU., and 6e, a contraction of te, into iU. Such are : 

HvHJbe, a floor ; pi. ^KHJiba, G. JKHJefi. Xl^aibe, a coat, G. pi. nJiaieH. 

Konbe, a lance; K6nba, KdneB. Bepx6Bbe, a spring, Bepx6BeH. 

IlHTbe, a beverage; niiTbH, nHTefi. Becgjbe, an enjoyment, Bec6JlH. 

./lesBee, the edge; J63Befl, Ji^SBeS. BocKpec^Hbe, Sunday, BOCKpec^Hifi. 

OcTpee,thepoint,edge;6cTpea,6cTpeH. HoBipbe, a belief, noB-feplH. 

The following nouns in be form their genitive plural in beeTtl 
nOAMaCTepLe m., the Journeyman; KymaHte, a dish; nOM-BCTte, a 
domain; ycTte, mouth (of a river); BapeHLe, a preserve. 

According to the i6th paradigm (MHinie) are dechned nouns 
in Je, which form their genitive plural in m, and which in the 
prepositional singular take the inflection u (instead of Jb). In 

4 



50 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

these nouns the accent of the nominative plural is the same as 
that of the genitive singular. Such are: 

34aHle, an edifice, G. and N.pl. 34aHiH. Opy wie, an arm, G. and N. pi. opy««Ia. 

3HaHle, knowledge, SHaHia. flBJ6Hie, an apparition, flBJ^Hlfl. [nla. 

JKeJaHle, the desire, me^aHla. Coofim^Hie, a communication, coo6m6- 

noHaile, an idea, nonaTia. CoMHbHie, the doubt, coMH-fiHia. 

CortpaHie, an assembly, co6paHia. BjaA'tHie, the possession, B^aAtHifl. 

PacT6Hle, a plant, pacr^Hla. CosB-fia/iie, a constellation, cosBiaAlfl- 

According to the 17th paradigm {jyii\\m.e) are decHned the 
augmentative nouns, which form their plural in M, eu, &c.; e. g. 

40MHiqe, great house; pi. AOMumH, CTOJHme, great table; pi. ciOJHmH, 

-men. -meS. 

4B0PHme, great court, 4B0pHmH. Ko3^Hme,/«. great he-goat; KOSJiHmH. 

MyJKHqume, m. big peasant,: My»H- IIoK6Hme, great room; noK6HmH. 

Some substantives in oe, as HdiBOTHOe, an animal; MOpoHCeHOe, 
ice-creams, which are only adjectives used as substantives, are 
declined like the adjectives (§ 40). 

According to the i8th paradigm (epeMfl) are declined nouns 
in MH. In the plural the accent is transferred to the last syllable. 
Such are: 

Bp6Ma, the burden, N. pi. 6peMeH4. nj^Ma, the race, N. pi. n-ieMCHa. 

Busia, an udder, BHMeHa. Cip^wa, the stirrup, cipeMCHa. 

H'lWa, the name, HMCHa. TtMa, the sinciput, xtMeHa. 

njaMfl, the flame (no plural). 3HaMa, the flag, 3HaMeHa and SHaMena. 

By the same paradigm is declined c-BMH, seed, plur. ctMena, 
which however has retained in the genitive plural the Slavonian , 
inflection CBMant (instead of cejneHZ), to be distinguished from 
the proper name CeMeHl, Simeon. 

Third According to the 19th paradigm (KOpoea) are decUned the 

declension j^^^jj^g -^^ ^ (excepting such as belong to the two following pa- 
radigms). It is necessary to observe the change of hi into u 
after the guttural and hissing consonants (r, K, X; H?, % m), and 
of into e after the hissings and the lingual (H(, 1, ui; u), and 
also to remark that several nouns of the Illd declension in a 
and R transfer the accent in the nominative plural, and some 
of them also in the accusative singular, from the last syllable 
to the first. Such are: 



Lexicology. — TH-E. substantive. 51 

Pwrta, the fish, G. andN.pl. pw6M. 3Bl}34a,astar, G.3Bli34bi; A^.//.3Bi34hi. 

ni.iflna, a hat, m^flnbi. 5KeHa, the wife, JKCHbi; JKeHH. 

no6B4a, victory, noOMM. C^yra, a servant, c^yrH; CJyrH. 

P63a, a rose, p63bi. PtKa, a river, ptKH; pBKH. 

KHHra, a book, KHurH. Bo4a, water, G. BOAW, A. B64y, N.Jil. 

CooaKa, a dog, co6Akh. B64bi. 

Myxa, a fly, myxH. 3HMa, winter, shmw, 3HMy; shmm. 

K^Hca, the skin, k6>kh. PyKa, the hand, pyKH, pyny; pyKH. 

Tyqa, the cloud, lyqa. To^OBa, the head, roJOBbi, rdJOBy; 

Tpyiua, a pear, rpyniH. r640Bbi. 

B/iOBa, a widow, G. BAOBbi; iV. //. CKOBOpoAa, a frying pan, CK6BOpo4y, 

BA6Bbi. -p04bl. 

According to the 20th paradigm (najKa) are declined most 
nouns in a preceded by two consonants, or by one consonant 
and 6 or it, which insert the vowel e or in the genitive plural, 
b and ii then changing into e. Such are: 

./ToMCKa, the spoon; G. pi. Ji6}KeK'b. KoHMa, the hem; G. pi. KOeMT>. 

C6cHa, the fir; cficeni). Kon-BHRa, a copeck; KonieKTi. 

CKa3Ka, a tale; CKasoK-b. PaHHa, a ship's yard; paeHt. 

lUanKa, a cap ; uianOKT). CBa4b6a, the marriage ; CBaAcCt. 

y'TKa, a duck; yiOKTi. CyAb6a,fate; iV.//. cyAb6bi, G. cy466l. 

OB^a, a sheep; A. 6Bixy, G. pi. OB^IXT.. TiopbMa, the prison; TiopbMbi, Tiop^MT*. 

4ocKa, a plank; 46cKy, 40c6K'b. Cepbra, an ear-ring; c6pbrH, cepert. 

The vowels ox e are inserted solely to facilitate the pro- 
nunciation; for if the two or three consonants in juxta-position 
can be articulated without difficulty, the insertion does not take 
place. Thus: np6cb6a, the demand; CTapocia, a bailiff; BepCTa, 
a werst; ;KepTBa, a victim, form their genitive plural: iip0Cb6T>, 
CTapoCTT., BepCTt, HCepTBt. The genitive plural of eoflna, war, 
is b6hht>, and that of TafiHa, a sacrament, is TaHHl>. 

According to the 21th paradigm (BOSHCa) are declined nouns 
in Ofca^ Ha, ma, preceded by a consonant, as also those in ui,a, 
which form their genitive plural in eu. Such are : 

XaH>Ka, a bigot ; G. pi. xaH5K6H. ./I bBma, a left-handed person ; G. pi. 

Ilapia, brocade; napq^B. B6KUia, a squirrel ; BgKUieB. [JtBiu^H, 

IIpHTTia, a proverb; npHiqeB. P6ma, a grove; p6meH. 

Ka^anqa, a belfry; Ka^aHqdfi. T6Jma, the thickness; tbAV3,€&. 

In the same manner are declined lOHOilia, young man, and 
nauia, a pacha, G. pi. WHomeH and namefl. 

According to the 22th paradigm (He4'BJfl) are declined nouns 
in R, preceded by a consonant, which form their genitive plural 

4* 



52 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

in 6, with the exception of some which form it in eu, and 
others in 6 and eU. Such are : 

BaHH, the bath; G. pi. 6aHB. 4fl4fl, the uncle; G. pi. ^k^<i&. 

IlyJH, a ball; ny^b. Bp6Hfl, a cuirass; ftp6Heu. 

Bypa, a tempest; 6ypb. Il4Ha, a fine; n^Hefi. 

rnpa, a weight ; rnph. Ho34pfl, a nostril ; H034p6B. 

4uHff, a melon; 4MHb. CTesfl, a footpath; cres^fi. 

EornHg, a goddess ; fiorHHb. 46-«a, a portion ; 4046H and /lOJb, 

IlycThiHH, a desert; nycThinb. 3apH, the dawn; aap^fi and aapb. 

Il0T6pH, a loss; nOT6pb. TOHH, fishing-net; toh62 and TOHb. 

According to the 23th paradigm (niCHH) are decHned the 
nouns in jia and HR, preceded by another consonant, by 6 or 
by w, which insert in the genitive plural the vowel e (one single 
noun takes the vowel 0), or change 6 and u into e. Such are: 

Ca64H, a sabre; G. pi. caOeJb. Orti^Hfl, the mass; G. pi. o6-B4eHb. 

BaCHH, a fable; fiaceHb. KyxHH, the kitchen; KyxoHb. 

BaniHH, a tower ; fiamcHb. Cna-ibHH, a dormitory ; cnaJCHb. [jeiib. 

4ep6BHH, a village; 4ep6BeHb, Bora4'6-^bHH, an almshouse ; 6ora4B- 

Kp6BJa, a roof; Kp6Be.ib. IIlBa.ibHa, a sewing room; lUBaJeHb. 

n^T^a, a running-knot; n^Te^b. B6HHa, a slaughter-house; 66eHb. 
3e>i^a, the earth ; 3eM64b {A. s. 36M^io). Bo4on6HHa, a horse-pond ; B04on(5eHb. 

The substantive 3eM-ia takes, in the prepositional singular with Ha, the 
Slavonian inflectionna seMJH, on the earik, to be distinguished for Ha aeM.iB, 
on iJie grojind. 

According to the 24th paradigm (CBaa) are declined those 
nouns in n preceded by a vowel (with the exception of those 
in ifC), which form their genitive plural in u; such are : 

Bbia, the neck ; G. pi. BMH. The names of foreign towns, ending in 

.Ia4Bea, the hip; 4a4B6H, oa and ya, are declined in the same 

Cipya, a current; cipyB. manner, except in the arcwj^ftz/^, which 

Bepea, a post; Bep^fi. they form in y (and not in w); e. g. 

in^a, the neck; mefi. F^nya, Genoa, A. FfiHyy. 

3M-Ba, a serpent; 3.MtH. MaHiya, Mantua, MaHiyy. 

C6a, the jay; COH. na4ya, Padua, IIa4yy. 

C6pya, an armour; c6pyH. r6a, Goa, r6y. 

Some nouns in afl and rr, as: K^iaAOBaa, a storehouse; ne- 
peAHflfl, an antechamber, which are only adjectives used as sub- 
stantives, are decHned like adjectives (§ 40). 

According to the 25th paradigm (cy4bii) are declined the 
nouns in 6^, which in the genitive plural change this termination 
into eu, and if it is contracted from iR, into iu. Such are: 



Lexicology, — the substantive. 53 

./Ia4bfl, a boat; G. pi. ^a^^S. TdCTbH, a female guest; G.pl. r6CTefi. 

CKaMbfl, a bench; CKaM^B. ^ryHbfl, a female liar; Jrynefi. 

CxaTbfl, an article ; cxaT^fi. CfiaTbH, a female relation ; CBaTCH. 

CBHHbH, a pig; CBHH^H. K6JbH, a cell; KkMa. 

Cesibfl, the family; cesi^fi. HryMeHbff, an abbess; HryMeHiB. 

According to the 26th paradigm (MOJHia) are declined the 
nouns in in,, which in the dative and prepositional singular take 
the inflection u (instead of /&), and which form their genitive 
plural in iu. Such are: 

A'pMlfl, an army, D. apMln; G. pi. CthxIh, an element, Z>. cthxIh; G. pi. 

apMlH. CTHXiH. 

K6nifl, a copy, K6nlH; K6nlH. KoM^Aia, a comedy, kom6a1h; kom^aIB. 

^HJia, a lily, jh^Ih; jhjIB. Tpar6/iifl, a tragedy,Tpar6/(lH; Tpar^AlB. 

vlHHlff, a line, ^hhIh ; JHHiB. BhtIh, an orator, bhtIh; bhtIB. 

According to the 27th paradigm (CTpaCTt) are decHned the 
feminine nouns in 6, observing at the same time the change of 
R into a after the hissing consonants (ac, ^, in, m), and remarking 
that several of these nouns transfer in the plural the accent to 
the casual inflections, from the genitive plural downwards. 
Such are: 

TKaHb, a tissue ; G. pi. TKaneB. BpOBb, an eyebrow ; N. pi. 6p6BH, G. 

DeqaTb, a seal; neqaTeB. 6poB6B. 

KpOBaxb, a bedstead; KpOBaieB. KHCTb, a tuft; khcth, khct6B. 

E4b, a fir; 6JeB. BBTBb, a branch; B'Btbh, bIstb^B. 

CBHp-BJb, a pipe ; CBHpijeB. 4Bepb, the door ; 4Bep6B (/. ABepbMH). 

./Ia46Hb, the palm of the hand; Ja- ^6uia4B, a horse; JOUiaA^B (/.-abmh). 

A6HeH. II-ieTb, a whip; nJCT^B (/. n-ieibMH). 

O'ceHb, the autumn; 6ceHeB. Hoib, the night, H0q6B; D. HoqaMt. 

Meq^Tb, a mosque; Mei^TcB. Ileqb, a stove, nei^B; neiaM'b. 

BoJi-63Hb, a malady; fioj-baneB. Mwuib, a mouse, Mwm^fi; MwmaM'b. 
4o6poA'6Te4b, virtue; 4o6po/i'6TeJeB. Bemb, a thing, Bem63; BemaM-b. 

According to the 28th paradigm (jOHCb) are declined five 
nouns in 6, which elide the vowel of the nominative in the 
other cases, except in the instrumental singular; these are: 

Bomb, a louse, G. BiUH, I. BdmbK). ./lM)66Bb, Wve, G. ^H)6bh, I. .iio66Bbio. 
Po>Kb, rye, p5KH, p6JKbiO I|6pKOBb,'lhechurch,it6pKBH,i^6pKOBbio. 

The noun uepKOBL takes, in the dative, instrumental and 
prepositional plural, the hard inflection «JW3, aMU., ax'5 : LiepKBaMT., 
UepKBaMH, itepKBaXT.. Aiodoeb., used as a Christian name, 
retains the vowel through all the cases, G. wIiodoBH, &c. 



54 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



Irregular 
nouns. 



31. — The irregular nouns are such as take in 
some cases an inflection different to what they ought 
to have, according to the termination of their nomi- 
native singular; or such as form their plural in a 
particular manner. 

I. Several nouns in 3 and 6 take in the nominative plural the 
inflection a, H, with the tonic accent (instead of 6i , u) , while 
the genitive remains in oez^ eed, eu, and the other cases regular. 
Such are: 



B^per-B, the shore,//. 6epera, 6eper6B'b. 
BOKT>, the flank, 6oKa. 
B6qepTb, the evening, Beiepa, 
r6^iocT>, the voice, ro.ioca. 
rdpOA'B, the town, rop04a. 
46KT0p'b, a doctor, 40KT0pa. 
JKepHOB"*, a millstone, HcepHOBa. 
KaTepii, a cutter, KaTcpa. 
KHBepT), a shako, KHBepa 
K6joko4^, a bell, KO.iOKO-ia. 
Kyiept, a coachman, Kyqepa. 
/lyri), a meadow, Jyra. 
Atcb, a forest, J-fica. 
MaCTepi, a master, Maciepa. 
MHqjiaH'B, a midshipman, MHqMaHa. 
O'cipoBt, an island, ocipoBa. 
Uapycb, a sail, napyca. 
n6Bap'B, a cook, noBapa. 



n6rpe(5T>, a cellar, //. norpefia, -66B'b . 
n6^on>, a curtain, noJora. 
npo*^ccop^, a professor, npo*eccopa. 
PjKaBT., a sleeve, pynaBa. 
O-iiorep-B , a weather-cock, *JiK)repa. 
lUdMnoJ*, a ramrod, niOMno.ia. 
X.iIiBT>, a stall, xJ-BBa. 
Xd-iOA'b, the cold, xoJOAa. 
CT6po>KT., a guard, CTOpoiKa, ciopojK^B. 
Bf'KceJb, a bill of exchange, -Ati, -Aeu. 
B^Hse.ib, a monogram, BeHseJfl. 
Erepb, a hunter, erepa. 
Kp6H4e.ib, a cracknel, KpeH4e.Jfl. 
^It'Kapb, a surgeon, -leKapa. 
IlHcapb, a writer, nHcapa. 
4>JHre.ib, wing of a house, *ABteJiH. 
UlT^MneJb, a stamp, uiTCMne-ia. 
il'KOpb, an anker, flKopa. 



In the same manner T^iepeBT., a groiise, has in N. pi. leTepeBa; but in the 
genitive TCTepeB^fi (instead of memepeeoez). 

2. Some nouns in 2, &, 0, form their plural in bn., 6665, bflM^^ 
&c., changing the gutturals z and K before 6 into oic and h,. 
Such are: 



Bpait, the brother, //, 6paTbH, -eB'b. 

BpycT., a beam, fipycbfl. 

Kjhh>, a wedge, KJHHbfl. 

Kjokt., a lock, K.l6ibfl. 

K6.«0C'b, an ear, K046cbs. 

Ko-IT., a stake, K6.ibH. 

KOM-b, a heap, K6MbH. 

Konbi-lt, a sledge-bar, KOntiJbH. 

KoqaHTi, a head of cabbage, KOqaHba. 

.^y6^, a sheet of bark, ^y6ba 



UpyTt, a twig, //. npyiba, npyibeBi.. 

n6J03'b, a slide, no-i63ba. 

Cxyj'b, a chair, ciy^ba. 

3aTb, son-in-law, saiba. 

3BeH6, a link, 3B^Hba. 

Kphi^6, a wing, Kphijiba. 

nep6, a feather, n6pba. 

no-i'BHO, a billet of wood, nci-fcHba. 

Il0Me.i6, a malkin, nOM64ba. 

lUuJO, an awl, lUH.iba. 



Lexicology. — the substantive. 



55 



3. Some nouns in 3 have their genitive plural like the nomi- 
native singular (instead of 003), e. g. 



P4KpyT'B,arecruit;//.p6KpyTU,p6KpyT'B. 
Can6n,, a boot; canora, can6r'i>. 
Co-i/taTt, a soldier ; coJi/iaTM, co^^aT-b. 
TypOK-b, a Turk; TypKH, TypoK^. 
y^aHT., a hulan; yjaHbi, y^aH-b. 
UbiraHT., a gipsy; i;biraHbi, i^wram.. 
qyj6K'b, a stocking; qy-iKH, qy^dK-B. 
rpysHHTi, a Georgian; TpyaHHW, 
rpysHHT.. 



Ajtwh-B , three copecks ; pi. aJTb'iHM, 

aJTUH'b. 

ApniHHi, an ell; apniHHbi, apiUHH'b. 
Tpena^^p'b, a grenadier; rpena^^pM, 

-J^p-b. 
JparyHT., a dragoon; /iparyHW, 4pa- 

ryH-b. 
Ilya-b a pood; ny^hi, ny/iT.. 
Pas-b, a time; pa3bi, paa-b. 

We can however say regularly nRTh nx^oes, ^ve poods ; u-UCKOAbKO penpy- 
moez, some recmits. The substantive qeJOB'BK'b, man, has also the genitive 
plural like the nominative singular, but only in junction with a numeral, 
as nflTb HejioeibKTS, five men; in all other cases it is regular; e. g. 4py3bH 
ueAoewKoez, the friends of the men — The substantive ca^^Hb, a toise, has 
likewise in the genitive plural caJKeHTi , the accent being transposed ; and 
4eHb, the day, in familiar language, takes the same inflection when in 
junction with a numeral- e. g. ceMb d'em, seven days (instead of ceMb dneu). 

4, The following nouns form their plural in different ways. 

have a, a, aim, &c. : r-iaaa, rjaai', r^iaaaMT.; BO^oca, 
BOJ^CTb, BOJOCaM'b (and also regularly: B6jlOCbl). 
BapHHTi, a lord ( change wk8 into a, z, omz , amu , axz: (5apa, fiapTi, 

Tocno^HH'b, master, <^ dapaM'b; rocnofla, rocn64'b, rocnoAaM-b; Taiapa (and 
TaiapHHT,, a Tartar, I. TaTapbi), Taxap-b, TaiapaM-b, &c. 

XoaflBHTb, a housekeeper, plur. xoaaeba, xoaaeBT., xosaeBaM'b, &c. 
IIIypHH-b, a brother-in-law, plur. luypba, uiypbeBTi, mypbHMT., &c. 

( have their plural in ^H, eu, hxmz, &c. (ApyrT* changes 
j ? into 3) : 4py3ba, 4py36H, ApyabflMTb; KHflSba, KHa36H; 
I MyjKba, My;K6H, &c. The latter, in the sense of man, 
I is regular: MyjKH, Myat^H, My^KaMTi, &c. 
rform their plural in the same way by inserting the 
J syllable oe -. KyMOBba, KyiHOB^fi; CBaiOBba, CBaTOB^fi; 
I CMHOBba, cbiHOB^H, &c. CbiH'b, with a _/^Mnzz^/z'^ mean- 
ling, is regular: CUHbi, CbiH6B'b, &c. 

ftake in the plural the soft inflection M, eu, nmz, 
Coc'fia'b, a neighbour, j ^(,, : coc'Mh, cocBa^h, coci4flM'b (and also regular : 



r.iaa-b, the eye, ( 
B6^0CTf, a hair, \ 



/IpyrTb, a friend, 
KHfl3b, a prince, 
SlyKT., a husband. 



KyM-b, a godfather. 
CbaTT*, a kinsman, 
Chht., the son. 



X046m>, a bondman, 
UepT-b, the devil. 



coc'64w, coc'B40B'b); xoj6nH, xoj6neH; q6pTH, iepT6B, 



Co.iHite, the sun, 
O'fi-iaKO, a cloud, 
O1K6, a pip, point 
yuiK6, a handle. 



LqepiaMT., &c. 
ftake the masculine termination: bi , eez, amz , or u, 
j oez, am, &c. : c6^hi^h, c^.iHiteBTi; 6<5JtaKH, o64aK6BT> 
(and also regular: o6.iaK&, ^fi^aKT.); oikh, oiK6B'b; 



J ^ , 

tyiUKH, yniK6Bi, yniK&M'b, &c. 

BtKO, the eyelid, / form their plural inw, z, amz, &c.: BtKH, BbK'b, B'BKaM'b: 
fl'6.lOKO, an apple, \ agjtoKH, afiJOK'b (and fl6-iOKOB'b), a6-iOKaM'b, &c. 



5 6 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

r have in the plural: HeCecA, He66ci, He6ec&Mi; qyAeca, 
H660, heaven ] qy46ci, tiy4ec&M'b, &c. 1/etfo, in the sense of />alafe, 
4y40, a wonder, ^ has no plural, and vfdo, signifying a monster, is re- 

l gular: qy4a, qy^-b, qy^aM-B, &c. 

r form their plural in m, e«, aim, with the permutation 
O'ko the eye °^ *^^ consonant: 6qH, oq6H, oqaMi, ouaMHj ynm, yiu62, 

y'xOj'the ear,* { ymaMl, ynibMH (instead of yiuanu). This inflection is 

I propferly the Slavonian dual; the plural, which is some- 

L times used in poetry, is : oiecd, ymecA 

( which in the singular has preserved the Slavonian de- 
4HTa a child \ ^^^'^^'^^'^ '■ ^- ^- ^°d P. ahthth, /. AHTHTCM-b and 4HTflTeio, 

I has in plural: N. /niifl, G. and A. 41;t6h, D. A-fiiaMl, 

Kypaqa, a hen, //«r. Kypu, Kypi., KypaMT., &c. 

CjiOHa, the slaver, plur. c^K)HH, cjk)h6h, c.iiohhmi, &c., with the soft in- 
flection, 

5. Some nouns have a double inflection in the plural, the 
one regular, the other irregular. 

a) Some have two inflections in the nominative only, and 
without any difference in the meaning of the word; such are: 

BtK^, an age , pi. B-feKH and BfiK&, Ildflc^, girdle, //. n6HCM and noHCA, 

BtiRdB-b. -C6BT>. 

ro4'l>, a year, r64H and ro4a, ro46Bi.. Pori., a horn, p6rH and pora, por6BT>. 

40Ml,ahouse,46Mbiand40Ma,40M6B'b. CHtn., snow, CHtrH and CHtra, 

K6pnycTi, body, K6pnycM and Kopnyca, CHtr6BTi. 

-c6bT). Ciort, a stack, cT6rH and CTOra, 

KynoJT>, cupola, KynoJU and Kynoja, CTordBt. 

-■16BT.. Cipyri., a bark, cipyrn and cipyra, 

Me4'B, honey, Me4H and Me4a, Me46BT.. -r6BT.. [-M6B'b. 

O'KOpoKT., a ham, 6KopoKH and OKOpoKa, T^peMT., a room, T^peMU and repeMa, 

-681.. Kpafi, the brink, Kpafi and Kpaa, KpaeBl. 

b) Others have two inflections through all the cases, the 
irregular inflection being used where the substantive has a col- 
lective meaning; such are: 

Baidrt, a stick, pi. 6aTorH, OaTordBt, and 6aT6a{ba, 6aT6atbeBi, &c. 

BHyK-b, the grandson; BHyKH, BHyKOBT., and BHyqaxa, BHyiaTT., &c. 

KpiOKt, a hook ; KpiOKH, kpk)k6bt>, and Kpioiba, Kpro^beBl. 

O'604'b, a felloe; 6604U, 6604081, and o664bfl, o664beB'b. 

.^6cKyTX, a shred; 46cKyTbi, Jt6cKyT0Bl, and ^ocKyxbfl, -loCKyTbeBT.. 

Cipym., a scurf; cipynbi, cipynoBTb, and cipynba, crpynbeBT.. 

CyK-b, a branch; cyKH, cyKOBT., and cyqba, cyibeBT.. 

^6pen'b, a potsherd ; lepenS, i6penoBT>, and iep6nba, qep^nbeBT*. 

BoJ4bipb, m. a tubercle; B044bipH, BOJ4up6fi, and B044bipba, BO^wpbeB'b. 

K&MeHT>, m. a stone; KdMim, K&MKefi, and KaM^Hba, Kasi^HbeB'b. 



Lexicology. — the substantive. 57 

K6peHB, m. a root; K6pHH, KOpH^H, and Kop6Hba, KopSHbesi. 
Dysbipb, m. a bladder; nyawpH, ny3Hp62, and nysbipba, nyaupbeB'b. 
nynhipb, m. a pimple; nynupa, nynup^B, and nynupbfl, nynupbeB'B. 
y'ro^b, m. the charcoal; yrJH, yr^SB, and yroJbfl, yro^beBl. 
46peB0, a tree; 4epeB&, Aep6BT), and 4ep6BbH, 4ep6BbeBTi. 
4hP&, a hole; 4HpH, AHpi., and 4HpbH, 4HpbeBT>. 
me.ib, f. a chink ; m6JH, m6JeH, and m6JibeBT>. 

<r) Others again have two inflections with totally different 
meanings; such are: 
3y6T., a tooth (in the mouth), //. ayObi, 3y66BT., and tooth (of a saw), 3y6bfl, 

3y6beBT>. 
K&nJa, a drop (of water), KS,nJH, K&nejib, and ^rzy)^' (in medicine), RanJH, 

KanJeB. 
^HCTi, « leaf {oi paper), ^HCThi, 4hct6bt>, and a leaf (of a tree), JHCTbfl, 

JHCtbeBT.. 

MyjKTi, rt ;«a«, MyatH, My}K6H, and a hushand, MyJKbfl, My>K§H. 
M BxT., a fur, MBxh, M■fcx6B^, and a pair of bellows, MtxS, M'fix6B'b. 
O'fipasT), the form, 66pa3bi, 66pa30BT>, and an image, o6pa3a, ofipa36B'b. 
n6B041', a fnotive, I16BOAH, ndBO^OBT), and a rein, llOB6AbH, nOB64beBT), 
Cy4H0, a vessel (utensil), cy^HH, cyACHT., and a vessel (ship) , cy4&, cy46B'b. 
Xj-fifiT., a bread, XJtfiu, XJt6oBT>, and a com, XJtfia, xJ'B66bt>. 
IlB-feTT., a flower, ^B■6T1J, i;b'Bt6bi, and a colour, ^B•BTa, i^BtT6B'b. 

fl^) Lastly there is one substantive which in the plural has 
three inflections, a different meaning being conveyed by each; viz. 

^ a tribe, pi. KO^ina, kojbht>, KO^iHaM'b, &c. 
KoJ-fiHO, \ the knee, pi. koj-Bhh, KO^-fcHeH, KOji-BHaMT*, &c. 

'^ a joint (of a plant),//. KOJ-fiHba, KO-liflbeBTi, KO-linbasii, &c. 

6. The declension of the following nouns is quite irregular: 

^ is declined like a noun in %, with the hard inflection : 
rocn64b, the Lord, < G. TdcnoAa, D r6cnoAy, /. r6cno40Mi; the vocative 
^ is: r6no4H. 

„ , „, . /-cuts off in all the other cases the syllable oc : G. XpHCT&, 

XpHCTdCb, Christ, -{„„ > r -^ , r. ^ ' .. ^ 

' \D. XpHCiy, /, XpHCTdM-b, P. XpHCTt, V. XpHCT6. 

( insert in the inflections of the cases the syllable ep. -. 

4oqb, a daughter , j G. and D. 46iepH and MaiepH, /. 46iepbio and MaiepbH) ; 

MaTb, the mother , ^ ^/,^^ ^ 46qepH and MaTepH, G. 40tiep6H and Maiepfifi, 

L /. 40iepbMH and MaiepaMH, &c. 

f although masculine, tak^ in the genitive, dative and 

H-iaMCHb, flame, j /r?/(7^zV/i?«(i/ singular the feminine inflection «: n^aMeHn, 

IlyTb, the way, S ny^^ . b^t ^^6 instrumental case is regular (nJaMeHeMt, 

I. nyTeMT>). 



58 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

EXERCISES IN THE DECLENSION OF 
SUBSTANTIVES. 

Nominative The master of the garden and the mistress of the house. 

Genitive. X03flHHI> Ca^t H X03flHKa AOWb. 

The garden of the master and the house of the mistress. 

Ga^t XOSHHHt H 40MT> XOSflMKa. 

The' roaring of tke lions; the song of the nightingale; the 
PbiKaHie t jeet; ninie cojOBefl; 

bellowing of the bull , of the ox and of the cow ; the neighing 
MLiqanie 6tiKT>, bojit, h Kopoea; pHanie 

of the horses; the barking of the dog; the cooing of the pigeons; 
.loinaAb/; .lail codana; BopKOBaute rojydb m; 

the cawing of the crows ; the croaking of the frogs ; the howling 
KapKaHLe BopoHt; KBaKaHte jaryiiiKa; bou 

of the wolf; the buzzing of the bees , of the cock-chafers and 
BOAK-b; JKyjKHiame nieja, jKyKi> h 

of the flies ; the bleating of the rams and of the ewes. A chimney 
Myxa; 6.ieflHie 6apam> ii oeua. KaMUHt 

without fire; windows without panes; groats without butter; 
dest oroHL w; okho deai. CTeK.a6; Kama 6e3T> aiacio; 

saddles without stirrups; a charge without ball; islands and 
CBAJo deat CTpeMa; aapaAi* deai) ny^ia; 6cTpoBT> a 

meadows without trees ; cooks, coachmen and labourers without 
w!yn> de3T) AepeBO; noBapi,, Kyiept ii padoxHHKi. de3'i> 

work; children without mother; soldiers without muskets; 
padoia; AHT/i dest Mait; cosAO/Tb desx pyaibe; 

muskets without flints; a statue without arms and without 
pyac-Le de3T> KpeMent w; ciaxya des-L pyKa n de3T. 

ears; young bears and young lions without hair; vessels 
yxo; MeAB-fiJKeHOKT. II .ibBeHOKt de3x mepcTB/; Kopadjb m 

without hammocks; ships without oars; tea without sugar and 
de3'i> KOMKa; cyAHO de3T, bbcao; ^aH de3T) caxap-L ii 



Lexicology. — the substantive. 59 

without cream. A bunch of pens; a dozen of cups, of plates 
Sest QAmmf. IlyKi. nepo; AioHCHna qauiKa, xapejKa 

and of glasses; five scores of trouts; half a score of melons; 
H CTaKaHT>; coTHfl *opejL/; ^ecHTOKt Abina; 

a quantity of geese, of ducks and of swans; herds of cattle; 
MHOHcecTBO rycL m, yma h je6e4L m ; cxa^o ckott> ; 

studs of horses. The men of antiquity, and the husbands 
xadyHT. .i6ma4B/. MyjKi. ApeBHOCit,^ h MyjKi. 

of the wives. The flowers of the gardens and the colours 
HteHa. U.B'BT'L CaAT. H UB-BTT, 

of the rainbow. The leaves of paper and the leaves of the trees. 
paAyra. ^hctt, 6yMara h .aiicn, AepeBO. 

The teeth of the mouth and the teeth of a comb. The tribes 
Sydt BO {prep.) poTx H ayd'L y rpedeHL m. Kdino 

of the Israelites, the knees of a man, and the joints of plants, 
HapaPLiLTHHHHT., KO.i'BHO y ^e.iOBM'B, II KdMO pacTenie. 

The taking of herrings on the coasts of America has been very 
^loBT) ce.jBAi./ y deperi) AMepiiKa t^hixh o^eiib 

profitable to the English, the Swedes, the Dutch and 
Bb'iroAeHT) ii,AK{gen.) AHrjii^aHHHT), IllBeAt, Foj.jaHAeq'B h 

the French. 
4>paHqy3T>. 

Advice to friends. Glory to God. Woe to the enemies. Nominative 
CoB-BTi Apyn.. CiaBa Bon,. Tope Bpari.. ^^^ Dative. 

The general order to the troops. Obedience to the laws. Give 
npHKa3T> BOHCKO. IIOBHHOBeHie . SaKOHl. 4^11 

food to the geese, to the hens, to the pigeons and to the 
■BCTb rycE m^ Kypima, r6jy6i> m h 

little dogs. To act conformably to the laws of honour. ^ 
menoKT.. nocxynaib cooiBixcTBeHHO npa-Biuo ^eciL. 

To live according to his situation. A law given as well 
}Khtb npiuH^HO cocTOflHie. SaKOHt, AaHHtifl KaKT> 



6o RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

for the nobles as for the citizens. To be against the wishes 
ABopaHHHT., xaKT. H M-fimaHMHi. EpoTHBHTbca JKe.iaHie 

of the children, and the desire of the parents. The books, 
AHTH, H BOAR poAi'iTejb. KHiira, 

the pens and the papers belong to the scholars, and not 
nepo H lexpaAL/ npHHaAjieH(aTT> yqeHiiKX, a He 

to the masters. The fields and the meadows belong to the 
yiHTCiL. lioAe H .^yrt npHHaAJieHtaTt 

father and to the mother, and the gardens, as well as the forests 
oieqi H Maib, a ca^T,, KaKi. n A-hCb, 

to the sons and to the daughters. To be agreeable to the men 
CMHT> II AOib. HpaBiiTbca MyjKqHHa 

and to be disagreeable to the women. The verdure is agreeable 
H He HpaenTbCfl H(eHmnHa. Sejeub/ HpaBiixca 

to the eyes. The pictures please the sisters and the flowers 
r.ia3T>. KapiMHa HpaBflica cecipa, a UB-bti 

the brothers. Useful to the country; agreeable to God and 
6paTT>. no.ie3Hbi» oxeqecTBo; npiaxHUH Bort h 

to men; faithful to the sovereign; dear to friends; agreeable 
jIioah; BipHbifi rocy4apb; .irodesHbiH Apyrt; umhm 

to children. Man is known by his face, by his voice, by 
AHxa. He.iOB'BK'b ySHaexcfl no jiHue, no t6aoct>, no 

his figure, by his walk and by the motions of his body. Tourists 
pocxT), no noxoAKa n no x^J04BnH{eHie. TypHcxT> 

travel in Switzerland, in France, in Italy, in Germany, 

nyxemecxByH)XT> no UlBefmapia, 4>paHi|ia, Hxajiia, FepiviaHia, 

in America and in Egypt. 
AMepuKa a Eninexi. 

Nominative The brothers have bought houses, gardens, a village and 

and ^ 

Accusative. BpaXT, KyniUII AOMT,, caAT,, AepcBHa H 

fields, and have sold oxen, cows, horses and a carriage. 
n6.ie, a npoAa^in 6biK'b, Koposa, .louiaAb/, h Kapexa. 



Lexicology, — the substantive. 6i 

To read a fable, draw a picture, write letters, play an air, 
^HTETi. 6acHfl, pHCOBaiB KapTHHa, uHcaTB nacLMo, nrpaxL niCHa, 

mend pens. To visit the brothers and the sisters, the mothers 
qHHHTB nepo. Doc'BmaTi. Spait n cecipa, Maxb 

and the daughters, the fathers and the sons. To buy a hat 
H 40%, oieut H cbiHt. KynHTL mjana 

and a cap, gloves and shoes, stockings and garters. 
II iiianKa, nep^iaraa a SauiMaK-L, ^y^OKt h noABaSKa. 

The conqueror has vanquished the troops and has subjected 
3aBoeBaTe.ib no6'B4H.n> boucko, h noKopiwi. 

the people. Peter defeated the Swedes, conquered Esthonia 
napoAT.. riexp-b pa36ioT> IIlBeAi), 3aBoeBa.«i> 3cTjflHAia 

and Livonia, founded the city of Saint-Petersburg, and civilised 
II .lH$jHHAia, ocHOBa.n> ropoAt CaHKineiepdyprt, h npocBiiui. 

Russia. The Russians have conquered the Tartars, the Turks, 
Poccifl. PocciaHHH'fc no6'B5KAa.M TaiapuH'B, TypoK'L, 

the Swedes, the French and the Persian. The rains refresh 
lllBeAT>, 4>paHiiy3'L h nepciaHHHi>. ]\oy^Ah m oCB'BHtaioT'B 

the earth, and the frosts destroy the grass-hoppers. 
seMJH, H xojEOA'fcHCTped.iHioT'L capaH^a(j/«^.). 

Children, be attentive! John, come here! Soldiers, Vocative. 
4hth, 6yAi>Te npHwiencHw! HBani, npiiiAii ciOAa! Bohh'b, 

fight valliantly! God, preserve the Emperor! Lord, 

cpaacaflTecb xpa6po! Bon*, cnacii {ace.) I^api.! FocnoAB, 

have mercy upon me! 
noMH^yii Mena ! 

The scholars write with a slate-pencil or | with a pen and Nominative 
y^eHHKT. nHUiyTt rpH*e.IB m HJH nepo H ^"memaL^ 

ink. John plays with Alexis and with Basil, and Mary 

qepHiua//. HBani. HrpaexTi cb AjeKCBH h ct. BacH.iiH, a MapBa 

plays with Sophia and with Amy. A tart with almonds; 
iirpaexX) cb C6*Bfl h cb ;Ik)66bb. IlHpor'B ct> MHHAa^iB m; 



62 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

pots with flowers; a basin of water; a man of wit and 
rOpUIOKt CT) UB-BTl; Ka4Ka CT> BOAa; qe^OBiKt Cl> yMT> H 

of genius; a gallery of pictures. Towns with a fortress and 
CT, reniH; ra^aepea ct> KapiHHa. FopoAT, ct> KpeMJb m w 

a port;/ trees with leaves, flowers and fruits; shakos with 
raeaHL/; Aepeeo ci. .«iictt>, i^b-btt, h n^iOA^; KHBepi ci 

plumes; a room with doors; bread with salt; water with 

cy.iTaHt; KOMHaia ct, 4Bepb/; x.i'bSi. ct> cojl/; BO^a ct> 

* 
wine; wine with water; professors with pupils; a letter with 
BHHO; BHHO CT> BO^a; npO*eCCOpT, CT, y^eHHKT,; IIHCLMO CT, 

money. To draw with a pencil, to paint with a brush and 
ACHbrH/. PHCOBaxfc KapaH4ainT,, nHcaib khctb/ h 

colours. The shop-keeper trades in tallow , in soap , in milk, 
KpacKa. KyneqT, lopryexT, ca.io, Mtuo, MdOKo, 

in flour, in groats, in wines, in beer, in cloth, in linen and 
MyKa, Kpyna, bhho, miBO, cyKHO, ndoxHO h 

in laces, and the neighbours of the shop-keeper trade in oxen, 
KpyateBO, a cocba'b Kynei^T, Topryion, bo.jt,, 

in sheep and in horses. Palaces with towers; churches with 
6apaHT> H .^oinaAT,/. 4Bopem> ct, 6afflHa; i^epKOBi,/ ct 

steeples; houses with windows; buildings with galleries, 
KO.iOK6jbHa; aomt, ct, okho; 34aHie ot, ra^iepea; 

regiments with colours. The mountains abound in gold, 
no.iKT, ex 3HaMa. Topa HSoSiijyioTT, 36.1010, 

in silver, in copper, in iron, in quick-silver and in lead, 
cepedpo, m-bab/, Hte.i'B3o, piyib/ h cBHneuT,. 

Nominative The fables of the bull and the ram, of the ass and the 
^"sitiona^° BacHH 6biKT, H 6apaHT,, o6t, OCejT, H 

nightingale; of the cicada and the ant; of the oak and 
cojobbh; Ky3He^HKT, H MypaBefl; o Ay6T, ii 

the reed; of the fox and the crow; of the wolf and the lamb. 
TpOCTHHKT,; JHCHqa H BOpOHT,; BOJKT, H flrneHOKT,. 



Lexicology. — the substantive. 63 

The tales of the guardian-angel, of John and Mary; the 
CnaaKa o6i> anreji-xpaHHTe^t, odT> HBaHi> h Mapba; 

histories of Sergius the hermit; of the hero and the genius. 
noBi&CTb Ceprifl nycTMHHHK'L; repofl h renifl. 

To speak of games, of lessons, of the time, of the place, of 
FoBopHTB o6t> iirpa, ofit ypoKi), epeMa, MicTO, 061. 

circumstances. In the work there is said a great deal about 
oScTOflTejBCTBO. BT) co^HHeme roeopaxT) MHoro 

honour and infamy, about virtue and vice, about courage 
^ecTt H 6e3^ecTie, AoSpOAiie^iL 11 nopoKt, xpadpocTt 

and pusillanimity. In the water live the fishes, the frogs and 
H Ma.iOAyiiiie. B-l BOAa HtHByT-L pbi6a, JiaryuiKa h 

the moUusca; and in the forests live the lions, the bears, 
CJH3eHt m-, H BT) J-BCl) H(HByTT> jeBl,, MGAB'B/IB m, 

the foxes and the hares. 
wiHCi'ma H saeii'i.. 

The books of the scholar please the master. The light The difFe- 
_, , , / . , , ^ rsnt cases. 

KHHra yqeHHKT. npaBaica {dat.) yqHiejL. Cb-btt. 

of the sun illumines the earth with its rays. The colours of 
cojHue osapaeTT) 3eM.ia jy^i,. I^b^tt, 

the rose are agreeable to the eyes. The friends of humanity 
poaa {cymb) npiaiHM rjias'L. /^pyn> ^ejOBiqiecTBO 

do good to men. In the garden flourish roses with 

AijaH)TT> Ao6p6 .jfOAH. Bt, {prep.) ca^t i^B-Biyit pdaa cl {prep.) 

thorns; for there is no rose without thorns. The children 
mHm>; h6o VL%Th{gen.) posa des^C/^j/n) mHni>. j\^ik 

wash themselves with the water of the river. A glass of 

yMMBaioTca BO^a p-BKa. CTaKaHT> ct> {instr.) 

water is on the table of the room. Tears of joy glisten 
BOAa CTOHTi. Ha {prep.) cTO.n> KOMHaia. Cjeaa paAOCxb 6.jecTaTT> 

in the eyes of the mother. The glory of the wicked is 
BT. {prep.) rja3T> Maxb. Ciasa s.iOA'Bfi {ecmb) 



64 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

without stability; but the names of the beneficent shine 
HenpoAOJHCHTe.iBHa; ho hmh 6jaro4'BTeji> ciHioxt 

in eternity. Happiness on earth consists in 

BTiiprep.) Bi^HOCTL. Cqaciie ndiiprep.) seMjfl coctohtt. bt. (prep.) 

tranquiUity of mind and in purity of conscience. Young people 
cnoKOMCTBie 4yxT> h bt. qHCioia coBtCTt/. lOHoma 

love the song of the nightingale, on the bank of a river, 

m6a.Tb ninie cojoBeft, iiai(/>rep.) 6epen> pyieft, 

by light of the moon. To tell the truth is the duty 

npii {prep.) cB-fiTi .lyna. FoBOpHTb npas^a ecit aoavt* 

of children. To love God with heart and soul. The ants and 
AHTfl. Ato6uTh Bon> cepAue ii Ayma. MypaBeil ii 

the beavers may serve as a pattern to man. An excursion 
6o6p'i> MoryiT. c.iyacHTL(/«j/r.)npiiM'Bp'B ^ejOB-BKi.. lIoiSAKa 

to Moscow and to Kiew. The entrance of the room 

BTiiacc.) MocKBa h bt. KieBT>. Bxoat. BT.(^<r.r.) 6a6A[6TeKa. 

of reading (reading-room). Give to the master the book 
4Jfl (^<?«). ^xenie. noAail y^iiiejib xexpaAL 

of verses on the occasion of the feast. One must rise 

CO {insir.) cxflxi Ha {ace.) cjyqaft npaSAHHKT.. HaAodno BCxaBaxb 

in the morning, work in the day, rest in the evening, and 
(mj/r.) yxpo, pa66xaxB achb m, oxAfcixaxL Be^epx., h 

sleep at night. The roar of canons and the sound of bells 
cnaxt HO^t/. FpoMi nymKa h sboht. kojokoj-l 

announced to the citizens the arrival of the conqueror 

BOSB-BcxiuH FpajKAaHHHi. {p-ep.) iipH^bixie nod'BAHTe.ib 

of the enemies of the country. 
Bpan. oxe^ecxBO. 



Lexicology, — the adjective. 65 



THE ADJECTIVE. 

32. — The adjectives (npiiJiaraTeJiBHLifl HMena) j,P;j'g^'°2. 
in the Russian language are of three kinds: i) The jectives. 
qualifying (KaqeciBeHHtia) adjectives, as: uepHUil 
KaoTaHi), a black coat; muxoe jirtA, a quiet child; 
eecejian hihshl, a joyous life. 2) The possessive 
(npHTfl^axeiiLHLm) adjectives, as : omuees chiwh, the 
father's son; AUChR niKypa, a fox skin; sojiomoe 

KOJime, a gold ring; AwmHiu ca/tT., the summer 
garden, 3) The numeral (HHcMTeJii.HBifl) adjectives, 
as: dea ciojia, two tables; emopoil micsiwb, the 
second month. 

To the adjectives belong also the possessive, demonstrative, 
interrogative and other pronouns, as also the 'participles, which 
are at times used as simple adjectives. The Numeral adjectives, 
which in Russian have their peculiar inflections, will be treated 
of in a separate article. 

33. — The qualifying adjectives, or such as ex- Qualifying 
press the quality of an object, end in uil and iii, 

or, with the accent, in 6u (neut. oe and ee, fern, an 
and im)\ e. g. 466pLiH, good; jierKifi, light; chhIh, 
blue; cyxoii, dry; 6oJii>m6H, great. 

34. — The possessive adjectives, most of which Possessive 

. adjecuves. 

are peculiar to the Russian language, are divided 
into individual, common, material and circumstantial. 
I. The individual or special (jiHHHBiii, ^acTHBia), 
possessive adjectives, which mark the relation of 
an object to an individual, or in other words to 
an animate or personified being, end in oez, 663, 
UH5 and ubiHS (neut. 0, fern, a), or in & (neut. 6, 
fern, h) , and are formed from the names of the 
objects in question by changing 3 and into 063 

5 



66 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

(or into 665 after the lingual or a hissing consonant) ; 
u and b into eed; a, h and 6 into im5, and na into 
if6l«a; remembering however that in this formation 
the adjective follows the genitive inflection of the 
substantive; e. g. CbiHOBt, ^ke son's; MapKOB'L, 
Mark's; JlhBOBii, Leon's; XpiiCTOB'L, C/irzsfs;CTipai' 
aceB'L, ^ke guardiaris; omeBt, the father's; Ah- 
jipeeBX, Andrew's; uapeBT), the king's; Hhkhthh'L, 
Nicetas's; AtoiHi., the uncle's; CBeKpoBiiH'L; mother- 
in-law's; MaiepuH'L, the mother's; JiliBMii.BiH'L ^ the 
girl's (from cum, MdpKOy Aee3, gen. .IbBa, Xpucm6c5, 
gen. Xpiicia, cmpaoico, omeud, gen. OTn,a, Audpeii, 
aapb, Humma, dAdR, ceeupoeb, j\iamb, gen. Maiepii, 
dibeuna). The termination b is only found in the 
adjective rocn6;teHL, the Lord's (from Focnodb), and 
in some few others in the ecclesiastical Slavonian, 

To the above rule the following are exceptions: H'KOBjeBT., 
James's; dpaXHHHl), the brother's; MyHtHHH'L, the husband's; and 
also Bomfi, God's, formed from B'ko65, dpams, Myj/cn and 
Eozz. — We have still to remark that it is from these individual 
possessive adjectives that the patronymics, of which we have 
already spoken (§ 2i), are formed; e. g. HBaiiOBiiq'B and HBa- 
HOBHa, JohrCs son and daughter; IlaB^iOBHqTj and DaBJOBHa, PauPs 
son and daughter; H'KOBjieBiiqT, and H'KOB.ieBHa, James's son and 
daughter; Hhkhtiiii. and HHKiiTli'iHa , Nicetas's son and daughter. 

2. The common or generic (oomia, po;^OBbIfl) 
possessive adjectives, which mark the relation of an 
object to all the individuals of the same species, 
have one principal termination, viz. ill, oeiu or eeiii 
(neut. be, fem. bn), and some particular terminations; 
these are: CKiu, mm, umiu, oebiil, mit (neut. oe and 
ee, fem. a/i and mh), and are formed from the names 
of animate, inanimate and abstract objects: e. g. 
pbi6iH, of a fish; Me/tBijEiii, of a bear; nTHHiii, of 



Lexicology. — the adjective. d'^ 

a bird] KJionoBm, of a bug; KOHeBifi, of a horse; 
ckotckIh, of cattle; rycHHLiH, of a goose ; ;tOM6BHH, 
domestic; napoBoii, of steam; p-feqHOH, fluvial; 
/tymeBHHH, of the soul; HtH3HeHHHH, vital; clihobhIh^ 
filial (from ^hi6a, Medemdb, nmuua, KAom, Koub, 
CKoms, zycb, doMd, napd, pi^Kd, dymd, oicusm, chim). 

To the individual and common possessive adjectives belong 
also several Russian family names; e. g. ^MHTpieBT), IlymKHHl., 
SaBaAOBCKiil, as also several names of towns and villages; e. g. 
KamHHT>, BopOAHHO, CMOjeHCKl., &c. 

3. The material (BeiiiiecTBeHHBifl) possessive ad- 
jectives, which indicate the material of which a 
thing is made, are formed from the names of ma- 
terial objects by means of the terminations hm 
mill, MHbiu, RHHUu (neut. oe, fem. an), as: aojioxofi, 
of gold; ateJiiB3HBiH, of iron; cepe6pflH&iH, of silver; 
AepeBflHHfciii, of wood (from soAomo, oicejirhso, 
cepe6p6, depeeo). 

4. The circumstantial (o5cTOflTe.aLCTBeHHLifl) pos- 
sessive adjectives are formed from nouns and adverbs 
signifying time and place, by means of the termi- 
nations niH (neut. e^/fem. rr), and in the names 
of months, by the termination cum (neut. oe, fem. 
aR)\ as: JiiTHiH, of summ,er; HbiH'feniHiH, actual; 
TaMommH, of this place; MapTOBCKiii, of March; 
irojiLCKifi, of July (from Ammo, mmrb, mams, Mapms, 
mAb). 

35. — The properties of the adjectives in RussianPropenies of 
are: the gender (po^'L), the number (hhcjio), the 
case (naAeai-L), the apocope of the termination (yct- 
^enie OKOHHania), and the degrees of signification 
or degrees of the qualities (cieneHH KaqecxB^), and 



68 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

these properties are all marked by particular in- 
flections. 

Simber' 3^' — "^^ ^^ adjective must agree in gender, 

case, number and case with the substantive which it 

qualifies, it has three terminations to indicate the 

difference oi ge7tder, two for the different numbers 

and seven for the cases, 

^oTthr 37- — ^^ ^^ adjectives are used for two differ- 
termination. gnt purposes, firstly simply to qualify the noun to 
which they belong, as: do^pbid hgjiob'BK'l, a good 
man; Hoean niJiana, a new hat; and secondly to 
form the attribute of the proposition, as: neJOBiKt 
(ecmb) do6ps, the man is good; uijiana 6HJia uoed, 
the hat was 7iew; they have in Russian two differ- 
ent terminations, the ont full (noJHoe), the other 
apocopated (ycfeneHHoe). These two terminations 
are as follows: 

SINGULAR. 



Masculine. Neuter. Feminine. 



Full term: WH (ofl), ifi; 06, 66; an, flfl; 

Apoc.term: -l, l; 0, 6; a, a; 

_ , /HOBMH, CHHiil; HOBoe, CHHee; Hoeaa, cimaa; 
Examples : < , ' ' , ' 

I HOBT., chhl; hobo, CHHe; HOBa, CHHa; 



PLURAL. 



Masculine. Neut. and Fern. 



Examples : 



Full term: we, i6; Bia, ia. 
Apoc.term: bi, h; fcl, H. 

HOBWe, CHHi6; HOBLia, CHHla. 

HOBM, CHHH; HOBfcl, CHHH. 

These two examples HOBblfl, new^ and CHhIh, blue, show that 
the apocopated is formed from the full termination, by changing 
Mi3t and m, (or oU with the accent) into a and 6, according to 



Lexicology. — the adjective. 69 

the nature of the preceding consonant, for the masculine, and < 

by cutting of the final vowel in the other inflections. In this 
formation, the vowel e or is inserted between two consonants 
in the masculine, in order to facilitate the pronunciation, and 
the semi-vowels 6 and U are changed into e, observing that the 
tonic accent, which remains on the same syllable in the in- 
flections of the full termination, is often transposed in the apo- 
copated termination, sometimes to the inserted vowel of the 
masculine, sometimes to the first syllable, at other times to the 
inflection of the feminine, and occasionally to that of the neuter 
and the plural; e. g, 

fitJblS, white, apoc. term. Ot^l., j6, Ak. BtpHblH, true, apoc. B-BpeHt, pno, pHa. 
340p6Bi>m, wholesome, 3flop6B'b, 6bO| Tfl^KKiB, heavy, THHceKt, >kko, ^Ka. 

6Ba. HCTHHHblfi, veritable, HCTHHeHt, HHHO, 

flopordfi, dear, 46por'ii, oro, ora. BHHa. 

Be4HKiH, great, BeJHK'b, hko, hkS,. 4p6bh1h, ancient, ApeBCHb, BHe, BHa. 

AiOJKiH, stout, 4M)h;'i,, 3k6, JKa. n64HMH, full, ndJOHt, jho, ^Ha. 

xop6nilB, good, xop6nnb, oiu6, onia. 3j6h, evil, soj-b, 3-10, 34a. 

;khb6h, live, JKHB-b) HBO, HBa. KptHKifi, Strong, KpinOKT., hko, nKa. 

cyx6B, dry, cyxx, cyxo, cyxa. jerKlfi, light, JierdRt, rK6, rna. 

BUc6KiH, high, Bhic6Kt, ok6, OKa. r6pbKiH, bitter, r6peKt, pbKO, pbKa. 

fiwcTpbiH, rapid, fiMCipi., ipo, Tpa. ch-ibhuB, vigorous, CH.ieHT>,JbHO, -ibHa. 

TBep4biH, firm, TBepA'Bj epAO, p4a. cnoK6fiHhiH, quiet, cnoK6eH'b,6fiHO,OHHa. 

The following are exceptions to this rule : ^octouhmm, worthy; 
6jiaHeeHHLm, happy; HaAMeHHLlfl, proud, and COBepmeHHbiil, perfect^ 
which form : AOCTOHHi), ouHO, oima; 6jaHieHT>, Ha4MeHi>, coBepmeHi., 
CHHO, enna. 

The quaUfying adjectives have both terminations, except pa^T., 
joyous, and ropa34T>, except, which have only the apocopated, 
while 60JLm6fl, great, and MeHfcUlofl, little, have only the full 
termination. The individual possessive adjectives have only the 
apocopated termination, while the material and circumstantial 
possessive adjectives have only the full termination. The same 
is the case with several common possessive adjectives, with the 
exception of such as end in iU^ which in the singular have the 
full, and in the plural the apocopated termination. 

38. — The qualifying adjectives have five degrees P^^^^^°^ 
of signification, viz. the positive, the comparative, 
the superlative, the diminutive and the augmentative. 



70 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

1. The positive (nojioHCHTejiBHaa cieneHt) is in- 
dicated by the ordinary terminations, full and apo- 
copated; e. g. 6ij!HH and ^%m>, white-, cyxoii and 
cyx-L, dry; CHHm and chhb, blue. 

2. The comparative (cpaBHMTe/iLHafl cienenL) is 
marked in the full termination by the inflections Jbiimiu, 
aiimiUj mill (neut. ee, fem. «/?), and in the apocop- 
ated termination by the invariabk inflections me 
and Bj and is formed in three different ways: 

i) By changing the termination of the positive, 
preceded by any consonant except a guttural, into 
Tbumiu for the full, and into me for the apocopated 
termination; e. g. 

fii.ibifi, white, com/, O-BjiBnilS and 6tAie, whiter. 
c-ia6MH, weak, . . . c-iafiifinilfi and c^afite, weaker. 
«hb6h, live, .... iKHBifimia and ;KHB-Be, more live. 
n6JHHH, full, .... no-iH-BfinilB and no^H-fie, more full. 

From this rule are excepted the following ad- 
jectives, which though they have the full termina- 
tion mumiiij have the apocopated in e, changing at 
the same time the mutable consonant. 

(JoraTMu, rich., comji. full term. 6oTeLThamiu, a/oc. term. 6oraqe. 

AemeBMH, cheap, Aeiu^B-bBniifi, flem^BJe. 

rycT6B, thick, rycTtBuiiB, ryme. 

KpacHuB, handsome, KpacH-BBmlB, 'Kparae. 

(No KpaCHwB, red, forms regularly: RpacH-fie.) 

KpyT6B, steep, KpyTiumiB, Kpyqe. 

n63AHlB, tardy, no3AH'BBiuiB, n63;Ke. 

npocT6B, simple, npocTifimlB, ..... np6me (and npociie.) 

TBep4wB, firm, TBep4'BfiiiilB, iB^pjKe. 

ToJCTMH, thick, TO-iCT-BBniiH, T6Jiva.e. 

qaCTWH, frequent, lacT-fiBmiB, fia.m.e. 

iHCTMH, pure. . qHCT-BfiralB, ' name. 

The adjectives ropaiiil, burning; jLiCblil, laid; Cii3LlH, dove- 
coloured; CBiHtifl, fi-esh; and others in Jftiw, c6itT, a/cm, ¥m, M^m, 
have only the apocopated termination me I ropa^'Be, .aMCie, 
€H3ie, CB^BHCBe. 



Lexicology. — the adjective. 71 

2) By changing the termination of the positive, 
preceded by one of the gutturals (r, k, x), into 
aumiii for the full, and into e for the apocopated 
termination, permuting the consonant at the same 
time; e. g. 

CTp6riif, strict, compar. CTpoJKafiiuifi and CTp6)Ke, stricter. 
Kp-BnKlS, strong, . . . KptniduiiiiH and Kptnge, stronger. 
BeixlH, old, BeTniaHiuiii and B6Tiue, older.- 

Exceptions. — Most of the adjectives in liii, Kiii, 
xiUy have not the full termination of the compara- 
tive; and also the following adjectives form their 
comparatives in different ways: 

46.1 ria, long, comp. full term. /to^^JKaHiuiH, apoc. term. 46.«bnie. 

Aopor6ii, dear, 4paavauniiH, /!lop6ave. 

4a.«eKiH and 4a^bHiH, far, . . 4ajibH'BHrai3, fla^ibiue. 

(5jH3KiH, near, fi^HMCaBmitf, 6JHKe. 

My66Kirr, deep, r.iy6otiaamiS, rjy6;Ke. 

r6pbKiB, bitter, ropqafiuiiB, r6pie. 

(No r6pbKlu, bad, takes the Slav, inflection r6piulB and ropnie.) 

Kop6TKiH and KpaTKiB, short, • . KpaTqaBmiB, Kop6qe. 

p-B^Klfi, rare, P'B4qaBmiB, pUHte. 

c.^a4Kiii, sweet, ,CJa4qaBmifi, C4ame. 

T6HKiB, thin, TOHiaBmifi, T6Hbuie. 

TajKKiB, heavy, TflriaaniiB, larqe, 

mHp6Ki3, broad, lUHpoiafiniiB, lUHpe. 

ra4Kl3, dirty, ^ These five { ra>Ke. 

r.^a4KiB, smooth, I have not the I r.«S.»e. 

5KH4KiB, liquid, '> full term. I JKHJKe. 

ysKlB, narrow, of the com- yJKe. 

CJ&fiKiB, slack, ) parative. I CJa6Hce. 

3) The inflection miu for the comparative is only 
found in the following adjectives, three of which 
take their comparative from another root: 

bhc6k1h, high; comp. ftdlterm, BbicniiB, apoc. term. Bbirae. 

MOJ046H, young; Mjia/iniiB, M0J[6JKe. 

HH3Ki3, low; HHsniiB, HH^Ke. 

CTapuH, old; CTapuiiB and CTap-tfimlB, CTapnie and CTapte, 

xy46H, bad; , . xy4niiB, xya^e. 

BeJHKlfi (and 6ojbra6H), great; 664buiifi, 66^bme, 

Ma^HH (and MeHbni6H), little; . M^Hbrnifi, MeHbnie. 

xop6iuiB, good ; jyqniiB, ^yqrae. 



72 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

1. Care must be taken not to confound the comparative of 
the adjectives ji,6Abme , longer; TOHbUie, finer; ^ajtuie, more 
distanty 6djbiiie, greater, MCHbUie, less, with that of the adverbs 
AOJ'Be, longer; TOH-Be, finer; ^aj-fie, further; Cd.l'Be, more; MeHte, 
less. But this difference exists only in the above five words, 
the comparative of the adverbs being in every other instance 
similar to that of the adjectives in the apocopated termination. 

2. The apocopated termination of the comparative sometimes 
takes the preposition no, which softens and diminishes the 
force; e. g. no6'B.l'Be, a little whiter; nOTOHLlue, a little finer; 
no.jy^ilie, a little better. 

3. Such adjectives as want one of the terminations of the 
comparative, supply its place with the adverb donate before the 
positive; e. g.doj'Be ySKifl, narrower; dox^Q aCH^Kiil, more liquid; 
66.i'£e pa4T>, more joyous; 66.1^6 ropa34T>, more expert. 

3. The superlative (npeBocxo^naa cieneHL) in 
Russian is not marked by any particular inflection, 
except in the four following adjectives: 

BeJHKlH, great; compar. 66JlbiulH; superL BeJHiaHUilg, greatest. 

Buc6KiH, high; BbicmlB; , . . . BhicoqaHniiH, highest. 

Ma JUB, little; M^HbmiH; . . . . Ma^-Bumiu, least. 

hh3k1h, low ; Husniiu ; . . . . HHHtafimiH, lowest. 

In all the other adjectives, in the full termination, 
the superlative is expressed by that of the compara- 
tive, the words hsT) BCfixi), of all, being understood, 
or the particle nan being placed before it, or also 
by that of the positive, placing before it the words 
caMHH {fi. caMoe, /. caMaa), as: jzerHaHiniii {usd 
ecrbxs), HaHJierqaHuim or caMBiH JzendH, t/ie lightest-, 
jiyHmiH (W33 ecjbxs), Haiiiiy^iniH , or caMtiM jry^miii 
(improperly, for caMHH xopomiM), tke best. In the 
apocopated termination the superlative is the same 
as the comparative, adding the word ecmx^ or eceio, 
e. g. BC'fex'L JierHe, the lightest; BCtxi. Jiy^ine, the 
best] Bcero BaJKHie, the most important; Bcero 
Tpy^tHie, the most difficult. 



Lexicology. — the adjective. 73 

4. The diminutive degree (yMeHLinHxeJiBHafl cxe- 
neHL) is used to mark the diminution of quality, 
indicating either a want or smallness of any quality 
in an object, or a softening of the force of the 
quality, and also for the agreement of the adjective 
with the diminutive noun; e. g. 6ibJioedxm)\ii ^ep- 
HHJia, whitish ink; pbio/ceubKa/i Jiomdbjijasi , a little 
bay horse; MdjieuhKan ^iBOHKa, a little young girl. 
The diminutive adjective in the former case ends, 
in the full termination, in oedmbiu or eedmbiu (neut. 
oe, fem. afi), and in the apocopated in oedmd or 
eedms (neut. 0, fem. a), and in the latter case, in 
the full termination, it ends in OHbKiu and eubKiil 
(neut. oe^ fem. afi), and in the apocopated, in oneKS 
and enem (neut. muo, fem. Hbua); e. g. 

6-B4WH, white; dim. 6B40BaTMH or fiSJfOBar'b, and Ci-ieHbKifi or etJtSHeKT.. 
TgnJUH, hot; . . . TenJOBaTbifi or TenJOBaTT), and TenJeHbKifi or TenJieneKT.. 
cyx6H, dry; .... cyxOBaiua or cyxOBaTt, and cyxOHbKifi or cyxdHCKT.. 
KpaCHHH, red ; . . . KpacHOBatbifi or -HOBaib, and KpacHeHbKia or -h^hckt.. 
chhIh, blue; .... CHHeB^TUH or cHHeBaTt, and CHHeHbKifi or cHHeHCK'b. 
pbmlB, bay ; ... pbiHceBaibifi or pbiaKeBart, and puMceHbRifi or puJKfiHCK'B. 

The diminutive ending oeambiu, eeamuu, must not be con- 
founded with the similar ending of the positive, which belotigs 
to the qualifying adjectives; e. g. BHHOBaTLm, culpable; yr.lOBaTLm, 
angular; HOS^peBaTblH, porous; yrpeoaTLlfl, scaly. 

5. The augmentative degree (yBGJiHHHTeJiLHafl 
CTenent) is used in the qualifying adjectives to 
express the abundance or excess of quality, and is 
formed in the full termination by the prepositive 
particle n]^e, and in the apocopated by the endings 
exoneKd and emeneK3, or oxouend and dweueKS (neut. 
HbKO, fem. HbKa); e. g. 

6B.^biH, white ; augm. npe6'B4biH, or 6fi^exOHeK'b and 6'B.ienieHeKl, quite white. 
cyx6H, dry ; . . . . npecyx6H, or cyxoxoneKT. and cyx6meHeKT>, very dry. 
-lerKifi, light; . . . npe-ierKifi, or Jer6xOHeK^ and jerdmeHeKt, very light. 
MaJHH, little ; . . . npeMa.ibiH, or MaaexoneK'b and Ma.ienieHCK'b, very little. 



74 



RUSSIAN GRAMIMAR. 



PLURAL. 




SINGULAR. • • • : 


SHaawn^ 


p 

i 

o 

1 


'' ^ 


jT ^ 






n 
m H rr m t9 •;• 

B> s ft 5 eJ 


1 




11 

p 


1 . 
1 


1 
1 

i 




2 » S m "« 83 >"^ 
ts< 5 1 Rc rsc » a 


f 

EE 1 EEE 

sijir 

ft 


•1 


H|-I| 


> 

o 
o 

> 
o 

■ 


ffl" B » s » » 1 § 


Sc 1 -< gc g< ^ ^ :>i 


f 

ft 

V V 5 B< B< (T" 

1 




er«B<s.B<er"J;r K,- 


o 

1 


S S S S S S, fe 

8 3 fl3-}| 





^TThe 



Lexicology. — the adjective. 75 



le adjective npeKpaCHMH, beautiful^ in which the particle npe 
has an augmentative meaning, is used as a simple adjective to 
be distinguished from KpaCHLlM, red; but it is not the same case 
with npejeCTHMH, charming^ derivated from npejecTL, charm. 

39. — The Russian adjectives have three declen-^lf^^}°^^ 
sio7is ; the first for adjectives of the full tennination^ 
the second for those of the apocopated, and the 
third for those of the mixed termination, i. e. for 
such common possessive adjectives in iii (neut. he, 
fern, hn), as have some inflections of the full and 
others of the apocopated termination. Each of 
these declensions has three endings for three gen- 
ders, masculine, feminine and neuter, corresponding • 
to the three declensions of substantives, as is seen 
in the opposite table. 

In declining adjectives according to this table, attention is 
required to the following observations : 

1. The inflection ou of the nominative singular masculine, in- 
stead of 611*, or of iU preceded by a guttural or a hissing con- 
sonant, is only used when the accent is on the last syllable; 
e. g. C.l'finofl, blind; bOCKOBOH, of wax; Myxofl, deaf; qy^cofi, 

foreign; 6o.ibm6M, great (instead of CATbiiblu, eocKOmU, ZJiyxiu, 
Kyo/ciU, 6ojibmiu). 

2. The inflection ma, or in of the genitive singular feminine is 
Slavonian, and is only used in poetry, or in religious prose; 
e. g. KpoTOCTL ceEmblH JKH3HH, the sweetness of a holy life; 
CoSopt KaadHCKia Eooicia Maiepii, the Cathedral of Our-Lady 
of Casan, 

3. The inflection ow, eu or heii of the instrumental singular 
feminine is a contraction of OW, eio or bew in use in famihar 
language. 

4. The inflection /», of the prepositional singular masculine and 
neuter of the II declension, is confined to the names of families 
and towns, and the inflection OM'b to the individual possessive 
adjectives, and to the qualifying adjectives in the apocopated 
termination. (See Paradigms 9, 10, 11, 12, 13.) 



76 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



PARADIGMS OF THE THREE 



H ^ 



S I N G U 



Masculine and neuter genders. 



Nomtn. and Vocative. 



Genitive. Dative. Accus. Instr. Prep. 



\i 



\n. 

{: 

{ 

{ 



m. HdB62u, new . . 

H6Boe 

nt. MflFKiu, tender 

Mancoe .... 
w. CHHiit, blue . . 

n. CHHee 

m. CBiHciw, fresh 
n. CB-fiSKee .... 

(rpa0z) ToAcrou Tojci-aro 

ffi. nopTHdw, a tailor . . nopTH-&ro 
«. HcapKde, a roast . . . »apK-iiro . 



::} 
;;} 
::} 



H6B-aro 



CHH-flrO 



cB3W-aro 



OMy . 
OMy . 
cMy . 
ejiy . 

6My . 
6My . 
6My . 



HMX . 
UMT. . 
HM-B . 



. 6m'I. 



J m. i^ap6B^, the king's 
\ «. i^ap6Bo 



■\ itap6B-a 



{w. 6'6j», white ^ ^ 

x^ . > 6tA-& . . . 

n. OtJo ) 

(KuRZh) PenHMK8 PenHHH-a , 

(zopods) KkmuHi K^iUHH-a , 

: (cejtd) Bopo4«Kd .... Bopo4HH-a 



OMt 

dJUTt 



S •£ 



HMT) 
UMT. 



/• w. rocn64eH6, the Lord's\ „ 
in. Tocn6me | rocn64H-a . . . K) 



i6. 



tn. CHH6, blue 



fm. pufiJM, of fish 
U. pbi65e 



■y pii6-bHro . . . beMy 



bHMT> . beM-b 



The following observations , relative to the tonic accent in the declension of the ad- 
jectives, are important: 

1. All the inflections of the full and of the mixed termination, i. e. in the 1st and 
Ilird declension, retain the accentuation of the nominative singular masculine. 

2. In the apocopated termination, i. e. in the Ilnd declension, the accent is often 
transferred to the last syllable, sometimes only in the nominative feminine, and at other 
times in the neuter and in the plural. The oblique cases of the apocopated termination 
either retain the accentuation of the nominative, or transfer the accent to the last syllable. 



Lexicology. — the adjective. 



77 



DECLENSIONS Of 


ADJECTIVES. 




L A R. 




PLURAL. 






Feminine gender. 




/J?/- //^^ //5r.ftf genders. 






N. and V. G.D. and P. Ace. 
H6B-aH . . . . OH . . yio . 


Insh-. 
OK) . 


Nom. and Ff?^'. G,?«. and/V. Dai. Accus. Instr. 






"•/f-"^-->..HXT. ...HM'b. 
«. /. H6B-Ha . / 






MflrK-aa . . . oB . . yio. 


OK) . 


m. MarK-ie . \ „ „„^ 

> . . HXT. . . . HM-b . HMH 

n. f. MarK-ia . / „• 






CHH-M. . . . eg . . K)H) 

cB-fciK-aa . . . eg . . yio . 

{Ffa^uHH) 

TOJCT-&H . . 6h . . yio. 


ero . 
. eK) . 
. 6h) . 


^. CHH-ie..y ^^^ ...HMT. .| HMH 

n. /. CHH-ia . . / ^ «; 
m. CBtMC-le . \ ^ „^^ iJ a „„ 

> . . HXT. . . . HM-b . -S -53 HMH 

n. f. cBl;;K-ia . / %% 
(rpd^bi) ToJCT-bie . wx-b . . . hm-b . i S ^mb 
. . . nopiH-we .... wx-b . . . umt. . -S S mmh 








. . . JKapK-Ia .... HX'b . . . HMl . O rt HMH 






K.ia40B-d/j . . 6g . . yro. 
a storehouse. 


. 6h) . 


. . . K.Ja40B-wa . . . ux-b . . . mmt. . v "o hmh 

is 






itap6B-a . . . og . . y. . 


. OK) . 


1 s 

. . . qap^B-H .... HX'b . . . HMTb . 'Z « HMH 






6%A-k . . . . 6g . . y. . 
PenHHH-& . . 6h . . y. . 


. 6H) . 
. 6K) . 


. . . 6tA-U. HX'b . . . blM-b . , ,t! HMH 

(KnasbA) PenHHH-H . ux-b . . . HM-b . "I ** hmh 










' ' * ■ ■ 1 1 * ' * 






MypuH-a . . og . . y . . 
rocn6AH-a. . eg . . h) . 


. OH) . 


^ <^ • • • 






. OH) . 


U V ' ' ' 

1 . . . rocn64H-H . . . HX'b . . . HM'b . tlv^ HMH 






CHH-a 6g . . 10 . 


. 6h) . 


V 

. . . CHH-H HX'b . . . HM'b . ^ HMH 






pH6-ba .... beg . bH) . 


. bero 


. . . pu6-bH bHX'b . . bHM'b . bHMH 





The acatsairve masculine, singular and plural, of the adjectives is like the nominative, 
when the noun, which they qualify, destignates an inanimate or abstract object, as is 
also the case with the substantives; and it is like the genitive, when the noun designates 
an animate being, even when the accusative of the noun in question may not happen 
to be the same as the genitive, as is the case with the masculine substantives of the 
Ilird declension; ex. mh AVdtwsn eibpnazo CAyzf, we love the /aithful servant i MU 
.aiofiHM'b ertpHbixi CAyzi, ive love the faithful servants. 



yS RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

5. The apocopated termination of the adjectives is often used 
instead of the full in poetry, for the sake of the rhythm; e. g. 
nymucnibl Hneii (instead oi nymucmbie), thick hoarfrost; 66icmpbl 
B64H (instead of 6bicmpbl/l), rapid waters; dd^py MOJO^l^y (instead 
of dodpOMf), to the good young man; cbipjr SmMO (instead of 
Cbipjrfo), the tnoist earth. 

6. The inflection ie, in, iMZO, &c. of the common possessive 
adjectives is used in an elevated style, and be, bH, bmo, &c. 
in familiar language. 

7. As the vocative of the adjectives is always the same as the 
nominative, it has been omitted in the table of the declensions. 

of Thl'T! 4°' "~" ^^*h ^"^ attention to the above remarks 

'^idjeSrves'*/^^^ the adjectives of the Russian language can be 

declined according to the 1 7 paradigms. (See p. ^6 sq,) 

First According to the 1st paradigm (hobmm) are declined: i) the 

declension. ,.. . ,. . . \^ °, ,. . 

qualifymg adjectives m biw, 2) the common possessive adjectives 

in oebiu, eeblii, Hblii, UHblU; 3) all the material possessive ad- 
jectives; 4) the diminutive adjectives in oeambiu and eeambiu; 
remarking that the termination bill when accented is changed 
into oti. Such are: 

i) 466pbiH, good, «. 466poe,/. 466paa. 4opo5KHbiB , of road, 4op6atHoe, 

CHjiUHbH, vigorous, CH./n>Hoe, CHJb- 4op6JKUa/r.. 

Haa., Hqcob6h, of thenose, H0C0B6e, ho- 

CiapbiH, old, CTdpoe,. c.Tdpaa. cob&a. 

^epHbiB, black, qepnoe, ^lepnafl. 3) 3ojot6S, of gold, 30JroT6e, soAorkH. 

KpdcHuB, red, Kp&CHoe, Kp^CHaH. JKe^BSHMH, of iron, ate^BSHoe, 

B-BJUH, white, 6tAoe, 6hAa.li. JKeA-ksnaa. 

y'MHUH, wise, yMHoe, yMHaa. M&CJHHbig, of oil, M^dHHoe, mk- 

rpyfibiH, coarse, rpy6oe, rpyj6aa. c^aHaa. 

II6JHMH, full, udAHoe, n6JHaa. K6MiaHbiH, of leather, K6acaHoe, 

H-fiJKHUH, tender, HijKHoe,H'6MfHaa. Ko^Kanaa. 

CA-bn6u, blind, cA-bn6e, cAtn&n. 4epeBaHHbiH, of wood, aepeBaHHoe, 

IIpocT6H, simple, npocT6e, npocida. -BaHHaa. 

Xy46H, bad, xy^fie, xy^ka. 4) BtAOBkTuu, whitish, fiUJOB&Toe, 

HtMdH, dumb, H-liM6e, Htnka. -B^iaa. 

2) Bo6p6BbiH, of beaver, n. 6o6p6BOe, KpacHOBdTbiB, reddish, KpacHO- 

/. -6Baa. Baioe, -laa, 

E«eBbiH, of hedgehog, enteBOe, CHHeB&TuB, bluish, CHHeB&Toe,CHHe- 

ejKeBaa. B^Taa. 

nqe^iHHwB, of bee, n'le.iiiHoe, nqe- PbUKeBdiuB , ruddy, pMjKeB&Toe, 

JHHaa. -Bdiaa. 



Lexicology. — the adjective. 



79 



According to the 2nd paradigm (MarKifi) are declined: i) the 
quahfying adjectives in 2m, /au, xixi; 2) the common possessive 
adjectives in CKiu, and U,Kiu; 3) the diminutive adjectives in 
eHbKiu and oHbKiU; the termination m when accented being 
also changed into 6u. Such are: 

i) ^erKiB, light, «. JerKoe,/. .lerKaa. 

CTp6riH, strict, CTp6roe, CTp6raa. 

Kp6TKiH, kind, Kp6TKoe, Kp6TKaa. 

Be.iHKlB, great, Be-iHKoe, Be^HKaa. 

ynpyrifi, elastic, ynpyroe, ynpyraa. 

r6pbKiH, bitter, r6pbKoe, r6pbKaa. 

B6TxiH, old, B6TXoe, Bfiixaa. , 

4opor6H, dear, Aopor6c, Aopor&a. 

Cyx6u, dry, cyx6e, cyx&a. 

rjyx6H, deaf, r^yx6e, r-iyx^a. 
2) SBtpcKlfi, bestial, CBBpcKOe, -CKaa. 

HC^hckIh, feminine, »6HCK0e, }k6h- 
CKaa. 



rocn64CKlH, seigneurial, «. rocn64- 

CKoe, /. rocnoflCKaa. 
PycCKlB , Russian , pyccKoe , pyc- 

CKaa. 
HUM^itKlfi, German, H'BM^i^Koe, 

H-fiM6i^Kaa. 
./Ik)4ck6h, men's,Ji04CK6e,Ji04CK&a. 
ropo4CK6H, of a town, ropo4CK6e, 

ropo4CK^a. 
3) M^jeHbKifi, little, M&JeHbKoe, -Kaa. 
BbJeHbKifi , whitish , 6i.ieHbKoe, 

6LieHbKaa. 
.leroHbKifi, lightish, J[erOHbKoe,-Kaa. 

According to the 3rd paradigm (chhIh) are declined the ad- 
jectives; I) qualifying, 2) circumstantial possessive, and 3) some 
common possessive, in HiU (neut. ee, fem. nR)\ such are: 



i) 4p6BHiH, ancient, n. Ap^BHee, /. 

4p6BHaa. [64HiKHaa. 

BJHMCHiH , neighbour, 6jH5KHee, 
4&-ibHiH, distant, 4&j[bHee, A^-^BHaa. 
H'cKpcHHlH , sincere , HCKpeHHee, 

HCKpeHHaa. 
Hrp6HiH , light - sorrel , arp^Hee, 

Hrp6Haa. 
nop6«HiH, empty, nop6»Hee, no- 

p6/KHaa. 
n634HlH, tardy, n634Hee, n63AHaa. 
P&HHiH, early, p^HHee, p^HHaa. 
2) BqepaniHiB, yesterday's 

niHee, -niHaa. 



Sa'BiuhIB , of here, 

sAiuinaa. 
HbiHbiuHiB , actual , HbiH-BiUHee, 

-H-finiHaa. 
3hmh1B, hybernal, 3HMHee, 3HMHaa. 
Bec6HHl3, vernal, sec^HHee, -Haa. 
vI'BTHifi, estival, ^iiHee, .i-fcTHaa. 
O'ceHHiB, autumnal, 6ceHHee, 6ceH- 

Haa. 
DpfiMCHlB, precedent, np63KHee, 

-;KHaa. 
IIocJ'MHiB, last, nocJ-BAHee, -AHaa. 
Bqep&- 3) MywHlB, marital, MyjKHee , MyJK- 

Haa. 



4py«HlB, friend's, ApyJKHee, ApyJK- 

Haa. 
CbiH6BHiB, filial, cMH6BHee, cwh6e- 

Haa. 



Beq6pHiB, evening's, Bcq^pnee, Be- 

q^pHfla. 
y'lpeHHlfi, morning's, yipcHHee, 

yipeHHaa. 

According to the 4th paradigm (ceiHCifl) are declined: i) the 
quahfying adjectives in oiciu^ M,iu, miu and iu,iu, (neut. ee^ 
fem. ttR); 2) all the comparatives and superlatives in the full 
termination; observing that the ending id when accented is 
changed into 6u. Such are: 



So 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



i) 4K)}KiB, robust, «.4i6»ee,/4i63Kaa. 
ropaqlB, hot, ropaqee, ropaqaa. 
KHnaqiH, boiling, ^nnaqee, -tiaa. 
Xop6niiH, good, xop6mee, xop6niaa. 
B04bra6H, great, 6oJbiu6e, fio.ibm&a. 
IIox63KiH, resembling, nox65Kee, 

->Kaa. 
npHr6>KlH, pretty, npHr65Kee, npH- 

r6}Kaa. 



Second 
declension. 



qyiK6H, foreign, «. tiy»6e,/.qy;K&a 
O'fimiB, common, 66mee, 66ina.fi. 
Humifi, poor, Humee, HHma/i. 
2) B6.ibniiH, greater, 664bmee, 664b- 

maa. 
Aymnin, better, ^yqniee, ^ymuaa. 
M^Hbuiig, least, M^Hbmee, M^Hbinafl. 
Ht/KHifinilH, more tender, -'BHniee, 

-luaa. 



According to the 5th paradigm (Tmctoh) are declined family 
names in biu and iu, or in 6u with the accent (fern, a/l); the 
vowel bl being changed into u after a guttural. Such are: 

Cmhph6h, Smirnoi, /. CMHpH&a. 
TloAeBdu, Polaivoi, IIo^eB&fl. 
Hap-BJKHMH, Naraizhni, HaptSKHaa. 
BpaHHUKlfi, Branitzki, BpaniiUKaa. 
B66pHHCKiH, Bobrinski, B66pHHCKaa. 
^o^ropyKifi, Dolgorooki, 4oJropyKaH. 



Tpy6eEiK6H, Troobetzkoi, /. Tpy6e^- 

KkH. 

3aBa46BCKiH , Zavadovski , 3aBa46B- 

CKaa. 
5KyK6BCKlH, Zhookovski, 3KyK6BCKaa. 
Memp6cKiH, Mestcherski, Men^SpcREfl. 



Such family names as are formed from the genitive, as: 
MepTBaro, Mertvaho; HapeHaro, Parenaho; GyXHXT>, Sookhikh, 
HarHXT), Naghikh, are indeclinable. 

According to the 6th, 7th and 8th paradigm (nopXHOfi, HCapKOe, 
K^ia^OBaa) are declined some masculine neuter and feminine 
nouns, which are in fact only adjectives used as substantives, 
remembering to change into e and hi into u after a guttural 
or a hissing consonant. Such are: 



[) BwoopHwB, a deputy, 
B1>ctob6B, a messenger. 
K6pMqlB, the pilot. 
qacoB6B, a sentry. 
MacTepoB6B, an artisan. 
no4baqiB, a clerk. 
IIpox6)KiB, a passenger. 
n-tBlifi, a chanter. 



2) 5KHB6THOe, an animal. 
Mop6a?eHOe, ice-creams. 
HactKdMoe, an insect. 

3) BceJ^HHaa, the universe. 
FoCTHHaa, a drawing-room. 
H&6epe5KHaa, a quay. 
^epieacHaa, room for the drawers. 
IlepMHflH, an antechamber. 



According to the 9th paradigm (qapeBI.) are declined the in- 
dividual possessive adjectives in 063, ^(93, M«3, hlHr> (neut. o, 
fern. a). Such are: 



CHHdB'b, son's, n. chh6bo, /. cwH6Ba. 
neipdET., Peter's, neTp6B0, HeipbBa. 
OmeBT>, father's, omeBO, omeBa. 
FepdeBT., hero's, rep6eB0, rep6eBa. 
naB.aoB'B, Paul's, n&B40B0, n&B.«OBa. 



XpHCTdBT., Christ's, n. XpHCT6B0, /. 

XpHCT6Ba. 
MaiepHHT., mother's, MaiepHHO, -pHHa. 
46qepHH'b, daughter's, 46qepHH0, 46- 

qepHHa. 



Lexicology. — the adjective. 8i 

HhkhthhTi, Nicetas's, n. HHKHTHHO.y. IlapHi^wHT., the queen's, n. l^apHUUHO, 

HHKHTHHa. /. -^bIHa-. [-^bIHa. 

H^bHHT., Elias's, H4bHH6, HJbHH&. 4'fiBHi^biHi, the girl's, 4t.BH^bIH0, 

The adjective XpiiCTOBt takes in the prepositional singular 
the inflection m (instead of OJm) in the phrase: no PoJKAeCTBi 
XpucmoeRf (instead of XpucmdeoMZ), after the Birth of Christ. 

According to the loth paradigm {t%M^ are declined the 
qualifying adjectives in the apocopated termination in 2 (neut. o, 
fem. a), with the exception of those in OlC^^ J/Z, Mf3 and m^3, 
which belong to the i6th paradigm, remembering to change U 
into u after the gutturals (2 , K^ x) , and remarking that the 
tonic accent, which remains on the same syllable in all the in- 
flections of the full termination, is often transferred, in the apo- 
copated, to the last syllable, sometimes in the feminine only, 
and at other times also in the neuter and plural. Such are: 

Pa/i'b, joyous, n. pa,/l0, /. p&4a; //. Bi.ic6K'b, high, n. BbicOK6, /. bhcokS,; 

p&4bl. //. BWCOKH. 

rop434T>, expert, -40, -m\ rop&34bl. Cn^eHT), vigorous, CH4bH0, CH-IbH&; 
HoBTi, new, h6B0, HOB&: H6BbI. CH-IbHU. 

C^afit, weak, cJi&(5o, C4a6&; cj^fibi. YMeHi, wise, yMH6, yMH&; yMHbi. 

Ulb-it, entire, ni^o, \i,-^Ak\ i^tJu. Tene^T., hot, Ten46, Tenia ; Ten^u. 

BeJHKT., great, Be.fHK0,Be4HK&;Be4HKH. ./TerdKT), light, jerKd, jerK&; ^erKH. 

CyxT., dry, cyxo, cyx&; eyxH. ^ofipt, good, Ao6p6, 4o6p4; 4o6pbi. 

KplinOKT>, strong, KpBnKO, KptHKa; /Ke^T^, jellow, >Ke^T6, JKCiTd; aceJTw. 

KpinKH. B6^eHT>, sick, fio4bH6, 6o.ibH& ; Co^bHbi. 

According to the nth paradigm (PeniiiiHT.) are declined family 
names in 06S, ees, UH7> and 6r^5 (fem. a), which take in the 
prepositional singular masculine the inflexion Tb (instead oi OMZ). 
Such are: 

CyBdpOB-b, Soovorof, /. CyB6poBa. 4MHTpieBl, Dmitrief,/. ^MHxpieBa. 

KyiyaoB'b, Kootoosof, KyTyaoBa. rypbeBT>, Goorief, TypbeBa. 

.^o>ioh6cobt. , Lomonossof, yloMOHfi- BacH^bcBT., Vassilief, BacH^beBa. 

coBa. 4ep5K&BHH'b, Derzhavin, 4ep>KaBHHa. 

CiparaHOBT., Stroganof, CTp6raH0Ba. KapaMaiiH^, Karamzin, KapaM3HH&. 

Kpbi46B^, Krylof, KpbM6Ba. KHa>KHHH-b, Kniazhnin, Khajkhbh^. 

UlHiUKdBl, Shishkof, UlHUiK6Ba. IlyuiKHHi, Pooshkin, IlyiUKHHa. 

Xep&CKOB-B, Kheraskof, XepacKOBa. HoTeMKHH'b, Potiomkin, IIoTeMKHHa. 

Opi6BT., Orlof, Opj6Ba. To^HitMHl, Golitzin, ro4i5mbiHa. 

Foreign family names, such as : Ba3e40BT>, Basedow; KaHKpHHT., 
Caticrin, are declined like the substantives, and, having no 
feminine , are indeclinable when referring to females. The same 

6 



82 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

remark applies equally to Russian family names ending in eimz; 
but sometimes in feminine they take the termination eiiueea^ 
which then is declined as an adjective; e. g. y Fpa^iiHil KaH- 
KpUHti, at the Countess Cancrin; y Focnoadi MaKCUMOeUHZ or 
MaKCUMOeuKeeoiiy at Madame Maximoviich. 

According to the 12th, 13th and 14th paradigms (KaniHH'L, 
BopOAHHO, Mypima) are declined such names of towns, boroughs 
and villages, as end in the masculine in 062, eez, UHd, blHZ; 
in the neuter in oeo, eeo, UNO, blHO , and in the feminine in 
oea, eea, una, bina, which take also in the prepositional singular 
masculine and neuter the inflection Jb (instead of ojm). Such are: 

i) (idpods) BopHCOB'b, Borissof. I|apHi^HHO, Tzaritzino. 

MorHJeB'b, Mohilef. Oct^hkhho, Ostankino. 

Aj^kchht., Alexin. 3) (depeeHH) Ilapro.iOBa, Pargolova, 

Ko3.l6Bl, Kozlof. KpacK^Ba, Kraskova. 

2) (cBAd) TapyTHHO, Tarootino. .leianieBa, Letachova. 

HsM&HJOBO, Izmailovo. Ba.iyTHHa, Valootina. 

Exceptions to this rule are the names of the following towns : 
KieBl, Ji^ef; IlCKOBi, Pleskow; XaptKOB^, Charkof; Faobi, Gdof; 
POCTOBI, Rostof; OpjOBT., Orlof; as also the names of foreign 
towns, e. g. Bep.lHHT>, Berlin, which are declined like substan- 
tives, having in the instrumental singular the inflection OMZ (and 
not blMT>). The same is the case with the names of towns in 
CKZ, UfK'd and 6/ as: CMOjeHCKT., Smolensk; EOwlOi^K'B, Polotsk; 
flpoc.iaB.lb, Yaroslavle, Sec. 

In such names of towns as are formed of HOez and 6TbA0, as : 
HoBropOAT., Novgorod; B'B.IOOSepo, BteloozerOy both the adjective 
and substantive are declined: G, H0Bar6p04a, B'B.iaosepa; D. 
HoByropoAy, Bt jyoaepy ; /. HoBLiMT.-r6po40MT,, Bs.iLiM'L-osepoMT. ; 
P. HoB'BropOA'B , B^.l-Boaep^ (taking also the inflection 76 in- 
stead of OMT)). 

According to the 15th paradigm (FocnoAeHt) is declined the 
individual possessive adjective: 

B65KiH, of God, n. B6;Kie,/. B6}Kia; //. B6Mh, 
which must not be confounded with the common possessive 
adjective ddjKeCKiii, divine, relating to the attributes of God. The 
adjective BoHtift takes also the inflections of mixed termination, 
as in Bo/Kte 4epeB0, sotithern wood (a plant); BoHCbfl KOpoBKa, 
cochineal, the lady-bird; G. B6/KBflrO 4epeBa, BoHCLeft KOpOBKH, 
D. BoatbeMy Aepesy, &c. 



Lexicology. — the adjective. Z^^ 

According to the i6th paradigm (CHHb) are declined the 
qualifying adjectives in the apocopated termination ending in h 
or s (neut. e, fern. R), and also those in i?/c3, «<3, Wh^ m^b (neut. e, 
fern, a) , remembering to change H into a and ro into y after 
the hissings {m, ^, lu, m). Such are: 

4p^BeHb, ancient, «. ^p^BHC,/ ap^BHH. Cb'BJKI, fresh, n. CB'S^Ke, /. CB'BHca. 

H'cKpeHeHTi, sincere, iicKpeHHe, -chhh. PbiyKt, carroty, pbiJKe, puHC^. 

nop6;KeHTi, empty, nop6H«He,nop6}KHa. ropaqi., burning, ropaq6, ropaiia. 

4io>K^, robust, 4I03K6, 4K)a<d. Xop6iui, good, xopom6, xopom4. 

nox6a{^, semblable, nox6>Ke, noxoiKa. Tom-b, fasting, T6me, TomA. 

According to the 17th paradigm (pbi6iH) are declined the jg'^engfon 
common possessive adjectives in m, oeiU, eeiii (neut. 6e, fem. bH), 
which are formed from the specific names of animals; e. g. 

O.i^HiB, of deer, n. OA^nhe, f. OJ^Hba. DTHqiB, of bird, 11. urimbe, /. niHqba. 

Co66jiH, of sable, co66Jbe, co66Jba. IIUTyiuiH, ofcock,nfiTymbe,nliTyiuba. 

K63iH, of goat, K63be, K63ba. Bep6jK)yKiH, of camel, Bep6JK)5Kbe, 
Kop6BiH, of cow, Kop6Bbe, Kop6Bba. ->Kba. 

OB^qifi, of sheep, OBd^be, OB^qba. .lefiawciB, ofswan, Je6aMCbe,.ie6a;Kba. 

MeAB-BJKlH , of bear , Me^BijKbe, Bo46BiH, of ox, B046Bbe, BO^dBba. 

Me/tB-taiba. Koh6b1h, of horse, KOH^Bbe, KOH^Bba. 

Bap^HlH, of ram, dap^Hbe, 6ap4Hba. Mymlg, of fly, Mymbe, jiyiuba. 

roBa/Kifi, of ox, roBaJKbe, roBa^vba. Te-iaqiB, of calf, Te^aqbe, le-iaqba. 

C.iOH6BiB, of elephant, c^OHoBbe, -Bba. Kjon6BiB, of bug,KJon6Bbe, K-ionoBba. 

Gom6b1B, of silurus, coM6Bbe, coM6Bba. BdJiiB, of wolf, B6Jqbe, BdJqba. 

./iHcifi, of fox, .iHCbe, JHCba. ne.ioB-fcqifi, of man, qeJOBfcqbe, -biqba. 

The possessive adjective HeAoeihiiu is used M^hen appUed to 
man as an animal, and the adjective ueAOeihiecKiii {n. 06, /. dfl) 

to man as an intelligent being. 



EXERCISES ON THE ADJECTIVES. 

It is necessary to observe preliminarily that according to the 
rules of construction in the Russian language the adjective is 
usually placed before the substantive, when it does not form 
the attribute of the proposition; and that the verb ^0 be is 
commonly understood in the present. 

An empty pocket; the pocket is empty. A strong castle; Apocope 
nyCTOH KapMaHT.; {ecnib) . KpinKiu SaMOK-Lj termination. 

the castle is strong. A faithful servant: the servant has been 
BipHLiH cjyra; fibut 

6* 



84 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

faithful. The soft wax; the wax is soft. A quiet sleep; the 
MarKift bockt>; . CnOKOMHuft coht>; 

sleep is quiet. A worthy son; the son is worthy. A true 
. ^OCTOUHblU CBIHT.; . H'CTUHHMll 

friend; the friend is true. Perfect repose; the repose 

Apyri.; . CoBepiueHitLiil noKoii; 

will be perfect. A transparent glass; the glass is transparent. 
6y4eTT> . npoapaiHbnl ctgkao; 

An ancient tradition; the tradition was ancient. A hot summer; 
4peBHiM npeAanie; 6m.io . Ten.ibiii .liio; 

the summer will be hot. A blunt pen; the pen is blunt. 
SyACTi. . Tynofl nepo; 

An old hut; the hut is old. A blue paper; the paper is 
Bexxift xumma; . Ciniiri 6yMara; 

blue. New houses; the houses are new. Rich families; 
. HoBbiH AOMT>; {cx^nb) . BoraxbiM ceMba; 

the famihes were rich. Red ensigns; the ensigns Avill be red. 
Ob'un . KpacHbiii snaMa; 6y4yTi> 

Degrees of White paper; whiter paper; the whitest paper. The Neva 
signification. g^^^. g^^^^,^. ^^^^ 

is rapid, and the Volga is more rapid. The milk is 

(ecmb) 6bicTpbm, a Bo.ira . MoIioko 

liquid, and the water is more liquid. A deep brook; a deeper 
H{H4Kift, a BOAa . r.^y66KiH pyiefl; 

river. The houses are high, and the tOAvers are higher. 
ptKa. 40M1. [cynib) BbicoKiii, a 6auiHa 

Good tea; better tea; the best tea. The dogs are little; 
Xopomiil ^aii; . Codana Ma.abifl; 

the cats are less; but the mice are the least. The father is 
KouiKa ; HO Mbiuib/ . Oiem, 

young; the mother is younger; but the sister is the youngest. 
mojioaom; Maib/ ; ho cecipa 



Lexicology. — the adjective. 85 

The hay is dear, and the straw is dearer. Milk is sweet; 
CiHO AoporoH, a co.ioMa . Mo^oko c.ia4KiH; 

sugar is sweeter; but honey is the sweetest of all. 
caxapt ; ho mgat. 

Some whitish paper; some reddish ink; some blackish 
Blitifl dyMara; dypbifl ^epHH.ia//; ^epHLifi 

water; the colour is bluish. A httle red cow; a little pony; 
BO^a; KpacKa (ecwb) GiiHiw. Bypbift KoposKa; Ma.ii,nKioma4Ka; 

a httle piebald horse; a poor little girl; the grey-headed 
n-Bria .ioma4Ka; SiAHbift ^^BO^Ka; CTapineKii 

man is very old ; the little old woman is very good. Very white 
{ecmb) CTap&ift; ciapyuiKa AoSpwil. Bi^bifi 

paper; the paper is very white; very dry wood; the wood 
6yMara; ; cyxofl 4poBa//; 

is very dry. 

The master of the large gardens, and the mistress of the new Declension 
^ . . . „ ^ ' , „ . ,„ of the full 

AOSflUHI. OOUIIipHLIII 0341,, II X03iIHKa HOBBIH termination. 

house. A glass of good water and of red wine; whole 
40M'i>. CiaKaHt xopomifl B04a h KpacHLiu bhho; qi.iMH 

pots of pork-fat and of fir-resin. Do good 

ropmoKt CBHHoil ca.io 11 e.ioBbifl CMO.ia. ^AdX\ {ace.) 4odp6 

to poor children and to infirm old men, and do not go 
6i4HI>lil 4HTH H 4PHXJMH CiapHKl., H He X04H 

into the fields of others. This is the house of the Prince 
no {dat.) no.ie ^yacoii. Bott, {nom^ 40mt> KHa3b 

Dolgoruki, that is the palace of the Countess Tolstoi, and 
/tojropyKiil, bott, 4B0peuT> rpa$iiHfl To.ictoh, a 

there are the large gardens of the young Counts Zavadovski. 
BOTT, oSmiipHbiii ca4T> M0.W46H Tpa*!, 3aBa46BCKiu. 

I have admired the agreeable song of the nightingale of last year. 
il 4HBH.ica {dat.) npiaTHbiu ninie co.iOBeii npom.ior64HiH. 



86 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

To cut a swan's quill with a blunt penknife. There are 
^HHHTL (acc.) .ie6eAHHM« nepo lynofl mmuK-b. Bott> {nom.) 

some goose quills, some red crayons, some thick blank books, 
ryCHHbiii nepo, KpacHwii KapaH4am'L, TOACibui lexpaAb/ 

some oak-rulers, and great mathematical compasses, and here 
4y66BLiu jiiHiiiKa, ii 6ojbm6u mipKyjb fn, a boti 

are some woollen clothes, some silk stockings, some beaver hats, 
cyKOHHBifi Ka*TaHi, me.iKOBbiii qyjoKi., nyxoBuii uuana, 

fine linen, and still finer lace. ' Love good 

TOHKifl no^oTHo H TOH^aHiiiiu KpyateBO. Aio6n {acc.) HenopoqHwft 

morals; read useful books; honour old people; 
HpaBT,; m\Tin{acc.) no.ieSHbiii KHHra; ^iviiacc.) crapbiil AVdm pi; 

praise good actions; keep the honest and faithful 

XBajii(rt!r<r.) 466pbm a%ao; 6epeni (ar<r.) qecTHbiii ii BipHbift 

servant. Give the new book to the most attentive 

cjyra. Wojydi^iA {acc.) hobmii KHHra(iJ&z/.) caMbiii npH^ieacHbiii 

scholar. You praise the weather of spring, the splendour 
yqeHiiKT>. Tbi XBa.jnmb (arr.) noro^a BecenHiii, acHOCib/ 

of the summer nights, the coolness of autumn, and the colds 
j-BTHiil HOib/, npox.«a4a oceHHiii h xojoat. 

of winter. I esteem the celebrated men, and the illustrious 
siiMHifl. H yBa)KaH)(arr.) ciaBHbifi MyjKi. ii SHaMeHiixbifl 

commanders of ancient times. The great military manoeuvres of 
no.iKOB64eu^ 4peBHiH BpeMfl. Bcibiuofl ManeBpi, bt. {prep.) 

this year will take place at Kransnoe Selo, and on the 

HbiH-BuiHiii r04b 6y4y'n. ^'h{prep.) KpacHoe Ce.i6 ii Ha(/r^.) 

mountain of Douderhof. 
Fopa /^y^^^pro^CKift. 

Declension He has left the house of his father, and he does 
of the apo- r\ ■ ^ > •• ' i \ 

copatedter- OhT. Bbl-BXa.!!. Wd'h{gen.) 40M'b OTUeBT>, H 4'B.iaeTT, (a<rr.) 

mination. 

good to the daughter of his sister. He has sold the property 

4o6p6 {dat.) 4oqb/ cecxpuHT.. Oht> np64a.n. {acc) uMime 



Lexicology. — the adjective. 87 

of his wife to the son of his brother. To visit the temples of 
HteHtlHt {dat.) CMHT> 6paTHHHT>. HoCfimaTb (^<rr.) XpaM1> 

the Lord and the churches of God. To resign one's self to 
FocnoAeHi h uepKOBb/ Bomii. IIoBHHOBaTtca [dot.) 

the will of the Lord, and to acknowledge the majesty of the 
Bojia FocnoAeHt, 11 noSHaBaib (^-rc.) Be.iHqecTBO 

name of God. The first Russian Grammar was written by 
iiMa Boadil. nepBBifi PyccKiu FpaMMaTiiKa 6sua HanHcaHa(/«j/r.) 

the immortal Lomonossof, and the History of Russia by 
^eacMepTHMii jIomohocobT), h HcTopia PocciHCKiu {instr.) 

Nicholas Mikhailovitsch Karamzin. The battles against the 
HnKO.«aM MuxaiuoBHii KapaMSHHi). CpaHceme ct. {instr.) 

French were fought near Borodino and Borissof. 

4>paHuy3i> np0HCX0AH.iH noA^ {instr.) BopoAHHo h noAt BopHcoBi,. 

I have lived at Novgorod and at Bieloozero. The villages 

H mimiA-h b-l {prep.) H6BropoAT> h bt> "Bt.ioosepo. ^^pesHa 

of the Princess Saltykof are situated near the town of Kashin. 
KnarHHa Ca.iTUKOBT. .leHaxt noAT> {instr.) r6po4T> KaiUHHi. 

There is a cloak of fox-skin, a sable- cap, a bird- nest. Declension 
Ti , y 'e '.o ^/.„' ..„ , of the mixed 

B0T1> {nom.) myOa JHCIII, COOOJIU UianKa, nraqitl TH-BSAO, termination 

some hare- skins, and some elephant's teeth. A pood of deer- 
saa^ifl M^XT> 11 cjOHOsift syfii,. flyAi, ojemfi 

flesh, a yard of ox- skin, and a pound of calfs brains. Do 
MacO; apiuHHT. BdOBifi KOHca, H *yHTT. lejaqiii M03n>. He 

not go on the track of a wolf, and do not enter into the den 
XOAH no {dat.) cA-hA-h B6.idi1, H He bxoah bt> {ace.) 6ep.«6ra 

of the bear. A dissertation on the man's eye, and on the 
MeABiacifl. PaacyHCAenie {prep.) qe.iOBiqiH rja3T>, 11 

fish- head. He deals in isinglass, in ox- fat, 

pbi6iH ro.joBa. Oht> Topryexi, {instr.) ptidifl Kjefl, Sbi'iaqifl cajio, 

in goats' skins, and in cocks' combs. 
Kosifi uiKypa, h ntTymifl rpeSentw. 



QQ RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

Declension The braggart is like the jay, adorned with 

of various ^ ^ , . , , 

adjectives. ABaciyHi {ecmb) noxoHciH Ha {ace.) coa, yKpaiueHHwfl {instr.) 

peacocks' feathers. The brother of the neighbour has arrived from 
iiaB.iHHift nepd. Bpait cocbaobt, npiixa.4T> H3'i> {gen.) 

a distant town, and the sister from a more distant village. 
j\iAhm\i rop04T>, a cecipa ii3i> ^a-iBiiift AepesHa. 

John's coat is small, but that of Peter is still 

HeaHOBTj n.iaiBe {ecmb) ySKift, ho {tiAdmbe) IleTpoBt {ecmb) eme 

smaller. The good little old woman lives in a damp 

ySKia. /[fit^hivi ciapyuiKa H«iBeTT> bt. {prep.) cbipofi 

house, situated near the village Tzaritzino. I have bought a 
AOMt, jejKamift noA'b {instr.) cQAO IJiapHUbiHO. H KynH.n> {ace.) 

cloak of bear-skin vnth a collar of beaver-skin and a 
my6a MeABi/Kiu ch {instr.) BopoTHiiKt 6o6pdBBift, ii 

cap of beaver-skin with a silk- ribbon. There is a handsome 
luanKa dodposbiu ct> me.iKOBLiH .leHia. Bott,(«^w.) npeKpacHBiil 

book with a rich binding of morocco. Where shall we 

KHHra BT> {prep.) 6orarBiu nepenjeii ca^fciiHHbifl. Tji,% mli 

find an instance of purer self-denial, of more exalted 
HaHAeMt npHM-Bp-L qiicTbift caMOOTBepH^eme, BsicoKifl 

love for the native land? 

AVi66^h/ K'h{dat.) oxeqecTBO? 



THE NUMERALS. 

Division of ^i. — The numerals (^ncMiejiLHtifl HMena) are 

numerals. ^ ^ ^ 

of two kinds: i) the cardinal numerals (KOJiHHecT- 
BGHHtia), which express the number; and 2) the 
ordinal numerals (nopflAOHHHfl), which indicate order 
or rank, and are formed (with exception of nepebiu) 
from the cardinals, as is seen below. 



Lexicology. — the numerals. 89 

CARDINAL NUMERALS. ORDINAL NUMERALS. 

I. 04iiH'i., ti. OAHO, /. OAHa [si. nepBi)ifi,«.nepBoe,/.nepBaa, first. 

eduHZ, liHo, una) . . . 

.2. ABa, /. A'i'B BTopofl, 6e, aa, second. 

3. Tpii Tpeiiri, Tl>e, TBH, third. 

4. qeibipe TiexBcpTbiM, oe, aa, fourth. 

5. naiB naTBifl, oe, aa, fifth. 

6. mecTB mecTOH, oe, aa, sixth. 

7. COMB [si. cedbMb) .... coABMOH, 06, aa, seventh. 

8. BOCeMB [si. OCbMb) .... OCBMOM, 00, 3,3, eighth. 

9. 4eBaTB AeBflTBifl, oe, aa, ninth. 

10. AecaiB AecaiBifl, oe, aa, tenth. 

II. OAHHHaAiiaTB OAHHuaAuaTbiii or nepBLiii na- 

AecaiB nth. 
i2.AB'BHaAuaTB(.f/.d<?a««0ec^/»6) AB-BHaAUaTbift or Biopou na- 

ACcaiB, I 2th. 

13. TpHHaAuaxB ...... TpHHaAuaiBifi or Tpeiifi na- 

AecaxB, 13th. 

14. ^eTBipnaAuaTB TieTbipHaAuaxbifl or ^exBepxBifl 

' Ha-AOCflXb, 14th. 

15. iiaxHaAuaxb naxHaAuaxbifi or naxbifi na-AC- 

caxb, 15 th. 

16. uiecTHaAuaxB uiecxHaAuaxbiil or mecxofl na- 

AecaxB, 1 6th. 

17. ceMHaAi^axB ceMiiaAitaxbiu or coabmou Ha- 

Aocaxb, 17th. 

18. ocbMHaAuaxb or BOceMHaA- ocBMHaAi^axbiii or ocbmoh na- 
uaxB AOcaxB, i8th. 

19. AeBaxnaAqaxB AOBaxHaAiiaxbiii or AeBaxbul na- 

AOcaxB, 19th. 

20. ABaAuaxB [si. deddecHmb) . ABaAuaxbifl {si. deadecAmbiU), 

oe, aa, 20th. 

21. ABaAuaxB OAHHB ABaAUaxB nepBbifi, 21st. 

22. ABaAuaxb ABa ABaAuaxb Bxopoil, 22d. 

30. xpHAuaxb xpHAUaxbiH, oe, aa, 30th. 

40. copoK-B {si. lembipedec/imb). coT^OKOBo^sl.HenibipedecAmbiu), 

oe, aa, 40th. 
50. naxBAecaxT) naiHAecaxbifl, oe, aa, 50th. 



90 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

60. uiecTBAecflTT, uiecTH^ecflTuu, oe, aa, 60th. 

70. ceMi,4ecflTT> ceMHAec/iTbiil, oe, aa, 70th. 

80. BoceMBAecaxt ocLMiMecflTLiii, oe, aa, 80th. 

90. 4eBaH6cTO {si. dee/imb- AeBaHocism {si. dee/imudecH- 

dec/imz) nibiii) 90th. 

100. CTO COTfcifl, 06, aa, hundredth. 

200. ABicTH 4ByxT)>c6TbiH, 06, aa, 200th. 

300. ipiicTa xpexTj-coTLifl, 06, aa, 300th. 

400, qext'ipecTa ^eTbipexx-coTwil, oe, aa, 400th. 

500. naTbcoTh naTHCoTtnl, oe, aa, 500th. 

600. mecTLCOT'L luecTHCOTtiM, oe, aa, 600th. 

700. c6Mbc6TT> ceMHcdTLift, 06, aa, 700th. 

800. BOceMLCOTi ocLMHCOTbiii, 06, aa, Sooth. 

900. 4eBaTLc6TT> AeBaTHCOTbiM, 06, aa, 900th. 

1000. Tb'ica^a {si. mbicMiu,a) . Tb'icaqHbm, oe, aa, thousandth. 

2000. AB-B Tb'ica^H AByxT>-Tb'icaqHbm, oe, aa, two 

thousandth. 

10,000. /i.ecaTbTbicaqi(j/.m.^f«). AecaTHTbicaqubul, oe, aa, ten 

thousandth. 

100,000. CTO TbiCfiTb .... CTOTbicaiHbifl , 06, aa , lOO- 

thousandth. 

1,000,000. mEAAiowb .... MH^jioHHbiu, 06, aa, miUionth. 

* 2,000,000. 4Ba MHjjiioHa . . . AByxt-MHjfjiioHHbiH, 06, aa, two 

miUionth. 

1,000,000,000. Tbica^a MiLi- Tbica^eMH.aj!i6HHbiii,06,aa, 1000- 

jiOHOBT) ' miUionth. 

1,000,000,000,000. 6viAAi6m> . 6Hji.ai6HHbiH, oe, aa, biUionth. 

To the cardinal numerals belong the fractioiial 
(;tp66HLm) numerals, such as: noiiOBHHa, the half; 
TpeiL, tJie third; HeiBepiL, the fourth; ocLMyxa, 
the eighth; noiiTopa, one and a half; noJiTpeTLa, 
two and a half; noiiqeTBepTa , three a7id a half, 
&c. ; and to the ordinal numerals belong also the 
circumstantial adjectives ^pyroH, other, and nocJi-BAHiH, 
last: dpyzoii being used instead of BTopoii, second, 
and nocAihdni(i being opposed to nepBufi, first. 



Lexicology. — the numerals. 91 

From the cardinal, numerals dea, mpu^ &c. as far 
as decfimh, as also from cmo, are formed the col- 
lective (co5iipaTejiLHBifl) numerals: ^Boe, ipoe, nei- 
Bepo, naiepo, &c., ^lecHxepo, coiepo. The following 
words also belong to the collective numerals: 66a 
(/. 66%), both; ;^B6HKa, two]. ipoHKa, three; nflTOKi., 
five; /tecaxoK'L, ^^^; .ztwatHna, a dozen; cothh, a 
hundred. 

The numerals oduHZ and nepebiu are also used as qualifying 
adjectives, and in that case take some inflections peculiar to 
adjectives. OduHZ takes the augmentative termination OAHHe- 
XOHeKT> and 04HHemeHeKT) ; and nepebiu takes the diminutive 
termination nepeeHLKift, as also the inflection of the superlative 
nepB-Bfiuiifl or caMbiii nepBLnl. 

42. — As regards declension, the numerals may. Declension 
be considered as substantive and adjective. The numerals. 
substantive numerals are: copoKd^ cmo, deeRHOcmo, 
mtic/ma, MUAAidus, noAoeiiiia, mpemb /., nmnoKS, 
decAmoKS, diodicuna, &c. The gender of these, 
as also their declension, is indicated by their ter- 
mination. All the ordinal numbers, and the car- 
dinal odiim, are numerals adjective. All the other 
numerals are sometimes adjective, requiring the same 
case as the nouns to which they are joined, and 
sometimes substantive, in which occasion they re- 
quire the noun to which they belong to be put in 
the genitive case, as will be seen later. Some of 
the last mentioned have the inflections of nouns, 
while others have inflections peculiar to themselves. 
A general view of the declension of the numerals 
may be obtained from the following table. 



92 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



MOOoovjo^t/,4:. u. to« •avHv<j ^ 



5" S' !> >•■ 

a a a a °'' 

o o> o o« 

b. u u u a 

•5 5 ':<-^ 9 



^ 



^aajaawB^ 



"> S S 5 ^ 
^ s « p 






TS O 3-. O 



o o o o o 



O. »J x( 



Li 



cr ^ a 

o ■ 



^ s 



o o o o a a 
U U 5- i. H '-i 



"a © o o 



©OS. 



«' E 3 - 

>^ "O 0» i-l X 






O Opoooo© 



© © i. 3 "^ 



i. t, i. i, 



P =^ s = "5 



. . sa a * 



a©©©©o©ooo 

o o-x s-c-wi© => o o 

— B* X — •>. S 35 



a 5. 



H O H fO 



ra T3 ex ex 33 



II 



n s, . B.- 



©©©©oooooo 

T T Ja Ja H H 



H H H 



CT « f5 oi "c "q "c 



a > a o 



3 -■ 



> i 



With respect to the iom'c accent in the declension of the numerals we 
may remark, that it is generally placed on the inflections of the cases, as 
happens in all the numerals from odiinz to decHmb, and from dedbjiamh to 
eoce.HbdecHmz , as also in dede , mpoe , uemeepo and other similar words. 
The numerals iiAinh, mecmb , &c. as far as decJimb , as also dedduamb and 
mptiduamb, while they are declined as feminine nouns in 6, differ from them 
in the accent, which is placed on the last vowel in all the cases: nnmu, 
nnmbw, decnmu, &c., whilst in the nouns the accent is transposed only in 
the prepositional case : ez censu, ez mnnu, &c. The numeral copoKZ, which 
is declined like nouns in z, differs from them in the accent; for no dis- 
syllabic noun can, without the elision of the vowel, transfer its accent from 
the first syllable to the inflection of the cases, as happens in c6pOKl; 

COpOKtt, COpOKf, &C. 



Lexicology. — the numerals. 93 

According to the 6th and 7th paradigms (ABoe and leTBepo) 
are decHned the similar collective numerals; viz: 

6th par.) Tp6e and Tp6H, three. UI^CTcpo and ni6cTepi>i, six. 

O'fioe and 660H, two. ^^caxepo and 46caTepw, ten. 

7th par.) IlflTepo and naiepu, five. C6Tepo and cdiepbi, hundred. 

/Ifioe^ mpoe, uemeepo, &c., are used with the names of ani- 
mate beings of the masculine and neuter gender; and deou, 
mpou, Hemeepbl, &c., with the names of inanimate and abstract 
objects which only occur in the plural; e. g. ABoe CJ[yn>, two 
servants; Tpoii ^acb'l, three watches. We may still observe that 
66oe had formerly a singular, the genitive, o66ezo, of which is 
still found in the expression: JKiiiejii o66ero no.ia, the natives 
of both sexes. 

According to the 8th and i oth paradigms (nait and naTBAeCflT'fc) 
are declined the similar numbers following, with the exception 
of eoceMb, which is declined by the 9th paradigm; e. g. 

8th par.) lUecTb, six, gen. mecTH. TpH^i^aTb, thirty, ^^«.TpHA- 

CeMb, seven, ceMH. itaiii. [4ecflTH. 
46BaTb, nine, ^eBflTH. loth par.) UlecTbAecaib, sixty, luecTH- 

46caTb, ten, ^ecaiH. C^Mb^ecaib, seventy, ceMii- 

04HHHaAi^aTb, eleven, oahh- <5ecaTii. 

Ha4^aTH. B6ceMb4ecaTT> , eighty, 

4B&AD[aTb, twenty, ABa^i^aTH. ocbMH4ecaTH. 

The first member eocBMb of the last word is declined ac- 
cording to the 9th paradigm: gen. OCfcMHAeCflTH, instr. BOCeMBH)- 
AeCflTtH) or OCBMHAeCHTtK). 

According to the nth and 12th paradigms (ABiCTH and naiB- 
COTTj) are declined the following numerals ; viz : 

nth par.) TpHCTa, three hundred, ^^«. CeMbc6Ti, 700, gett. ceiHH 
Tpex^ COTT). [cot*. c6tt> 

^eibipecTa , 400 , qexupex'b BoceMbc6TT>, 800, ocbMH c6tt>. 

i2th par.) UlecTbcdTT., 600, uiecTH cdiT.. 4eBaTbc6TT.,9oo,4eBaTH cdx-b. 

/^eibcmu (instead of dedcma) is the Slavonic dual of CTO, and 
was used with dea and 66a, as we shall see later. 

According to the 13th paradigm (nciTOpa) are declined such 
numerals as are formed of no.iT>, the half, with the apocopated 
genitive of the ordinal number, with the exception of nOA- 
mpenibH, which is declined according to the 14th paradigm : e. g. 



94 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

IIojyqeTBepTA, three and a half, geti. no.iyqeTBepTa;yi';«. no.mexBepTbi. 
IIo.inflT^, four and a half, . . . nojynflTa; . . , no.maTbi. 

no-«uecT&, five and a half, . . , no-iyiuecTa; . . . no.iuiccTbi. 

IIo.T^ecflTft, nine and a half, . . . no^yaecara; . . . noj^ecflTbi. 

The compound numeral no.iTOpacia, a hundred and ffiy (a 
hundred and a half) forms no.iyiopaCTa in all the oblique cases. 
All these words, however, with the exception of nOAmopd and 
nOAmopdcma, are antiquated, and no longer used. 

According to the 15th and i6th paradigms (noj^eHi. and 
ndjir04a) are declined such nouns as are formed with the numeral 
UOA-h, the half; e. g. 

15th p.) Il6^H0«ib, midnight.^^w. no.iy- IIo^cJdBa, halfaword,^^«. nOviycJ6Ba. 

HOiH. [qac&. IIOjiMHHyTM, half a minute, n04y- 

i6th p.) no-iqac&, half an hour, no^y- MHHyTW. 

no^i4HH, half a day, no-iy4H/i. IIo.iBepcTW, half a werst, no.iyBepcTbi. 

IIo.iBCjpii, half a pail, no^iy- IIoa+yHia, half a pound, nojy- 

Be4p&. ♦yHxa. 

We must remark that the numeral no.lt is joined to substan- 
tives in the genitive singular, to indicate a half, with the ex- 
ception of ndAdeUb and nOAHOlb, which signify the middle of 
the day or of the night, midday or midnight. All these nouns 
are declined by joining nOAy to the other cases of the simple 
substantive. We have still to add that nOAdeHb takes in the 
prepositional with no the inflection u (instead of lb); thus we 
say: no no.iy4HH, after noon. Such nouns as have nOAy in 
the nominative singular, as nojydcTpOBT., a peninsula ; no^yM'BCim'b, 
a crescent, are declined like simple substantives. 

In the compound cardinal numerals, such as : ^BaAUaiB 4Ba, 
twenty two; xpilAUaTL naib, thirty five; CTO lUeCTt, a hundred and 
six, each number is declined separately; G. ABaAUaiH AByXTi, 
TpiiAUaxii nsTii, cxa meciH, &c. But when they form ordinal 
numerals, such as : ABa^liaTb nepewfl, twenty first; CTO BTOpofl, 
hundred and second, the ordinal number only is declined, and 
the cardinal numerals remain indeclinable; G. ABaAUaxB nepBaro, 
CXO BXOparo. The same is the case with HddecHmb, in the 
compound numbers; e. g. nepBbIH-Ha4ecaXb, eleventh; BXOpoil- 
HaAecaxb, ttvelfth, where the first part, nepeuu, emopou, is 
alone declined. 

The other numerals follow the declension of the nouns or 
adjectives to which by their termination they belong. Thus 



Lexicology. — the numerals. 95 

CopOKt, /^^(v; MHJjioHT., million; 4ecaT0KT>, tm, follow the first 
declensions of substantives (§ 30, gen. copOKa, MHJjlioHa, aC- 
CilTKa) ; CTO, a hundred^ and AGBflHOCTO, ninety, follow the second ; 
while 4K))KHHa, a dozen; COTlia, a hundred; Thica^a, a thousand 
{instr. sing. TMCflqeiO and TbicaqtH)) are declined according to 
the third. On this subject we must observe that the numerals 
c6pOK7i, cmo and deeHHOcmo only follow the declension of the 
substantives when they are used as nouns to express forties, 
hundreds and nineties, and then copOKTi and cmo have also a 
plural (copOKH, COpOKOBT.; Cia, COTt, &c.) ; but when they are 
joined to a substantive, or to another numeral, they take in the 
datiz/e and instrumental cases singular the inflection of the geni- 
tive (copOKa, Cia, AeBflHOCia), and sometimes even in the prepo- 
sitional, especially with another numeral. 

The ordinal numerals, which are all adjectives, terminating in 
61W, or 6u (neut. oe, fem. an), are declined according to the 
full termination of the adjectives, with the exception of Tpeiifl 
{n. Tpeite, f. xpeiLa), third, which is declined according to the 
mixed termination (§ 40). 

The numerals d<?«, 66a^ mpu, uembipe, dede, mpoe, uenieepo, 
have the accusative like the nominative, when they are with 
the names of inanimate and abstract objects, and like the geni- 
tive, when with the names of aniriiate beings. But all the rest: 
nnmb, luecmb, ceMb, d6ddu,amb, &c. have always the accusative 
hke the nominative; the same is the case with the numbers 
dea^ mpu, Hembipe, when joined to tens, hundreds or thousands; 
as ABa-AUaiB ABa, twenty two; CTO TpH, a hundred and three, &c,, 
even when referring to animate objects; e. g. Co6paTL deddU/amb 
dea BOHHa (and not deddu,amb deyxTi b6hhobt>), to unite twenty 
two warriors. 

43. — The cardinal numerals, in Russian, whenspedai rules 
joined with substantives follow various rules unlike numerals. 
those of any other language. These rules are as 
follows : 

I. Odlih^ agrees with its substantive in gender, number and 
case, and in the compound numerals, such as, deddUfanib oduHZ, 
cmo odliHd, the substantive is always put in the singular. 



g6 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

2. The numerals dea, 66a, mpu, uemoipe (and their com- 
pounds as 4Ba4uaTb 4Ba, cto lexbipe, &c.), noAmopd, noA- 
mpenibd, and others of the same kind, when employed in the 
nominative or accusative, require the noun to which they belong, 
to be put in the genitive singular, observing that 4Ba, 66a, nOJ- 
TOpa, nOJipeiLfl, agree in gender with the noun. If there is an 
adjective, it takes the gender of the substantive and is put in 
the nominative plural. — With all the other numerals, from riHmb, 
as also with d66e, mp6e, uenieepo, nAmepo, &c., the substantive 
is put in the genitive plural, and if there be an adjective, it 
agrees with the noun or with the numeral, according to the 
sense of the phrase. Thus we- say: nepebie ^ea 6oAbiuie CTO^aa, 
tAe i-iuo first large tables; and ciu naib 6oAbmux7> CTOJOBl, these 
five large tables. 

This genitive singular, which occurs with the numerals dea, 
mpu, uenibipe, is simply the Slavonic dual, which was used with 
dea and 66a, and which has also been retained in derbcmu {si. 
deihmcib). The numerals mpu and uembipe were simple adjec- 
tives, agreeing with their substantive, while n/imb and the 
numerals following were considered as collective nouns, always 
requiring the genitive plural after them. 

A peculiarity of the Russian language must still be mentioned : 
it requires the adjective which accompanies the nouns formed 
of the numerals noATi (as nOJ^aca, nd.ir04a), as also the numerals 
nOAmopd, nOAmpembA, to be placed in the nominative plural: 
e. g. nepebie noj^aca, the first half hour. But in the other 
cases the adjective agrees with the substantive; e. g. BT> npO^OJ- 
JKCHie nepeazo nojyqaca, in the space of the first half hour. 

3. With the numerals in the oblique cases, the substantive is 
always put in the plural, a) When the numerals have a gender, 
as : nHmoKH, dmo/cuHa, mbicnna, muaaIohz, the noun is always 
put in the genitive, and the same rule applies equally to copOKZ 
and cmo, when used in the plural, b) With the other numerals, 
such as: dea, 66a, mpu, lembipe, nnmb, c6poKZ, deeHHocnw, 
cmo, &c., the noun agrees with the numeral in case. We remark 
further that in words compounded of two numerals the case of 
the substantive is determined by the later numeral. Thus we 
say: CT. xpeMfl CiaMll eouHoez, with three hundred warriors, 
and CO Cia xpeiaa eouHamu, with a hundred and three warriors ; 



Lexicology. — the numerals. 97 

BT. COpOKi eepcmda:Z, at forty wersts, and CopOKt COpOKOB-b 
lt,epKeeu, one thousand six hundred churches (forty forties). 

4. With the preposition no ^ indicating the distribution of an 
equal quantity, the numerals d(?«, wpw, uembipe, dede, mpde, 
lemeepo, retain the inflection of the nominative, and then the 
nouh is put in the genitive singular^ but the other numerals are 
put in the dative (cdpoKTi, cmo and dee/lHOcmo then take their 
regular inflection y), and the noun is put in the genitive plural. 
Thus we say: no 4Ba py6AH, no naiii py6Aeu, no copoKy 
py^Aeu, to each tzuo, five, forty roobles. 

The numerals noAmopd, nOAmpembH, &c. , take also with 
the preposition no the inflection y of the dative, and the noun 
in the genitive singular: in all other cases the noun and the 
numeral agree; e. g. no no^yiopy py^AH, to each a rooble and 
a half. 

EXERCISES ON THE NUMERALS. 

Man has one tongue, one nose, two eyes, 

y{gen.) ^e.iOBiK'B {ecmb) oahhi. a3hiKT>, oahht. hocx, Asa oaai., 

two ears, two cheeks, two arms, two legs, ten fingers 
ABa yxo, ABa mena, ABa pyna, Asa Hora, ACCflTL najeqi. 

at the hands and ten toes at the feet, thirty two teeth, 
Ha ^rep.) pyna h AecHTB najent na nora, xpHAiiaTt ABa aydi., 

and seven vertebres. Leap year has four 

II ceML noBBOHOK'L. Bt. {prep.) BHCOKOCHfeiH TOAt {ecjub) ^eiwpe 

seasons, 12 months, 52 weeks and two days, or 2t^6 days, 
BpeMfl, 12 MicflUT), 52 HeA'B.ifl h Asa Aent m, hjh 366 Aent, 

or 8784 hours, or 527,040 minutes. The book has a 

luii 8784 qacT., hjh 527,040 Menyia. Bt, {prep.) KHHra {ecmb) 

hundred leaves less one. The two brothers and the two 

CTO JHCTB (^^^^{gen.) OAHHT>, 06a 6paTT> H 66a 

sisters. An hour and a half, and a minute and a half. Two 
cecipa. IIojiTopa qact, a nojiopa MHHyia. /t^a 

roobles and a half, and three kopecs and a half. 
py6j!& m CT> {instr.) no.iOBiina n ipn KoniuKa ct nojOBHHa. 

7 



98 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

The berkovetz has 10 poods; the pood 40 pounds; the 

B'b{prep.)6e])K0Bem>{ecmb) 10 ny4T.; bt, nyAt 40 *yHTT.; bi 

pound 32 loths; the loth 3 zolotniks; the pound has 96 
*yHT'B 32 JOTT»; BT> AOTb 3 30J0THHKT>; BT> *yHTT> 96 

zolotniks. 
30J0THHKT.. 

Two beaver- hats, three silk-handkerchiefs, four pen- 
4Ba nyxoBLiH in^nna, xpn mejKOBLm DjiaiOKT), ^exbipe nepo- 

knives, five cups of porcelain, and six magnificent 

^HHHLiu HOHCHKT., DflTt ^auiKa *ap*6poBi.iii, H mecTB npCKpaCHUH 

pictures. These two black crows; these three white feathers ; 
KapxHHa. CIh 4Ba ^igpHtm b6poht>; ts xpu 6iAbm nepo; 

my four new books; these five petulant children. The 
MOH ^exbipe hobliu KHiira; aia naxb piSBbiH ahta. 06a 

two poor orphan boys, and the two unhappy orphan girls. 
C-BAHBifl CHpoxa, H 66a Hec^acxHMfl ciipoxa. 

Two servants, three workmen, four children, six 

^Boe cjryra, xpoe MacxepoBou, ^6xBepo ahxh, mecxepo 

soldiers, two watches, three pairs of spectacles, five pairs 
co-i^ax-L, ABOH ^aiCblm, xpoii o^Kl^m, naxepBi 

of scissors. The first hour and a half. The first forty days; 
EOTKHUHbl/. IlepBMH nOjIXOpa 'laCT). IlepBMH COpOKT. AGHt ; 

the second hundred crowns, and the last thousand florins. 
Bxopoii cxo e^HMOKt, H HOCJiiAHiu xb'icaq^a ry.ibAeHT>. 

I have bought an ox and a horse, a table and 
fl KyniUT> OAHHT> 6bIKI. H OAHHT> AOUiaAh/, OAliHT> CXO.J'b 11 

a mirror. Twenty ' one roobles, fifty one 

OAiiH-b 3epKajo. ^^aAiiaxb oahht> py6.ib/w, naxbAecaxi OAHH'b 

kopecks. The thousand one nights. A young man of thirty 
KonifiKa. Tbicaia h OAHH'b hoib/. MojoaoiI ^e.weiK'b xpHAuaxb 

one years less twenty one days. Do not judge 

OAHH'b roA'b 6e3'b (gen.) ABaAqaxb OAHH'b AGHb m. He cyAii 



Lexicology. — the numerals. 99 

of a man by a single fault and by a single 

o (A*^-) ^ejOB-BKT. no [dat.) 04HHT. npocTynoR-B H no o^hht. 

error. An officer with twenty one soldiers. Peter 
ouiH6Ka. 0*HnepT> ct {instr:) 4Ba4naTL oahht. co^4aTT). neipi. 

the First and Catharine the Second reigned in the 
riepBMH H EKaiepHHa Biopoii napcTB0Ba.iH bi» {prep.) 

eighteenth century. The Swedes revere Charles XII, and 
B0ceMHa4qaTbm b^kt.. UIbcai yBamaioTi. Kap.n> XII, a 

the French have erected a monument to Henry IV. The 
4>paHny3T> nociaBiuH naMaiHUK^ FeHpHXi IV. 

article was written on the 15th of the month of January, 
CiaTta 6bua micaHa (^^«.). 15 Micaiii, AHBapLw, 

in the year 1823, and the event relates to the VI 
roAi 1823, H npoiicuiecTBle othochtoh Kt (^a/.) VI 

century, and particularly to the year 573. 
BtKi., a HMeHHO Wh{dai.) rOAT> 573. 

A cupboard with a dozen of plates of porcelain, or 
IIlKan-B c'h{instr.) 4ib)KHHa lapeMa *ap*6poBMH, \\m 

with twelve plates of porcelain. A droshky drawn by 
CT> AB'BHa/tuaTb Tape.iKa *ap*6poBMH. 4pojkkh/, 3anpajKeHHBiH(««j/r.) 

a pair of bay horses, or by two bay horses; and a carriage 
napa BopoHofl .loma^b/, h.ih 4Ba BopoHofl .lomaAb ; h Kapexa 

drawn by six sorrel horses, or by a team of six 

3anpaH(eHiiLH"i {instr.) mecTL pbiatifl jouiaAt, n^ii meciepKa 

sorrel horses. The town is situated a thousand wersts 
pb'imfl j[6ma4b. rdpoAi* A^m\rh bt> {prep.) xbicaia Bepcia 

from here, the village a hundred wersts, and the hamlet forty 

OTCiOAa, cCjIO bo cto Bepcia, a ^epeBHa bi* copoKi 

wersts. At Moscow there were 1600 churches, or forty 
Bepcia. BT,(/r^.) MocKBa 6buo 1600 qepnoBb/, HjIH c6poKi> 

forties of churches. I am satisfied with eighty 
c6poKT> i^epKOBb. H 40Bd4bCiByK)Cb {instr.) BoceMb^ecai'b 

r 



lOO RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

roobles (or with two forties of roobles) a month, 

i^yCAbm (hjh 4Ba copoKt py6.ib) B-h {ace.) Micayb, 

i. e. with 960 roobles a year. He will not live till 
TO ecTL 960 py6jb b^ {ace.) roAi,. Ohi ne AO»tnBeTT> ao {gen.) 

forty years; and she died at forty three. wShe is 

c6poK'B A-hTO ; H OHa yMep^ia {gen.) copoKt TpH Aino. Ona {ecmb) 

satisfied with forty kopecs, and she admired a 
AOBOJBHLIH {ins^r.) COpOKt KOnBHKa, H OHa yAlIBHjiaCb {(fa^.) 

hundred pictures. He cannot live on less than a 
CTO KapTHHa. Oht> He MomeTb npoHCHxt Mente {gen.) 

hundred thousand roobles a year. A town with two 

CTO TbIC«qa py6jl» m bt. (ace.) r0AT>. r6pOAl> CT> {ins^r.) ABa 

towers; a chest with six drawers; a house with forty windows; 
6amHa; komoa'b ct> mecTt amHKi; ^omt. ct» copoKi. okho; 

a fortress with a hundred cannons; a church with five 
KptnocTL/ CO CTO nyuiKa; nei^KOBh / {prep.) nuTh 

cupolas; a house of three stories; a village with four 
r-iaBa; ^omi {prep.) TpH HpycT>; AepeBHH ct> {ins^r.) TeTbipe 

wind- mills. I love equally the two sons and the two 

BiTpaHbiM MejbHima. fl aio6aw) pasno oda cbih-b h 66a 

daughters. He has four children, and she has left five 
AO^b/. Oht> HMieTT. qeTBepo ahth, a ona ocTaBH.ia naTepo 

orphans. My brother has not been able to manage these two 
CHpoTa. Moil dpaT-b ne Mor'b ciaAHTb cb {inkr.) sthmh ABa 

restive horses. He has lived long with his five 

ynpflMbiH JouiaAb/. Ohi> jruai, aoato Cb {instr.) cbohmh naTB 

cousins german. To this million of old Prussian 

dpaTT> ABOwpoAHbiH. Kt> {dat.) 3T0My MHj.doHT. CTapbiil npycGKifl 

crowns must be added a thousand of these new roobles. 
e^HMOKT. HaAodHO npndaBHTb Tbicaia t-bxt. hobhh pyd.ibz«. 

To each a hundred roobles and forty kopecs. 

KaacAHH no {dai.) cio pydjb m h no {dat.) copOKi. KonifiKa. 



Lexicology, — the numerals. ioi 

Some months have thirty days 

Bt> {prep.) HiKOTopbifl MicauT) {ecmb) no [dat.) TpHAuait ^eHb m, 

and others thirty one days. In each coachhouse 

a Bi ApyroH no TpHAUaib gahht. aghl. Bi. [prep:) Ka/KAbia capaft 

there were two carriages, and in each carriage 

^b'uo no(«^w.) ABa Kapeia, a m> KaacAbiu Kapeia no {nom.) 

three men, and' four women. To each a hundred and 
TpH MyacTOHa h no ^leibipe HceHmima. KajKAbift no {da^.) cto no 

■ninety roobles and forty five kopecks. We 

AeBflHOCTO py6jb m n no c6poKT> no naib KontHKa. Y nacb 

have each twenty seven points. Every part of 

(ecmb) no {dat.) ABaAuan, no ceMb o^kh m. KaacAMii ^acib/ 

the work is sold at the rate of a rooble and a half of silver. 
co^HHenie npoAaeica no {dat.) nojxopa py6.ib m {instr.) cepedpo. 

By the jiiorning one must not judge of midday. During 

no {dat.) yipo He AMHIHO cyAHTb {prep.) nOJAGHb m. Bx {ace.) 

the first half day he did 'not know ' what to do. At 
nepBbifl nojrAHa OH-b ne snaji. ^xo A'^-^aib. Bi {ace.) 

four o' clock in the morning, or at five o' clock in the 
^eib'ipe ^aci> no {prep.) noAVLom,/, hjh e-b naib ^acT> no 

afternoon. That happened during the latter half of 
noAjifiVLhm. 3to cjyq:iuocb bt. {ace.) noci-BAHifl n6.iroAa 

the year 1844. The first half hour passed quietly. During 
roAt 1844. nepBHH nojiaca nponupi cnoKoimo. V>'h{acc.) 

the space of the first half hour. I had a hundred and 
npoAOjacenie nepBbifl noji^aca. 3a mhok) 6buo no.iTopacTa 

fifty thousand roobles of annual revenue. 
Tb'icfl^a py6.ibw roAOBOH AOXOAt. 



I02 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



THE PRONOUNS. 



Division 
of the 



44. — The pronouns (MtCTOHMeHia) in Russian are 
pronouns, (jiyided into seven kinds. 

1. The personal pronouns (irnqntm) are, in the 
first person: fl, /; pliir, mh, we; in the second th, 
thaw, plur. bbi, you; and in the third person oht,, 
ke {fern. OHa, she; neut. OHO, it)-, plur. ohm, they 
{fern. PH-B, they). There is in Russian another 
personal pronoun, which is applied to all the three 
persons and both numbers, and which is used when 
the action of the object returns on the agent : e. g. 
a ce6R 3Haio, / know myself; th ce6H, 6epeHieinb, 
thou takest care of thyself; mbi ce6k o6MaHi>iBaeM'L, 
we deceive ourselves. This is called the reflected 
(B03BpaTHoe) personal pronoun. 

When the reflected pronoun is used at the end of tjie verbs, 
it is contracted into CR or cb; e. g. 40MT> CTpOHTCfl, the house 
is being built; H MOlOCb, / wash myself (instead of CTpOHTt cedA^ 
MOH) ce6R). 

2. T\iQ possessive ^vonouns (npHTaacaTejLHEifl) are, 
in the first person: moh, my or mine; nanit, our 
or ours; in the second person: tboh, thy or thine: 
Baiui), your or yours; and for all the three persons: 
the reflected cboh, my^ thy, hisy our, your, their. 

In Russian there is no possessive pronoun for the third 
person: its place being supplied by the genitive of the personal 
pronoun: ero, of him or his; en, of her or her; hxt>, of them 
or their; e. g. fl (ihlXh y ez6 dpaia , / have been to his brother 
[to the brother of him) ; fl 3HaH) eA My}Ka , / know her husband 
{the husband of her); fl 3TQ Ai^aio A^a UX'5 j^-him, I do that for 
their children {for the children of them). 

3. The demonstrative pronouns (yKaaaxeiiBHLifl) 
are: cen, aiOTT., ohlih, this; tot'l, that; laKon, 
TaKOBOH, TOJiHKiH, such or such an one. 



Lexicology. — the pronouns. 105 

4. The relative pronouns (oTHOCHieiiLHHfl) are: 
KTO, who or he who; hto, which or that which; 
KOToptiH, KOH, who; KaKOH, KaKOBOH, KOJiHKm, who 
or he who; Hen, whose; ckojilko, how much or 
so much. 

5. The interrogative pronouns (BonpocHTGJifcHHfl) 
are the same as the relative. 

6. The determinative (onpe;i'£jiHTeJiLHi)ia) or am- 
pliative (jtonoJiHHTeJiBHfcifl) pronouns are: caM-B, 
caMLiH, self; bgcl, all\ KaaijtBiH, BCflKm, each. To 
this class belong also the numerals oahht., a single 
one or one only, and 66a, both. 

The pronouns caM^ and caMbiu have the same meaning^ 
but the former is used with the personal pronouns and with 
the names of animate objects, the latter with the demonstra- 
tive pronouns and the names of inanimate and abstract objects: 
e. g. a caMl>, myself; OHT> caMT>, himself; caMOro ce6H, on^s self; 
Oiei^l caMT>, the father himself ; TOTT> caMLlH, cefl caMblfl, the 
very same; caMaa CMepiB, death itself The pronoun caMblH 
before a qualifying adjective expresses the superlative (§ 38. 3). 

7. The indefinite pronouns (Heo^pe;^'6JIeHHBIa) are : 
iiiKTO, somebody; Hinxo, something; hhkto, nobody; 
HHHTO, nothing; kto jih6o, kto HH6y;tB, kto-to, kto 
HH ecTB, whoever; ^to jih6o, hto HH6y;tB, hto-to, 
HTO Hii ecTB, whatever; Yi%mii, HiKaKifi, H-BKOTopBiH, 
KaKOH-TO, some; hh KaKoM, mi KOTopBiH, hh ojsjiwh, 
not any J none; ;?pyr6H, hhoh, nponifi, other; ctojibko, 
as much, as far; H'BCKO.ibko, some; MHoro, much; 
MaJio, little; ^pyr'B ^pyra, each other; tot'b ii ^tpy- 
roH, the 07ie and the other; bchk'B, each. 

45. — The pronouns are either substantive or 
adjective, i) The j'/z^^^/^/^/^W pronouns are : n, mu, 
OHd, ce6H, Kmo, nmo, ummo, uibmno, uuKmo, Huumo, 



I04 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



p vp 00-vjocrx-f.o. ^^r' SKOiavavj >| 



S S 



« ?. 5 



of •* ' 



S s 



11 









3.8 

n 3 



2 § ^ 



O M 

O :£ 

o w 



IsC d !>3 

if r 



3 bJ o' =» 






O W BJ ft) 



SL 5 

5 . 



5 ■=* 



3 - <^ P- 
S 55- 



^ ;? 



S 



s 



2^ 



3 5 2 5 



11 



S g 



^1 
5 5 



■I 

§ 






B- ^ B- B- 



III I 



if \ 

h 






<:^ 



ri 



p PS -^ 



_ o o 



=. e? bH B^ 



i&r 






5 5 > 



J > 



p« 5- 1 i> 



I 8^ 



The iom'c 
placed on the 



accent in the declension of the pronouns is , with some rare exceptions, 
terminations of the cases, as is seen in the accompanying paradigms. 



Lexicology. — the pronouns. 105 

of which one only {om) has all the three genders; 
ce6A, Kmo, nmo are the same in both numbers, 
and ce6R has no nominative. 2) All the other 
pronouns are adjective, and like the adjectives they 
have three genders, two numbers and seven cases, 
and agree with the substantive to which they belong. 

46. — The substantive pronouns are declined in ^^oJ^j'h^^" 
a peculiar manner as will be seen later. Those of p''°"°""^- 
the adjective pronouns which end like the adjectives, 
in hiu and iii (or 6\£) ^ fem. afb, neut. oe, such as: 
Komopbiu, omiu, cdMhiu, KdJicdhiu, maKoem, ecAhiu, 
are declined according to the 1st and 2d paradigms 
of adjectives (§ 41); while such as have a termina- 
tion differing from that of the adjectives, such as: 
Mou, Haiu5, cams, ceu, also maKou and KaKou, are 
declined in a particular way. 

The following observations on the declension of pronouns 
are necessary, 

1. The oblique cases of the pronoun of the third person 
(3d paradigm) take the euiDhonic letter H, when they are pre- 
ceded by a preposition; e. g. y nero, to him; k'B HeMy, towards 
him; CL Heio, with her; HeMX, of him; 6e3T> HHX'L, without 
them, &c. But thi^ addition does not take place when the 
genitive ez6^ en, UX'5, serves as a possessive pronoun; e. g. 
BT. ez6 AOM-B, in his house; kt> UX'd DOJta-B, to their advantage. 
— The genitive singular feminine of this pronoun sometimes 
takes the inflection of the accusative; e. g. a ee He 81143.11. 
(instead of eA), I have not seen her; y nee (instead of y HBR), 
to her, and this inflection is sometimes contracted: y ueii. 

2. According to the 5th and 6th paradigms (kto and ^ito) 
are declined the pronouns compounded from Kmo and nmo; 
e. g. HHKTO, nobody; hh^TO, nothing; HiKTO, KTO nwdJAh, KTO 
Alido, Kt6-T0, so?nebody; nilTO, ^ITO llHdy4I>, ^ITO jh6o, ^ITO-TO, 
something; remarking that, if there be a preposition with HUKmo 
and HUimo, it is placed between the particle «m and the pronoun; 



Io6 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

e. g. HH y KOro, to tiobody; hh Kt ^BMy, to nothing; hh 3a qio, 
for nothing; HH CT> K"BM1., with nobody; and also observing that 
the parts Hu6y^b^ Au6o and mo are invariable. 

3. According to the 7th paradigm (MOfi) are declined the 
pronouns TBOfl, thy; CBOil, his y and kom, who^ observing that 
this last is not used in the nominative and accusative singular 
of any of the genders, and that it has the tonic accent in all 
the cases on the first syllable (Koero, k6h, k6hxi>, &c.). Its 
compound HiKiw, some, is declined in the' same manner in the 
singular; but in the plural it takes the inflections of the ad- 
jectives: N. H-BKie, /. Hinia; G. H'Bkhx'b, D. HiKHMT>, &c. 

4. According to the 8th paradigm (naiin.) is declined the 
pronoun Bamt, your. 

5. According to the i6th paradigm (naKOU) are declined 
xaKOM, such; H-BKaKift, some, and jJiaKift, such an one. 

6. The other pronouns which have the adjective termination 
biu and m or dU (fem. a/l, neut. oe), such as: OHtlfl, caMMH, 
BCaKlH, 4pyr6i1, HHOM, KaKOBOfl, laKOBofl, are declined ac- 
cording to the 1st and 2d paradigms of the adjectives (S 41). 
The pronouns KaKOBOH and laKOBOii have also the apocopated 
termination: Kah'dez and maKoez. In the pronoun 4pyn> Apyra, 
each other, which is used for the three genders and both 
numbers, the first part remains indeclinable, while the second 
is declined like a substantive; G. 4pyn> 4pyra, D. 4pyn. 
4pyry, A. ^pyn. 4pyra, T. 4pyn. ApyroMi., P. 4pyn. Apyrs. 
The pronouns caM'L-4pyn., two together; caMl-Tpeieu, three 
together, &c. , are indeclinable and are used for all the three 
persons, the three genders and both numbers. 

7. The pronoun ecflK^ is used instead of ecRKiu ueJloeibK^, 
but only in the masculine singular. The pronouns CKOAbKO, 
cmOAbKO, HJhCKOAbKO, have in the singular, besides this ter- 
mination which serves both for the nominative and accusative, 
only the dative in j^ with the preposition wo (no CK6.lI>Ky, &c.); 
and in the plural they have only the genitive, the dative, the 
instrumental and the prepositional cases (Ck6jlkhxt>, CKOJB- 
KHMl, CKOJIBKHMH, &C.). 

8. OdUHZ (parad. 15) is both a numerative and a determi- 
native pronoun. The same is the case with the Slavonic word 



Lexicology. — the pronouns. 107 

eAHHT. («. e^HHO, /. e^HHa), which is used in an elevated style, 
and which is declined in the singular like an adjective of 
the full termination: G. GAHHarO , eAHHOH; D. eAHHOMy, &c.; 
but in the plural it takes the apocopated form: eAHHW, BAH- 
HMXt, eAHHblMl. 



• EXERCISES ON THE PRONOUNS. 

I love thee, and thou offendest me. We esteem him, Personal 

, pronouns. 

fl jh)6jIH) TBI, a TBI o6HHtaeim> a. n ysajKaeMt ohi, 

as to her, we love her sincerely. I have much money, 

a OHT. fl jk)6hmt> AyuieBHO. y(^^.)>i(^c/n6)MH6ro AeHBrH, 

and thou hast not a penny. Protect him, and 

a ^^gen>i TBI H-BTT, HH {gen.) KOn-BHKa. SaCTyDHCb 3a(ar^.)0HT,, H 

depend upon her. Take a seat with me, and come 

noHaAiacfl Ha(«r^.) oht.. IIochah z-hiinstr.) a, h npexoAii 

with him. Tell her, to come to me. Without 

CT> (?>M/r.) OH-B. CKaJKH OHT>, ^T06 OHt npHUUa KO(d?la!/.)a. Be3T.(^^.) 

him, without her and without you, life is wearisome to me. 
OHT), 6631. OH-B H 6631. TBI, HtH3HL (ec/W6) CKy^HBIH fl. 

I do not see them, and I will do every thing for them. 

fl He BHHcy OH-B, a fl z^%^^^Q Bce AA'n.{gen.) oh^b. 

We esteem you, and you have forgotten us. Depend 
fl yBaJKaeM-B tbi, a tbi aadbUH a. ByAB yBipem. 

on me; I will speak of thee. It is agreeable to me 

BOip-ep.) fl; fl norOBOpK) {prep.) TBI. {ecmb) HpiflTHO fl 

to be with her. I do not trust myself, and thou art 

6bitb cb {ins^r.) OHT>. fl He AOBtpflFO ce6fl, a tbi {ecu) 

contented with thyself. We take care of ourselves, and they 
AOBOAhubiii {ins^r.) ce6fl. fl SepBHteM-B ce6fl, a oht> 

do themselves harm. 
ce6fl BpeAflT-B. 



Io8 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

Possessive My brother, thy sister and his son have studied together. 

pronouns. ,, „ ^ „ ^ 

Moil opaTT>, TBOii cecTpa h OHt cmht> y^Hjncb bmsct-b. 

I try to be agreeable to your master and to our 

H cxapaiocB yroAHXt BamT> ymneAhm h Haiiit 

inspector. My house is more beautiful than thine, and 

CMOTpHTe.iL m. Moil AOMT> {ecmb) KpacHBLiH {£-en.) TBOH, a 

thy dog is less than mine. I live without them, 
TBOM co6iK3i {ecmb) miAbiii {^en.) Moii. fl acHBy 6e3T>(^<?«.)OH'B, 

and I can dispense with their help. Do not boast 

H Mory o6ofiTHCt 6e3'h {gm.) ou-b noMomh/. He XBa.«iCB(/«j/r.) 

of thy labours, and think of thy years. Draw near 

CBoii xpyAt, a noAyMafl o {/>rej>.) cBoii j-bto. IIoAoflAH Kiiidai.) 

my table, and give some money to thy sister. We talk 
MOH CTO.!!., H HOAapiI (^m.) AeHbril/ TBOfl CCCTpa. H rOBOpHMl 

about our affairs, and you occupy yourself with your lesson. 
{/>rej>.) CBOH jyhAO, a tm saHHMaeTecfc (insfr.) cboh ypoK^. 

Study is bitter, but its fruits are sweet. Thy gardens 
y^eHie(6c/w6) ropLKifi, ho oht> nj04i> (cj^wft) CA&A^m. Tbom caAT> 

are superb; I admire their beauties. 

{cymb) npeKpacHbifl; a yAHBJfliocL oht. (aT.^z/.) Kpacoxa. 

Demonstra- Dost thou see this dog and this cat, these men and 
^noun's? BhAHUIL AH BTOTT. C06aKa H STOTI. KOTT), 3T0TT. JIIOAH Z» H 

those trees? In these countries there is no gold; and 
T0T1> AepeBO? Blyiprep.) 3T0TT> ^BMAK HtTT, (^m.) 36.10TO; H 

in those no silver. I have heard that from 

Bt ijirep.) TOTT> HtTT> {^en.) Cepe6p6. fl CAblUldiA'h aTOTT> OTT> (^<?«.) 

your brother, but I do not believe it. I praise your 
BafflT) dpaT-L, HO a ne B-hi^io {dat.) axoTi. H xsajH) Bauii. 

project; it is long since I had foreseen it. Have you 
HaMipeme; asbho a npeABHA'B.it OHLiii. }KHBemb au 

lived long in this town? I admire this garden, 

TM AaBHo Bi iprfj).) ceil ropoA'b ? H yAHB.iaH)CL {dat) 3toti. caAt, 



Lexicology. — the pronouns. 109 

but that is more beautiful. These pens are blunt; these 
a TOTi. {ecm6) xopdiuiil. S'tott, nepo (r^wt) Tynofi; cefl 

houses are of stone; these streets are narrow. Such eyes 
40M'i> KaMeHHbifl; tott. yjima ySKifl. Tbkoh rjaat 

are piercing; such actions do not do honour. 

(c;^m6)npoHHLiaTejbHMft; xaKofl a'B^o He npHHocaii. (^<f».) ^ecrt. 

Such are men. 

TaKOBOH (fiymb) jwah m. 

The relative pronouns agree in gender and number with the Relative 
substantive to which they belong, and take the case required P''°'^°""^' 
by the following verb, with the exception of the pronoun H.eU^ 
which agrees in gender, number and case with the accom- 
panying substantive. 

The man whom you see, is very intelligent. 
HeJOB-BKT., KOTOpWH Ttl BH4HTe, [eCMb) O^ieHb yMHUfl. 

The book which you read is very agreeable. I know 
KflHra, KOTopbift tli qHiaeie, {ecmh) oqeHt npiaxHtm. fl SHaio 

the affair of which you speak. The water with which 

AijO, (/r*^.) KOTOpMH TLI rOBOpHie. BOAa, (zV/j/r.) KOTOpfalfl 

I wash myself, is very cold. Beware of him who 
a MoiocB, {ecmb) o^enb xojoAHbifl. Beperacb {gen.) tot-b, kto 

flatters thee. He who has much business, 

AhZT\XYh{dat:) TM. TOTT> ^ {gen^ KTO {ecmb) MttOTOigen.) A-kjlO, 

does not think of pleasures. Learn that which 

He AyMaeii {prep.) sadaea. Y^njech {da^.) toti>, {ge;i.) 

you are ignorant of. Here is cloth like that of which I 
^TO TLI He SHaexe. BoT-h [nam.) cyKHo xaKOH, KaKofl a 

bought some. Such was the chief, such were the soldiers. 
KynHj[T>. KaKOBOH Chwb Boenaqa.ibHHK'L, laKOBOH h bohh-l. 

That is the friend, in whose hands is my destiny. 
BoTTi {nam.) Apyri,, B'b{j>rep.) ^efl pyKa(ecm6) moh cyAb6a. 

Listen to those in whose house thou hast lived, 

CjymaHca (^m.) tott>, vh{prep.) ^efl jyowh tbi umA'h. 



no RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

There is a book {of those) such as there are few of, and 
BoTT, KHiira (M5g gen. maKoU), {gen.) KaKofl {ecmb) Majo, h 

an opportunity like those are rare. 
cjyiaii KaKOBOil {cynib) piAKiii. 

Interroga- What o'clock is it, and at what o'clock wilt 

tive pro- ti- ' ^ , 

nouns. KOTOptlH qaCT> {eCfJlb), H BT> {prep.) KOTOpMM ^SiCb 

thou come? With what books dost thou occupy thyself, and 
npiHA^nib? {instr.) KaKoil KHrira aaHHRiaeiubca, ii 

what people live here? Under what chief 

KaKOfi JIOAH m HCHByiX 34'£CI> ? UOATy {instr.) KOTOpblfl HaqajfcHHKt 

dost thou serve, and what language dost thou learn? Whose 
TM CAymwmh, ii {dat.) KaKoii hsbikt. tm yqauiBca? ^eii 

are these houses? By whose permission hast thou 

{cymb) 3T0TT> AOMX? Ct. {gen.) qeii nosBOjeme th BMuieji, 

gone out? I have not seen whose hat has been thrown 
CO ABopa? fl He BHAajT>, ^efl uuflna 6p6cH.iH 

to the ground. I do not know with whose children she 
Ha {ace.) no.n>, fl ne SHaio, ct. {instr.) qea ahth oht> 

is walking. About what dost thou trouble thyself, and 
ry.iaex'b. {prej>.) ^to tm 3a66THUiF,cfl, h 

in what way have I deserved thy friendship? On what 

{instr.) ^TO fl 3acJ[yHtH.ai> TBOH 4pyHc6a? Ct {instr.) TTO 

can one congratulate thee, and from whom hast thou 

MOSKHO n034paBBTfc TM, H OTI. {gen.) KTO TBI 

received this money? How many wersts are there 

no.jy^HJT> 3T0TT> AeHLrH/? Cko^bko {gen.) Bepcxa {ecmb) ott> 

from this town to that? Of how many volumes 

{gen.) 3T0TT. ropOAl. AO{gen.) TOTT>? H3l.(^m.) CKOjIbKO TOMT. 

is this work composed? How many roobles 

ceft co^HHeme coctohtt>? Ho {dot.) ckojibko {gen.) py6jL m 

will fall to you to each of this profit? 
AOCTaHeTCH TBI m'b{gen.) aTOTT> npH6BUB/? 



Lexicology. — the pronouns. hi 

Thou thyself wilt be of my opinion: the sound even of his Determina 
„ , ,. . <■ ^ tive pro- 

Tbi caMT> corjacHniBca cl {mstr.) a : seyK-B caMLiu oht> nouns. 

voice is agreeable. I take this appartment of the 

r6j[0CT> (ecmft) npiHTHtift. H HaHHMaio cefl KBapiripa ^ {gen.) 

proprietor himself. Vices themselves find with you an 
X03flHHT> CaMX. IlopOKI. CaMHH Hax64aTT. ^{gen.) TM 

excuse. He always speaks of himself. You are 

H3BHHeHie. Oht. BcerAa roBopHTt (/r^.) ce6a caMx. lh\[ecme) 

discontented with yourselves. We have seen her herself. 
HCAOBOwifcHbifi (/«j/r.) ce6a caMt. H bhaxjih oht> caMx. 

Death itself is not frightful. We all content ourselves 
CMepTi>/caMMH(ecw6)HecTpamHMH. H Becb A0B6.ii,CTByeMca 

with our only salaries. So think women alone. We 
{insir.) OAHHT> HCa.iOBaHte. TaKX AyMaK)TT> JKenmHUa O^HH'L. H 

two will serve God alone. In each assembly 

66a xoTHMT> ciyacHTt {dat.) Bon> eAHHt. Bx {prep.) Kaac^Mfl co6paHie 

there were citizens of both sexes. They are scattered 
6b\Ayi rpaHc^aHHHT. 66a nojn.. Ohx {cynib) pascBaHti 

in all the world. One must accustom one's self to 

no {dai.) Becb cb-btx. Ha4o6HO npHBLiKaxt kx {dat.) 

every food. 
bcMh niima. 

There is hot anybody here; do not ask help of Indefinite 

HtTT) (^m.) HHKTO 3A-BCi>; He npocH(^^/«.) n6Momb/y(i^^.) P"^""^*^""^' 

anybody. Thou eatest nothing, and that serves no 

HHKTO. Tbi He xuib {gen.) hhtit6, h aioTT. He ro4HTca Kh{dat.) 

purpose. Learn something, and say that to somebody. 

HHqT6. Y^\iCh{dat.) qxo HH6yAb, H cKajKii aT0TT> KTo Hn6y4b. 

I will not sell my house for any thing in the world, and 

H He Y\'^OxkWh{gen.) CBOfl jyOWh Sa {ace.) HH^ITO, H 

you have sold yours for a mere nothing. Of nothing 

TBI np64a.^H CBOii 3a hh^to. H3t> {gen.) hhito 



112 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

one can make nothing. During the space of some 

He CA-B.iaemt (^^O hhtto. Bt> {ace.) le^eHie HtCKOJibKO 

months he has bought every day some 

Mic/mi, OHt noKyna.ii> eaceAHeBHO no {da/.) HicKO.ii.KO (£en.) 

hundreds of peasants. 
CTO Ayuia. 

The two sisters speak badly of each other. The 

06a cecTpa roBopait aypho ^pyrt o {pr^.) 4pyn.. 

Englishmen and the French detest each other. We are 
AHrjH^aHHHT. H <l>paHi^y3T. HenaBH^aTi 4pyn. 4pyra. fl 

going to take a walk with one another. These houses 

xoAHMT. ry.iiiTi. ^pyrt C'b{msir.) 4pyrt. Cefl 40mt> 

are situated one behind the other. The boards are thrown 
.leacaTt oaiiht. sa {ms/r.) Apyrofl. 4ocKa {cymb) HadpdcaHBi 

one with another. 

OAHHT. CT> {ins/r.) Apyroft. 

THE VERB. 

Division of 4pr. — The verds (rjaroiiH) of the Russian language 
are divided, according to their meaning, into four 
classes, which are called voices (saiiorn), viz: 

1. The active verbs (;t1iHCTBHTeJiLHHe), such as: 
jlijiaTh, to make] jik)6htl, to love; mmtb, to wash; 
o^tBaiL, to clothe. 

2. The pronominal verbs (MtCTOiiMenHBie), formed 
of active verbs by means of the reflected pronoun 
CR, contracted from ce6R. These verbs are: oi) re- 
flected (B03BpaTHne), as : Mbixtca, to wash one's self] 

o;t1iBaTLCfl, to dress one's self; B) reciprocal (B3aHM- 
Htie), as: o5HHMaTLCfl, to einbrace each other] 
ccopiiTLca, to dispute with each other ; and c) com- 
mon (66iii,ie), which with the termination of reflected 



Lexicology. — the verb. 113 

and reciprocal verbs have an active or neuter mean^ 
ing, as: 6oflTLCfl, to fear-, CMtflTLCfl, to laugh. 

3. The ;2^///^^ verbs (cpeAHie), as: cnaxt, to sleep; 
CTOflTB, to stand. To this class also belong the 
inchoative (Ha^HHaxeJiLHHe), as: ^%A%Th, to whiten, 
become white-, coxHyxL, to dry, become dry. Among 
these verbs two are to be distinguished from the 
rest; viz: the neuter verb 6hti,, to be, and the in- 
choative CTaiB, to become, which help to form and 
conjugate the other verbs, and which on that account 
are called auxiliaries (BcnoMoraxeJiLHHe). 

4. The passive verbs (cxpaAaxejiLHue), as : 6Lixt 
jik)6hmbim'l, to be loved; 6bixi> no^HxaeMHM'L , to be 
venerated; ;t'BJio CA'BJiaHO, the thing is accomplished. 

The reflected voice is often used in the passive sense, 
especially when applied to inanimate objects, e. g. A'BJO 
A'BjaeTCa, the thing is being accomplished; jifSWh CXpoHTCH, the house 
is being built. 

48. — The principal inflections of the Russian infl 
verbs are: tense (speMa), aspect (Bii;t'L) and mood 
(HaKJroHeme) , and the secondary inflections are: 
person (jTHi^e), 7iumber (^hcjio) and gender (po;i;x). 

49. — The tenses of the Russian verbs are only Tenses. 
three in number: i) the present (nacxoamee Bpeaia); 

2) the preterit (npomeAinee), and 3) the future 
(6y;tyii];ee), as: a ^Hxaio, I read; a ^Hxaii'L, I have 
read; a 6yAy ^iixaxt, / shall read. 

50. — Though the Russian verbs have only Aspects 
these three tenses, they have other inflections to 
indicate duration, accomplishment, reiteration, or 
other circumstances accompanying the action. These 
shades, or varietes of meaning, to which the Russian 
grammarians have given the name of aspects or 

8 



ections 
of the verb. 



114 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

degrees, are expressed by a change of termination or 
by means of the prepositions. The prepositions, being 
joined to verbs, form the prepositional (npe;i;ji6jKHi>ie) 
verbs, while such as have no preposition are termed 
simple (npocTbie) or a-prepositional. This division of 
the verbs has an influence on the number and nature 
of their aspects. The following are the aspects of 
the Russian verbs. 

I. The imperfect aspect (HecoBepineHHBifi bh/i;^), 
which indicates that the action is being, has been, 
or will be performed without intimating, whether it 
is or will be finished; e. g. a ^ijiaio, / make; a 
jt-BJiaiii), / was occupied to make; a 6y;ty ^ti.iaTB, 
I shall make; a npocMaipHBaio, I examine, a npocMa- 
xpHBajTB, / set abotit examining; a 6yAy npocMa- 
TpiiBaxB, / shall examine. This aspect is subdivided 
into definite and indefinite. 

a) The definite (onpe^ttjreHHBiii) imperfect aspect 
indicates that the action is performed at a given 
moment: e. g. nxHiiia Aemiimz, the bird flies [is 
flying now) ; 3aem> 6bidicuim, the hare runs {is run- 
ning at this ino7nent). 

b) The indefinite (Heonpe;i;'£jieHHLiH) imperfect 
aspect expresses the action in an indeterminate 
manner, without reference to the time when it is 
performed, and also indicates that the acting person 
is accustomed to perform, or has the power of 
performing the action: e. g. nTimti Aemdiomd, the 
birds fly {have the power of flying) j 3aHii.Bi dmiarnm, 
the hares run {are accustomed to run). 

The definite and indefinite meaning of the imperfect aspect 
is not marked by any particular inflection, except in the case 
of verbs which express movement or change of place. The 



Lexicology. — the verb. 115 

other verbs, having properly speaking only the indefinite 
imperfect aspect, take the definite meaning without changing 
their termination; e. g. Bacii^iu lenept nbemz KBaCB, BasU is 
now drinking kwass; Baciijia ubemT, h KBact h BOAy, ^iTO nona- 
vieTCfl, Basil drinks both kwass and water , whichever happens to 
be there. 

2. The perfect aspect (coBepuieHHBifi), which in- 
dicates that the action has been, or will be entirely 
finished; e. g. a Cj^i^iaJi'L , / have made, 1 have 

finished; a c^'B ^aio , / shall make, I shall finish 
making; a npocMOxpBJi'L, / have entirely examined; 
a npocMOipH), / shall finish examining. This aspect 
is subdivided into aspect of duration and aspect 
of unity. 

a) The perfect aspect of duration (^JiHTeJiLHHH) 
indicates that the action has been^ or will be per- 
formed by many movements, and has had or will 
have any duration; e. g. nTHii;ti ehiKMedJiu ewy 
rJiasa, the birds have put out his eyes with beak- 
strokes; a nponoH) nicHio, / shall sing over this air. 

b) The perfect aspect of unity (o/^HOKpaTHHfi) 
indicates that the action has been, or will be per- 
formed only once, and has lasted only a moment; 
e. g. a sweHyAd, I have yawned, I have made a 
yawn; OHt mpdnemd eme pas'L same x.o[a;5Hoe ceipjme, 
he will once more touch your insensible heart; nTHii;a 
euKJiwuyjia eMy r.ias'L, the bird has put out to hiin 
an eye. 

3. The iterative aspect (MHoroKpaTHBiii) , which 
indicates that the action has been performed re- 
peatedly, and that it is long passed; e. g. b'l MOJio;tbia 
Jiixa a oicuedAd b'l ;i;epeBH'fe, in my youth I often 
lived in the comitry. 

8* 



Il6 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

On the subject of these aspects we have to make the 
following observations: 

1. They are never all found in a single verb, as we shall 
see later. We merely observe in this place that the imperfect^ 
perfect of unity and iterative aspects are found in the simple 
verbs, while the perfect of duration is met Avith in the pre- 
positional and some few simple verbs, enumerated further 
(S 65. 8). The aspects of a simple verb are generally distin- 
guished in the following manner: the definite imperfect aspect 
is found in verbs signifying movement; e. g. d'Bry, I run (am 
running now); HAy, I go {am going at this moment)', the aspect 
perfect of unity is found in verbs which designate a physical 
action of men or animals, arid ends in Hymb (preterit HyJl^y 
future Hy)\ e. g. marnyTb, to take a step; KamjaHyib, to cough 
once; the iterative aspect usually ends in hwavfib or ueartib (preterit 
hieaJVb or ueajih): e. g. A'B-«blBajT>, he usually made; rOBapHsajt, 
he said at different times. The other simple verbs, which have 
not these distinctive characters, are of the indefinite imperfect 
aspect. All these properties of the verbs will be examined 
subsequently (SS 59 — 65). 

2. The prepositions are particles which are joined to verbs 
to communicate to them the meaning of the completion of an 
action: e. g. ^'B-^axL, to make, and c^ijiaTB, to finish makings to 
have made; iiHCaTb, to write; and Hamicaifc, to finish writing, to 
have written; and also to give them a particular meaning; 
e. g. XOTHTt, to go, and BXO^htl, to go in; bOCXOAhtl, to go up; 
BbixOAHTB, to go out; AOXOAHTL, to go up to, to attain, &c. 

3. The aspects have not all the same number of tenses; 
the imperfect aspect is used in all the three tenses; the perfect 
is employed in the preterit and future, while the iterative is 
met with only in the preterit. 

Moods. 51. — The Russian verbs have only three moods, 
viz: i) the mdicative (ns-LABHTejifcHoe HaKJioHeHie), 
e. g. a xoHty, / walk; mm ryjiajiH, we have taken 
a walk, BBi 6y;^eTe yHtiinaTL, you will sup; 2) the 
imperative (noBe.iHTe.iLHOe), e. g. xo/^H, walk; noH- 
;^eMTe, let us go; ryjiflHTe, take a walk; and 3) the 



Lexicology. — the verb. 117 

infinitive (HeoKOHHaieJiBHoe), e. g. xo;^MTB, to walk; 
ryjiflTB, to take a zualk; yHvHHaTt, to sup. — The in- 
dicative is the only mood which is found in all the 
tenses and all the aspects, the infinitive has inflections 
for the aspects, but has no tenses, as is also the 
case with the imperative, except that it is not used 
in the iterative aspect. 

The conditional (npe4n0J[0JKHTej[bH0e) and subjunctive (coCJiara- 
Te.lLHOe) moods of other languages are expressed in Russian 
by the preterit of indicative with the particle 6u; e, g. a 
OlceJldJl'b 6bl "BXaXb , / should wish or / should have wished to 
depart; a 6hi He ^yMajiX)^ mi^6bi bbi 3to cdihAaAU, I should 
not have believed that you would have done that. 

52.— The indicative and imperative of the Russian ^^J^^°^|'^^ 
verbs have further: i) three inflections for ikvo. per- ganders. 
sons, e. g. HiiTaH), / read; HHTaemt, thou readest; 
^iiTaeT'L, he reads; 2) two for the numbers; ^H- 
Taio, / read, and HHTaeMij, we read; ^HxaeinB, 
thou readest, and HiiTaeie, you read; HiiTaext, he 
reads, and HHiaiOT'L, they read; HHxaii, read, and 
HHTaiiTe, read {yozt) ; and 3) in the singular of the 
preterits, three for the genders, e. g. yneHHE'L 
HumdA5, the school-boy read; jiiixa numcLAO, the 
child read; cjyjKanKa numdjia, the maid read. 

The preterit of the Russian verbs is nothing but the past 
participle, in the apocopated form, joined to the substantive 
verb, which participle, like the attributive adjectives, was used, 
in the ecclesiastical Slavonic, in the apocopated termination, 
and with the three genders, e. g. 033 ecMb CdmeopUAZ, I have 
created; UMihAa ecu, thou hast had (in speaking to a woman). 
In Russian the auxiliary verb is unterstood, and we say: a 
COTBOpi'u'B, TBI HMija , and on this account the genders have 
become an inflection *of the preterits. 

There are some verbs which are only used in the third 
person singular, without expressing the person either by a 



Il8 • RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

noun or a pronoun, and which for that reason are called 
impersonal (6e3JiiqHbie). These verbs have only the neuter in 
the preterit; such are: HtTT., there is not {pret. He dbMO, fut. 
He 6yAeTT)); pasCB-BiaeiX, // begins to dawn {pret. paSCB-BJO, fut, 
paSCB'BTeTTj) ; XO^eiCfl, the mind takes [pret. XOTSJEOCL). 

Forms deriv- ^^-^ — 'J'q complcte our examination of all the parts 

verb. Qf tj^e Russian verbs, we will still add the forms 

which are derived from them; these are: i) the 

participle (npiiHaciie), 2) the gerund (^'feenpHHaciie), 

and 3) the verbal noun (oTrjiarojiBHoe hmh). 

1. The participles, as parts of the verb, have 
voice, aspect and tense; and as adjectives, gender, 
number and case. As regards voice, they are ac- 
tive, neuter or pronominal, and passive; they have 
the same number of aspects as the verbs from 
which they are derived; but they have only two 
tenses, the present and the preterit. 

2. The gerunds are simply verbal adverbs, which 
are formed from the active and neuter participles 
and can take the different aspects of the present 
and preterit. 

3. The verbal nouns are abstract nouns which 
being derived from the infinitive, indicate the par- 
ticular action, expressed by the aspect, from which 
they are formed; e. g. 6iraHie, an habitual run- 
ning; pa36iiBaHie, a defeat; pa36HTie, a complete 
defeat (from the infinitives 6mamb, pa36a6dmb and 
pa36umh). 

Conjugation. 54. — The changing of the inflections of the verbs 
in order to indicate the moods,* tenses, numbers, 
persons and genders, is called conjugatio?i (cnpa- 
atenie) ; and the verbs are divided, according to the 



Lexicology. — the verb. 119 

manner in which they are conjugated, into regular 
(npaBiiJiLKLie) and irregular (HenpaBiiJiBHLie). i) The 
regular verbs are such as have a polysyllabic infini- 
tive, ending in W2& preceded by a vowel; e. g. 
;^'BiIaTL^ to make-, ryjiflTB, to take a zvalk; iim-btl, 
to have; rOBOpHTL, to speak; kojiotb, to sting; 
TflHyxfc, to draw; xepeTt, to rub. 2) The irregular 
verbs are such as have a monosyllabic infinitive, 
ending either in mb preceded by a consonant, or 
in nh, mil and uiu; e. g. 6htl, to beat; 6paTL, to 
take; cjilitl, to pass for; BecTB, to conduct; rpH3TB, 
to gnaw, H/tTH, to go; cfeHB, to cut. — The following 
remarks on the conjugation of verbs are important. 

1. Each aspect of a verb, having necessarily an infinitive, 
is conjugated separately, without being mixed up with the 
other aspects of this verb. 

2. The infinitive in verbs is the same as the nominative in 
nouns: this mood is the direct form, whence all the others, 
called the oblique^ are derived. It ends in mb (seldom in «6, 

3. The present, which is only found in the imperfect aspect 
(either definite or indefinite), ends, in the first person of the 
singular, in w or j^ (very rarely in M'h and Mb). 

4. Th.Q preterit, which is found in all the aspects, ends in 
Jl'5 and sometimes in 3 (neut. AO, fem. Aa; plur. AU). 

5. The future has no particular inflection: in the imperfect 
aspect (either definite or indefinite) it is formed by the help 
of the auxiliary verbs ^ydy or cmdHy, joined to the infinitive; 
and in the perfect aspect (either of duration or of unity) this 
tense takes the form of the present. 

6. The imperative, which is found in all the aspects, except- 
ing the iterative aspect, ends, in the second person singular, 
in u with the accent, or, without accent, in u after two or 
three consonants, in b after one consonant and in u after a 
vowel. 



I20 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



CONJUGATIONS OF REGULAR VERBS, 



1 -" H 




FIRST 










O m W o 










<" 






w ^ H 2 


JSt 


2^ 


a'-'^ 


^th 


«/ 


2d 


^ 








branch. 


branch. 


branch. 


branch. 


branch. 


branch. 






/-■'■> 


f- -^ ~s 


r "^ 


'' ^ 


'^ 


"• 


'' "> 


H 












, 




C BTb 




tf 














B 




«*Tb 




« 6 














5 7i 




§ 




HTb 








aTb 


oeaib eeaTb 


g flTb 1 aib 


•BTl 


o 


0Tb 


«^^^«aTb 


;4 












S g 




i: 




n n 


'^ 












" 




1 HTb 
> 




^ 


f ( 


.. r^ 


an, 


yio loio 


AH) H) 


*H) 


K) 


K, 


AVi 410 




H ,gUu 


aenib 


yenib roenib 


>ieiub euib 


•Benib 


HQIb 


enib 


Huib 4emb 




Ij^ ^om 


aerb 


yeTi H)eTT> 


aeii eii 


teiT, 


HT-b 


erb 


HTT> 461^ 




« ^ .MH 


acMi 


ycMi 'loeMT, 


RCWh eMT. 


teMi 


HM^ 


CM-b 


HM-b 4eM'b 




. !{«« 


aeie 


yeTC roeie 


HeTe eie 


•fiCTe 


Hxe 


ere 


HTe 4eTe 




l^ U«« 


aiorb 


yiOTl IOK)Tl 


AIOT'b lOTl 


tWT'b 


KCh 


H)Tl 


HT-b 4K)TT. 


t4 


( '■* 


m. n. f. 
aJi, 0, a 














> 

< 






OBaJi CBa-ii 


fl^i flji 


-BJl 


X^A-b 


041 


(HAT, 

{*4* ^-^^ 


2< 

Q 




a^H 


oBa^H eBa.iB 


H.IH a^H 


u.m 


rum 


QAM. 


f ^= a4H 


1— 1 




















( 


',^|»« 


6yAy -^ 


cT&ny 


^ 












a ■ 


6yAemb 


CT&Hemi 














D 


•^1.0,5 


d^mrh 


CTkmTh 
















^ < ebi 


6y4eMi 


> or 

CT&HeMI 


\ with the 

1 


infinitm 


e (of the hn^ 


^?/^<r/ aspect 




CO 


6y4eTe 


CT&Heie 
















'^ '^OKti 


fiy^yi-b J 


CTdHyn 


J 










ATIVE. 


K"" 


aS 


yfi MH 


AH H 


tfi 


i 


H 


{* - 


^.< '< 




















l{.« 


aHie 


yfiie H)HTe 


HHTe Hie 


tHTe 


jbxe 


HTe 


fHTe 

i 


U 




















1 



Lexicology. — the verb. 



121 



ACTIVE, NEUTER AND 


PRONOMINAL. 




SECOND 


THIRD. 


; ird 


^th 


5^ 


6/A 


lih 


i' 15/ 


zd 


\ branch. 


branch. 


branch. 


branch. 


branch. 


: branch. 


branch. 


1 


^ HTb Z 


t 






r-^^^ 




H HTb 


d 


HTb m 


HTb C 


HTb CK 








HTb 3 aib 


m ^ aib 


c aib 


cm^ aTb 


Kyib 


CDCTb 


u» aTb 


3 HTb d 


HTb K 


HTb X 


HTb cm 


i II 


B 
















a 


«cy a/cy t«y «y 


wy i«y 


i«y JMY 


By 


py 


% 


HDIb 


CHrabSKenibl iHiub qenib 


. CHDib menib 


cTHDib n^enib 


Henib 


peuib 


q 


HT-b 


HT-b ^KCT-b THTb ^61^ 


CHTT, meTT. 


CTHTTb m.eT'b 


HeiT. 


peri 


^ 




g<!HMl3KeM'b THMT. qCM^ 










ni 


HMT, 


CHMT. mCMT. 


CTHM-b mCM^ 


HCM-b peM'b 


m 


HTe 


HTe ^Keie 1 THte qexe 


CHTe uieTe 


CTHTC mere 


1 HeTe pcTe 


1 


Lait 


Ui-b ;KyTi tswh qyi-b 


CflT-b uiyiT. 


CTflTT. myTi 


HyTT. pyT^ 


Uai. 




^nA-h r HJT, T. . 


H-^T- C^ ,^ 


HJ-b CK,- ^ 


C:^o^4a'«P^'«P-'«'^^ 


3K 
9 


aj* 


/[ 




T „aJT« 




CT cT^^^ 


^ 




^ 










1 


ni 


H.H 


» 


h^h' 


HJH „ 


HJH p 
*=H.H X^^ 


UAH p~ 

"h-,h ct^-^ 


C" j- ■ 


m 


^a^ 




3 a4H T 'ajlH 


either 


definite c 


)r indefinite] 


for 


the three 

1 


conju 


gations. 


/ 


H 




H H 


H H 


H II 


i 


1 
u 


.« 


b 




b b 


T q 
b b 


^b °^b 


CTH n;H 


P« II 


q ^ 




^ 












m 




« ' ' 








, 






Hxe 


[ Hie Hie 1 Hie Hie 


HTe HTe 




HTe 




n; 




» 1 T q 


C UI 


CTHTe mHTC 


H FHTe 


I 


bie 


1 bTe bie bie bTe 


bie bTe 




' 



12 2 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

^v^^b'^"* 55- — The regular verbs are divided into three 
conjugations, according to the ending of the infini- 
tive and the formation of the first person of the 
present. 

1 . The first conjugation embraces the verbs end- 
ing in the infinitive in W26 with one of the vowels 
a, R or lb, and of which the first person singular 
of the present is in w with a vowel. This con- 
jugation is subdivided into four branches, viz: 

\st branch. 2d branch. yd branch. i\th branch. 

Infinitive: . aifc .... \^lh .... htl .... "fiib 
Present: . . aiO . . . . Jw flH) . . . . "BH) 

K) 

Examples: i) A'BJLaTB, to make^ Ai.iaH); 2) pHCOBaiB, to draw, 
piicyio ; n.ieeaTB, to spit, nwiioib ; 3) ry.wTB, to take a walk, ryjflH) ; 
4) HMiTB, to have, HMiK). 

2. The second conjugation embraces such verbs 
as end in the infinitive in mh preceded by u or o, 
and by other vowels with a changeable consonant, 
and the first person in the present of which is in 
V) preceded by a consonant (sometimes by a vowel) 
or, according to the nature of the hissing letters, 
in oicy^ ny, my and my. This conjugation is sub- 
divided into 7 branches, in the following order: 

\st br. zd br. yd br. 6,ih br. $ih br. 6th. br. -jth br. 

r '^ 6 "^ ^^^ --^ -^ -^ --^ 

H B HTb HTB HTB HTB IITB 

^ HTB J T C CT 

Infinitive: <; -fi tb M -BTB ^ "BTB ^ -BTB "BTB ^tb 

■' m aXB 3 K X CK 

n aiB aiB aiB aiB aiB 

Present: H) . . JK) . y . . jKy . . ^y . . my . . my. 

Examples: i) rOBOpiiTB, to speak, rOBOpib; Be.liTB, to order, 
Be./!lb; KOJOTB, to sting, KOJK); 2) .lH)6liTB, tO love, .1K)6.1H)J lepn-BTB, 



Lexicology, — the verb. 123 

to suffer, xepn^lK); 4peMaTb, to slumber, 4peM^H); 3) lyaCHTt, to 
grieve, xyHCy; KpimiB, to cry, Kpn^y; 4) BOAiiTB, to lead, BOHCy; 
BiUtTb, to see, BiiJKy; Masaxt, to anoint, Maacy; 5) njaxHTb, to 
pay, n.ia^y; BepxixB, to turn, Bep^y; n^aKaxB, to weep, n.ia^; 
6) npocpiXB, to ask, npomy; bhcbxb, to be suspended, BHUiy; naxaxB, 
to cultivate, nauiy ; 7) qHCXHXB, to clean, qiimy ; xpyCxixB, to crack, 
xpymy; HCKaxB, to seek, iimy. 

3. The third conjugation embraces the verbs end- 
ing in the infinitive in Hjmb and in epemb, the first 
person of which is in j preceded by a palatal con- 
sonant (h, p). This conjugation is subdivided into 
2 branches, thus: 

xsi branch. 2d branch. 

Infinitive: HyXB epexb 

Present: Hy py 

Examples: i) xanyxB, to draw, xflHy; 2) xepeXB, to rub, xpy. 

The three conjugations of the regular verbs and 

their various branches, as also the inflections of 

the moods, tenses and persons, are shown in the 
preceding table (pages 120 sq.). 

56. — In the conjugation of the regular verbs the ^° 
following rules relating to the formation of the ^^^j^'verb' 
various inflections are to be attended to. 



Formation 



I. The second person of the present is formed: a) from the 
first person in all the verbs of the 1st and Illd conjugation, 
as also in those of the lid in omb, and in anih when not 
preceded by a hissing consonant, by changing lo ox y into 
eiflB; b) from the infinitive in the verbs of the lid conjugation 
ending in M/»6, /5m6, and in amb preceded by a hissing con- 
sonant, by changing Mm6, ThJlflb or amb into HUIB. The other 
persons are formed from the second. The present has generally 
the following inflections: 



124 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



z 


, 


SINGULAR. 




I. 


. K) • . 


Y . H) y 


2. 


. . . euiL . 


• • 'J ^ J 

. . . euib .... Hint .... nuiL 


3- 


. . . eiT, . 


. . . en> .... HTT> .... HTT. 
PLURAL. 


I. 


. . . ewb . 


. . . eMT, .... HMT> .... IIMt 


2. 


. . . eie . 


. . . eie .... Hie .... me 


3- 


. . . K)TT> . 


. . . yX-L .... ATI .... HIT. (aiT.) 




For verbs of the 


For verbs of the 


For verbs of the 


For verbs of the 




I conjug. and for 


III conjug. and 


II conjug. istand 


II conjug. , 3rd, 




those in omb, ist 


for those in amb, 


2d br. (except 


4th, 5th, 6th and 




br. and in amfc, 2d 


4th, 5th, 6th and 


those in omb and 


7th br. (except 




br. of the II conj. 


7th br. of the II 


in amb). (Seethe 


those in amb not 




(See the parad. 


conjug. (See the 


paradigms 8, 9, 


preceded by a 




1.2. 3. 4.5,6, 
7, lo and 12.) 


paradigms 15, 17, 


and II.) 


hissing letter). 




19, 21, 22, 23, 24 




(See the para- 






and 25.) 




digms 13, 14, 16, 
18 and 20.) 



The third person of the plural ends in amz (instead of Jimz) 
after the hissing consonant (HC, ^, Ui, m), and this for the verbs 
of the third branch of the lid conjugation. (See paradigm 13). 

2. The preterit in verbs of the Ist and lid conjugation is 
formed from the infinitive by changing mh into Xh {fern, .la, 
neuf. AO; plur. A\\). The inchoative verbs of the Illd conju- 
gation syncopate the termination HyAZ into i> [fern, ja, neut. ao ; 
plur. jh), by suppressing the consonant A in the masculine, 
when no vowel immediately precedes; e. g. COXT>, Bfl.n> [fern. 
cox.ia, Bfl.ia, neut.co'LA0 1 ^Aao), instead of coxHyjiz, eAuyjiz, 
from COXHyiB, io dry; BaHyib, to fade. Occasionally the full form 
is used: e. g. MepSHyxt, to freeze, Mep3Hywn>; but in the in- 
choative prepositional verbs, the preterit is almost always 
syncopated, and this sometimes happens also in the aspect 
perfect of unity ; e. g. 3aMep3HyTb, to freeze, 3aMep3T), B03ABHrHyTB, 
to ered, BOSABHn. (instead of 3aMep3HyAZ, eoadeuzHyAZ). 

The non-inchoative verbs, as also the perfect aspect of 
unity, retain the termination HyAZ; e. g. Tanyjit, 4BJiHyJT>, 
from TflHyib, to draw; ABlinyTb, to move once. The verbs of 
the 2d branch of the Illd conjugation also syncopate the termi- 
nation of the preterit. (See the paradignis 22, 23, 24 and 25.) 

3. The imperative ends in the second person of the singular 
in w, 6, u or U, and is formed from the second person of 



Lexicology. — the verb. 125 

the present (or from the future, in the perfect aspect of dura- 
tion or of unity), by changing eULh or mub: 

a) into u, if the accent is on the termination of the infini- 
tive (paradigms 8, lo, II, 12, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22); 

b) into 6, if the accent is not on the termination of the 
infinitive (paradigms 13, 14, 17 and 24); 

c) into u, if, without having the accent, the termination of the 
inf. is preceded by two or three consonants (paradigms 20 & 23); 

d) into U, if the inflection eiuh or uuib of the second person 
is preceded by a vowel (paradigms i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9). 
The verbs in uuib preceded by a vowel, and with the accent 
on the last syllable, also take the inflection m, e. g. TaHTfc, 
to hide; noiiTB, to water; KJeHTL, to paste; imper.: Tail, nOH, K.ieii. 

The second person of the plural is formed by adding the 
syllable me to the inflection of the second person of the 
singular. The other persons have no peculiar inflection. The 
first person of the plural takes that of the future; e. g. 
fiyAGMt y^iiTLCa, let us study; nOH^eMT), let us go, and sometimes 
adding the syllable me, noil^eMie. The third person in both 
numbers takes that of the present or the future, preceded by 
the conjunctions nycmb or da, e. g. nycTB rOBOpiiTi., let him 
speak; 4a 34paBCTByeTI), let him live; ^a 6y4yTX, let them be. 

The second person singular of the imperative is sometimes 
used with the personal pronouns of the first and third person, 
in order to express the conditional vciood; e. g. CliJiaH hJO fl, 
if T should do that; CAijiafi aio OWh, if he were to do that; instead 
of ecJiu 6hi a (or oht>) 3 mo cdihAajiz. In the same manner 
the phrases : coxpami Bon>, God preserve! Aaft Bori>, God grant! 
take the place of the optative mood. 

Rem. There are some regular verbs which deviate slightly from 
the general rules, undergoing a trifling change either in the ist 
person of the pres., or in the imper.,as we shall subsequently point 
out. We remark lastly that there is but one verb which has its imper. 
in S ; it is the irregular verb je^b, to lie down; imper. : JifK'h^pl. Jflne. 

57. — Observine: these different rules for the forma- Paradigms 

, •" ^ . of the con- 

tion of the moods, tenses and persons, the active, jugations of 

regular 

neuter and pronominal regular Russian verbs are con- verbs. 
jugated according to the 25 following paradigms. 



126 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 





PARADIGMS OF THE THREE 


CONJU 


Para 
Bran 

CONJ 


I. INFINITIVE. 








n. I 


N D I 






























s i i 






I. PRESENT. 






g ? 1 

z 








^ 
























Singtilar. 






Plural. 


I. 


2. 


3" 


I. 


2. 


3- 


^I. I. 


ai^amft, to make 


/li.«aw, 


4l5Ja-eiub, 


eTT> 


crsvh. 


eie, 


lOT-b. 




r ^^ 


TOJOioedmh, to explain... . j to.ikjk), 


TO-iKy-enib, 


ex-b 


eMT>, 


eie, 


vn-h. 


H 


2.| 3. 


BOeedmb, to war 


BOWW, 


Boio-eiiib, 


et^ 


e.MT., 


eie, 


lorb 1 


CD , 


W. 


•^needvKb, to chew 


3Ky;d, 


^y-emb, 


erb 


eM-b, 


eie, 


lOTT,. 


(S4 


3-{r. 


TYJiAmb, to take a walk. . 


ry^^K,, 


ry.«a-emb, 


en* 


eMi, 


eie, 


lorb. 




C^.«m6, to sow 


c-Bm, 


cB-enib, 


eiT. 


, eM^, 


eie, 


M)Tl. 




W. 7. 


3K.eATri,mb, to grow yellow. 


JKCJT/fcM 


, ;KejrB-enib 


erb 


eM-b, 


eie, 


H)T-b. 


f C 8- 


XBaAiimb, to praise. . . . 


XBa^W, 


XB&.«-BIUb, 


HTl 


HMT,, 


HTe, 


iirb. 




x.<^ 9. 


crpdumb, to build. . 






cxpdw, 


CTp6-Hmb, 


HT-b 


HM-b, 


Hie, 


arb. 




^lO. 


KOAdmb, to sting. . 






KO^W, 


K6.i-eiiib, 


ei^ 


eji-b, 


ete, 


lOT-b. 




^■c 


M06umb, to love . . 






.lIOtfAW, 


.iK)6-Hmb, 


HT-b 


HM-b, 


Hie, 


ai-b. 


! 


^peMcimb, to slumber. 






4pe;»».iw 


4p6MJ-eiub, 


eT^ 


CM-b, 


eie, 


WT-b. 


Q 


3. 13- 


Myvumft, to torment. 






1 ^yr, 


>iyq-Hnib, 


HTb 


HMl, 


Hie, 


at-b. 




^■{::; 


Aadumb, to tune. . 
Baadmft, to tie. . . 






•BHoicy, 


.i&4-Hnib, 
BHW-enib, 


HT-b 

eTT> 


HM-b, 

ei-b, 


Hie, 
eie, 


RTh. 

yiT,. 


=•{::; 


JiAamumb, to pay. . 






JIA&Hf, 


n.<&T-HIUb, 


wt-h 


HMX, 


BTe, 


arb. 




nj&Kani6, to weep. 






1 nji&v, 


n.4&q-eiub, 


eiT) 


CM-b, 


eie, 


yrb. 




\i9. 


npoc«m6, to ask. . 






1 npoea/, 


np(')C-Hmb, 


WTh 


HM-b, 


Hie, 


aT-b. 




nacdmb, to write. . 






nauif, 


BHIU-eiUb, 


CTT, 


CMl, 


eie, 


yTl. 




/■20. 


^icmumb, to clean. 






1 IHffiJ, 


qHCT-HOIb, 


• HTT, 


HM-b, 


Hie, 


arb. 




UCKdmb, to seek. . 






Hu/y, 


um-enib, 


ei^ 


CM-b, 


eie, 


yx*. 




•tOHfmb, to draw. . 






Tfl»r, 


TflH-eiUb, 


eiT) 


; eMT,, 


eie, 


yrb. 


cdXHymb, to dry. • 






1 C6XHJ, 


c6xH-emb, 


eiT) 


; CMi, 


eie, 


yx-b. 


^ I 2. 25. 


hAnymb, to fade. 






BflHJ, 


BHH-enib, 


ei^ 


; eMT,, 


eie, 


yii. 


Tepemb, to rub, . . 






ll 


ip-enib, 


ei-b 


, eMi, 


eie, 


yiT,. 



With respect to the use of the tonic accent in the conjugations of regular verbs, the 
following rules are to be observed. 

I. The first person of the present takes the accent of the infinitive, with the exception of 
the verbs in oedmb and eedmb, in which the last syllable is accented. These verbs transfer 
the accent on the penultima, if this termination belongs to a derivative verb; but if the 
syllable oe or ee belongs to the root of the verb, they preserve the accent on the last 
syllable; thus TOJKOBaTb, BOeB^Tb (parad. 2 and 3) have in the present to-IKVIO, B0K)K); while 
jKeB^Tb (parad. 4) has >KyK); and also KOB&Tb, to forge, KyK); n.ieB&Tb, to spit, nJiOFO. The 
other persons of the present preserve the accent of the first person, with the exception of 
several verbs of the lid and Illd conjugation, accented on the last syllable, which transfer 
the accent on the penultima in the second and other persons of the singular and plural. 
(See the paradigms 8, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21 and 22.) 



1 




\ 


Lexicology. — the verb. 


127 






GATIONS 


OF REGULAR VERBS. 










C A T I V E. 


III.IMPERATIVE. 




II. PRETERIT. in. 


FUTURE. 


2^ /^ry. 






Singular 


Plural 1 










j^ 




/ -^ N 




^-"'-^ 


^^^-s 1 














■8 c masc. 


neut. 


fern. cg^ ^ 3 genders. 












A-hAdiA-b, 


aJO, 


a^a; ... 1 /HUJaJH. 




fl-BJiafi, 


file. 




TOJKOBaJI 


, &J0, 


a^ia; . 




S T0JK0B&4H. 




TOJKyB, 


fixe. 




1< 


BoeB&J-b, 


&40, 


a^a; . 




*S j BOeB&JH. 
® JKeB&JH. 


•1 


BOIofi, 


HTC. 1 




vne^AT,, 


a^o, 


a.ia; . 




« 


>KyH, 


HTc. ; 




K 

« 


TYAAA-h, 


H^O, 


H^a; . 




s ryjflJH. 


1* • 


ryjiflfi,. 


Bxe. { 




1 


ctaj-b. 


flJO, 


fl.ia ; . 




g> cia^H. 1 


« 


CUB, 


fixe. ! 




.^- ^ jKe JT'B j-b, 


-640, 


*ja; . 




^ ^^JKCJTfiJH. 




MveJuiB, 


Bxe. j 

i 




( XBaJHJl, 


HJO, 


HJia; . 




^ XBa^H JH. 


XBaJH, 


Hxe. 






crpdHJ-B, 


H40, 


HJa; . 






CTP6HJH. 


? • 


cxpoB, 


Hxe. 




s 


KOAbA-b, 


640, 


6Ja; . 






K0J6JH. 


>. • 


K04a, 


Hie. 




^lOfiBJ-b, 


HJO, 
&J0, 


HJ[a; . 
a^a; . 






ApeM^jfE. 


g : 


A}o6a, 
4peMJH, 


Hxe. , 
Hie. 




'1 


MyqH^T., 


HJO, 


HJa; . 




■s 


MyqH^H. 


5S 


Myqb. 


bie. 




AkmA-b, 

BRSkA-b, 


H40, 


Hja; . 
a^a; . 




l< 


BH3&4H. 


f • 


jaAb, 

BHJKH, 


bxe. 
Hxe. 




s 


njaTHd-b, 


H-IO, 


HJa; . 




s 


HJaTHJH. 


jT . 


HJraTH, 


Hie. 




npocHJi, 


ajo, 

HJO, 


aja; . 
HJa; . 






n4&KaJH. 

npOCHJH. 


a . 


n^aib, 
npocH, 


bie. 
Hie. 




"T 


UmkAT>, 


ajo, 


&ja; . 






HHC&JH. 


HHUIH, 


Hie. 




> 


qHCTH^-b, 


HJO, 


HJa; . 






qHCTH^H. 1 


t . 


quCTH, 


Hie. 




^ ^CKkA-b, 


ajo, 


&Ja; . 




^HCK&JH. 


O 


HIUH, 


Hie. 




» (imYA-h, 


yjo, 


yja; . 




. 's fiaHyjH. 1 


TflHH, 


Hie. 




* 1 COXl, 

1 ^ jiaA-b, 


XJO, 
flJO, 


xja; . 




. °. ' C6XJH. 
. S "^ BHJH. 




C6XHH, 
BflHb, 


Hxe. 
bxe. 




<f iTepi, 


pjo, 


pja; . 




1 iTepJH. 




ipH. 


Hxe. 





g. The preterit retains the accentuation of theinfinitive, andthatinall the inflections, excepted 
po/lUTb, to bring forth, prei. pOAU J^, /. p04H4&, n. p04H.lO, pi. pojHJH, and some verbs of the 
Illd conjugation, which, as well as the irregular verbs, follow the rules of adjectives in the 
apocopated termination, i. e. the accent is often transferred to the last syllable, sometimes only 
in the feminine gender, and at other times in the neuter and in the plural, as we shall see later. 

3. The accentuation of the imperative is above indicated in the formation of this mood. 

4. The pronominal verbs preserve the accentuation of the active verbs; however some of 
these verbs transfer the accent to the reflected pronoun cr, as po^H^cfl, he is born, sanepca, 
it shut itself up; but that happens only in the masculine gender; in the feminine and 
neuter , as well as in the plural , the accent is placed on the syllable which precedes the 
pronoun (po^H^^cb, 3anepj6cb, &:c.). This transferring happens above all in the mono- 
syllable verbs, as 3BaJCfl, Baa^Cfl, 4a.1Cfl, &c. 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



First conju- According to the 1st paradigm {jyhAdiTh) are conjugated verbs 
in anib, as well simple as prepositional (with the exception 
of those in oeamb and eeamb, which belong to the three 
following paradigms, and of several in amb, which are of the 
second conjugation). Such are: 



BoJTaTb, to shake, pres. 6o^Taio. 
BtHqaTb, to crown, BtH'^aiO. 
4ep3aTb, to dare, 4ep3aH). 
4yMaTb, to think, 4yMaio. 
.^acKaTb, to caress, aslcksoO. 
IIuTaTb, to assay, nwTaH). 
IleqaTaTb, to print, neq&Taio. 
Pa66TaTb, to work, pa66TaK). 
IlHTaTb, to nourish, nHTaH). 
HioiaTb, to smell, Hioxaio. 
Tepa&Tb, to worry, Tepa&H). 
y'MHHqaTb, to subtilize, yMHHqaio. 
y«ac&Tb, to terrify, yjKaciK). 



YnoB&Tb, to hope, pres. ynOBiiiO. 
06o}K&Tb, to adore, o6o»&io. 
OTBti&Tb, to answer, OTBtq&K). 
06Bm&Tb, to promise, ofitmaH). 
0T4ijMBaTb, to finish, OTAi-iUBaio. 
y CMaipHBaTb, to perceive, ycMaipHBaiO. 
SaKpuB^Tb, to cover, aaKpUBaiO. 
HaAMBBdTbjto render proud,Ha/!iMeB&lO. 
OSypeBaib, to agitate, ofiypeB&K). 
OxMmeBaTb, to avenge, OTMn^eB&K). 
3A0p6BaTbCH, to salute, 340p6BaK)Cb. 
Kac&TbCA, to concern, KacaiOCb. 
HaM'BpeBaTbcH , to purpose, -B&K)Cb. 



Also AaBaib, ^0 give, as the prepositional verbs ySHaBaiB, /<? 
know; AOCiaBaTB, to procure (and with other prepositions) and 
COa^aBaXB, to build, which have in the present: 4310, ySHaib, 
AOCiaib and coSAaib, and in the imperative: /^aBafi, ySHaBaH, 
AOCiaBau and C034aBaft. — Some prepositional verbs in bieamb, 
e. g. nOKaSblBait, to shaiu; yKaauBaTB, to indicate; nOMaSLiBaiL, 
to anoint; HcnOBiAblBaiB, to confess, belong also to the following 
branch, having the present tense in hieaio and in yw: nOKaSbl- 
Baio and noKaayio, noMaSbiBaio and noMa3yio, &c. 

According to the 2nd paradigm (lOJlKOBaTB) are conjugated 
verbs in oeamb (with the exception of ynoedmb and 3dopd- 
eambCH, which belong to the precedent paradigm), which have 
in the present jyw, observing that those in oeamb accented 
on the last syllable transfer the accent to y, if this termina- 
tion belongs to a derivative verb, but they preserve it on the 
last syllable, if the syllable 06 belongs to the root of the verb. 
Such are: 



BopKOB&Tb, to coo, pres. BopKyK). 
ToproB&Tb, to traffic, lopryio. 
Ba.iOB&Tb, to cocker, fia.iyK). 
KoBaTb, to forge, Kyio. 
CHOBaib, to warp, CHyio. 
COBaTb, to shove, cyK). 



Shmob&tb, to winter, pres. 3HMyK). 
HsieHOBaTb, to name, HMeHyK). 
It'BJOBaTb, to kiss, i;'l5jyH). 
PncoB&Tb, to draw, pHcyiO. 
OopasoBaTb, to form, ofipasyK). 
PaAOBaib, to rejoice, pa4yiO. ' 



Lexicology. — the verb. 129 

Tp^CoBaib, to require, /rd'i-. Tp66yK). HpHBliTCTBOBaTb , to welcome, pres. 

yyBCTBOBaTb, to feel, qyBCTByio. npHB-BTCiByio. 

CoBUTOBaTb, to counsel, coBBTyio. IIOBHHOBaTbca , to obey, noBBHy- 

Mii-iOBaib, to have pity, MH.iyio. locb. 

According to the 3d paradigm (BOCBaTl.) are conjugated 
verbs in eeamb (with the exception of those in eeartih pre- 
ceded by a hissing consonant, which belong to the following 
paradigm, and of HadMeedmb, o6xpeedmb, omMui,eedmb and 
HaMJhpeedmbCR, which belong to the first paradigm), which 
have in the present wto, with the same observation relatively 
to the tonic accent as for verbs in oeanib. Such are: 

ropcBaib, to grieve, ^res. ropiOH). K.ieBaib, to peck, pres. K.iiOK). 

4HeB^Tb, to pass the day, mwVi. H-ieBaib, to spit, nJWK). 

y'TpcHHeBarb, to pass the morning, BjeBaib, to vomit, 6jIH)i6. 

Ma.ieBaib, to paint, MaJioK). [-hk)io. DeKJeBaib, to bolt, neK.iioio. 

According to the 4th paradigm (HteBaib) are conjugated verbs 
in eeamb preceded by a hissing consonant (ac, ^i, m, m), whicH 
have in the present ym (instead of Wfo) ; such are : 

BpaqeB&Tb, to cure, pres. Bpaqyio. TymeB^Tb, tj wash a drawing , /r^j. 

KoqeBS,Tb, to nomadize, Koqyio. jyniyio. 

HoqeBaTb, to pass the night, Hoqyio. XBOmes^Tb, to rub with horse-tail, 

MeJKCBaTb, to survey, MeatyH). XBomyio. 

BynieB&Tb, to howl, 6ymyio. HdiqeBaTb, to regale, noiqyK). 

This last verb is also written nodiueanib, and then it belongs 
to the first branch, having in the present: nOAiiisaK). 

According to the 5th paradigm (ryjHTb) are conjugated all 
the verbs in Mntb preceded by a consonant, as well simple 
as prepositional, and also four simple verbs in /imb preceded 
by a vowel, and some prepositional verbs in OMmb, in which 
Jimb is contracted from ueamb. These verbs have the present 
in RH). Such are: 

Ba.iaTb, to roll, pres. Ba.iflK). YrojaTb, to quench, pres. yio-iaio. 

BoHaib, to stink, BOHaio. HaBHHaxb, to excuse, HSBHHaio. 

Kam-iaTb, to cough, Kanuaio. HoB-BpaTb, to verify, noBbpaio. 

M'BHaib, to change, Mtnaio. YiOMJaib, to fatigue, yTOM.iaio. 

Ko3bipaTb, to trump, KOSbipaio. Baaib, to sculpture, saaio. 

KpHB-iaib, to contort, KpHB.iaio. Siaib, to gape, aiaw. 

TepaTb, to lose, lepaio. Daaxb, to. solder, naaio. 

CTp^jaib, to shoot, ciptjaio. Claib, to shine, ciaK). 

flB.iaib, to show, aB-iaio. YcTpoaib, to arrange, ycipoaio. 

K.iaHaibca, to salute, K-ianaiocb. YaBoaTb, to double, yjBOaio. 

9 



I30 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

According to the 6th paradigm (ciaifc) are conjugated verbs 
in Hmb preceded by a vowel (with the exception of those 
which belong to the precedent paradigm, and of cmOHmb and 
60HmbCR, which belong to the first branch of the lid conju- 
gation). They have the present in to; such are: 
B&HTh, to speak, pres. 6a K). T4aTb, to thaw, pres. t&K). ' 

B^ieflTb, to bleat, rt.ieio ^kaTh, to hope, i&h). 

Boniaib, to cry, Bonlio. ^ysTb, to hear, qyio. 

BtHTb, to blow, BtH). K&HTbCfl, to do penance, K&lOCb. 

Tp&flTb, to croak, rpaio. M&flTbca, to languish, M&iocb. 

.'le.l'feHTb, to cocker, ^e-i^io. CMliHTbCfl, to laugh, CMtrocb. 

According to the 7th paradigm (wejT-BTb) are conjugated the 
inchoative and some other verbs in Thirib, which have the 
present in JbH), (the non-inchoative in Tbmb belong to the various 
branches of the second conjugation). Such are: 

Jo-hA-kth, to grow white, ^^^. C-fiJ-fiM). Pw5KT>Tb, to grow rufous, /r^j. pwJKf.lO. 

rojy6iTb, to become azure, ro.iyOiio. TpyfitTb, to grow harsh, rpyftBK). 

Co^osilb, to grow light bay, COJOB fiio. lepHtTb, to grow black, lepniio. 

Pa66Tb, to become freckled, pH6hio. IIOT-feTb, to sweat, noxiio. 

KpacHnib, to grow red, KpacHBK). IIjaMeHtTb, to flame, nJameHBio. 

B.ia4t>Tb, to possess, B4a46K). KoJliib, to starve, KO^-BH). 

r.iaa-feTb, to gaze, r^aaBH). KocHtib, to linger, kochbh). 

ToBiib, to keep fast, roBiio. Heqar^iTb, to impress, neqawiio. 

4o^'BTb, to overcome, 40-lt.K). HM-feTb, to have, HM-tK>. 

3Ka-ltTb, to have pity, JKaJBK). YMBTb, to know, yMBK). 

CHHiib, to grow blue, chhbh). Paaiifc, to take care, pa4RK). 

C-fi/liTb, to grow grey, cfi^tK). EoJ-feTb, to ache, 6046io. 

The verb 6oAihmb belongs also to the first branch of the 
lid conjugation, having in the present ^MiiO and do.llb, 60jI- 
ieuib and ddHiUfc, &c. — The prepositional verb Bbl340pOB'BTL, 
to recover (perfect aspect of 6bl3dopdeJlueamb), belongs also to 
the second branch of the lid conjugatioji, having in the future 
BLiSAOpOBtH) and Btl340pOBJH), but only in the first person, the 
others being: Bbl340pOB'BemB, eXB, &c. 
Second According to the 8th paradigm (XBaJHTb) are conjugated 
conjugation. ^gj.^g in unib preceded by a palatal consonant (j, h, p), and 
also by another consonant, as those, non-inchoative, in Arbmb, 
HTbmb, pTbmb, observing that several verbs of the second 
conjugation, accented in the infinitive and in the first person 
of the present on the last syllable, transfer the accent to 
the penultima in the second and other persons of the present. 
Such are: 



Lexicology. — the verb. 131 

BpaHHTb, to scold, pres. fipaHK), fipa- KoHMHTb, to edge, pres. koBmk), -hioi. 

Hinub. KJeHMHTb, to stamp, kjchmk), -anib. 

Bece.iHTb, to divert, Bece4K),Bece-iHnib. ry4HTb, to fiddle, ryaw, ry^anib. 

BHHiiTb, to accuse, bhhk), BHHunib. 4y4HTb, to pipe, 4y4J6, 4y4HUib. 

BtpHTb, to believe, B'Bpio, BipHiUb. Mep3HTb, to abhor, Mepaio, MepsHUXb 

roBopuTb, to speak, roBopK),roBopHuib. Tyanib, to cuff, Tyaio, TysHinb. 

CwOjIHTb, to pitch, CM04H), CMO-lHnib. Ky46CHTb, to juggle, Ky46cio, Ky4^- 
4BJHTb, to divide, 4'l3-tl6, 4'BJHlUb. CHnib. 

CKo64HTb,toscrape,CKo6-iK),CK66^Hmb. qy4eCHTb, to behave oddly, iy46cK), 
4pa3HHTb, to provoke, 4pa3HK), 4P^3- qy46cHnib. 

HHDib. Bejiib, to order, bcjio, Be^Hfflb. 

XopoHHTb, to hide, xopoHK), xop6HHiUb. Top-BTb, to burn, ropio, ropHHlb. 

KypHTb, to smoke, KypK), Kypnuib. SBentTb, to sound, sbchk), SBeHHOib. 

BapHTb, to boil, BapK), Bapanib. CMOipiib, to look, csiOTpio, CMdrpHUib. 

And also MblCJHTt, to think, which changes c into m in the 
first person of the present: Mbiui^iH), MtlCJHUlB, &c.: imperative: 
MMCjIH ; and the prepositional verb H30CTpHTt, to sharpen (perfect 
aspect of u30iu,pAmb), which changes cm into lu, in the first 
person of the future: H30mpH), HSOCTpiifflb, &c. 

According to the 9th paradigm (CTpOHTt) are conjugated 
verbs in umb preceded by a vowel, as the two simple verbs 
in o/imb, observing that the verbs in umb of this branch, 
accented on the last syllable, have the imperative in u. 
Such are: 

4B0HTb, to double^ pres. 4B0K); zw/. CT6HTb, to cost,/^^^. ct6iO; z'mp.ciou, 

4B0H. CB6HTb, to appropriate, cb6io; cboh. 

4oHTb, to milk, 40K); 40H. IIoK6HTb, to give repose, noK6K);|noK(3fi. 

K^eHTb, to glue, KJeio; K^ea. PoHTbca, to swarm, pOK); pOHCH. 

IIOHTb, to give to drink, noi6; noH. CiaHTbca, to fly in flocks, ciaiocb; 

KpOHTfc, to cut, KpOK); KpOH. CTaHCfl. 

CipyHTb, to pour, CTpyio; cipyn. BoaTbcs, to fear, 6oi6cb; 66Hca. 

TaHTb, to hide, laio; laH. Cxoflib, to stand, ctoio; ctoh. 

According to the loth paradigm (KOJOTb) are conjugated 
verbs in omb, as two verbs in amb; these are: 

l}0p6Tb, to vanquish, pres. fiopK), nop6!rb, to rip, pres. nopK), n6penib. 

65pemb. [perabCH. Fjard^aib, to say, tjislt6mo, r^aro- 

Bop6Tbca, to wrestle, 6opK)Cb, 66- Aeaih. 

no.i6Tb, to weed, no aw, nd.ienib. Op&ib, to plough, opio, 6peiiib. 

And also MOJOTt, to grind, which has in the present : Mejib, 
Mejeuib, &c. and in the imperative MClii (instead of MOA/b, 
MOJieuib, MOAU, not to be confounded Avith MOJH), MO^iHinb, 

9* 



132 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



MOJii, from MOJHTL, to pray). — The verb opaifc in the sense 
of to cry belongs to the third conjugation. 

According to the nth paradigm (.iwdHTt) are conjugated 
verbs in unib preceded by a labial consonant (6, B, M, n, *), 
as the non-inchoatives in 6lhmb, Mrtmb , nibmb, which insert 
the consonant A in the first person of the present (with the 
exception of KAetiMUmb and KOUMUmb, which belong to the 
first branch of the lid conjugation, of UMThmb and yMlhmb, 
which belong to the 4th branch of the 1st conjugation, and 
of iuu6umb, which belongs to the first branch of the Hid con- 
jugation). Such are: 

Py6HTb, to hew,/r^i^.py6ji6, pyfiflUib. PtaBHTbCfl, to sport, prt's. p-BaB.lfOCb, 

3Ho6HTb, to chill, 3H06-IK), 3Ho6HiiFb. p-B3BHmbca. 

TpyCHTb, to be saucy, rpyfiJK), rpy- CKopfiBib, to sorrow, CKop6JK),p6uuib. 

6Hmb. CsepfiiTb, to itch.csepfi^K), cBepfiuuib. 

yloBHTb, to catch, 40B.IK), .i6BHuib. TpeM-BTb, to thunder, rpeMJi6,rpeMHiub. 

roT6BHTb, to prepare, rOT6BJK), rOT6- IDyMiib, to racket, luyM.iK), lUVMHUib. 

BHiiib. KHnixb, to boil, KHn^K), KHnihub. 

^MMiiTb, to smoke, 4MMJ16, 4MMHmb. KopntTb, to work, KOpn.iK), Kopnuuib. 



Con-BTb. to wheeze, con.iK), conHOib. 
CKpan-fiTb, to creak, CKpan-iK), CKpH- 

nuiiib. 
TepnBTb, to suffer, Tepn.iK), TepnHnib. 
Xpan tTb, to snore, xpan.iio, xpaniiiub. 
please, HpaBJiOCb, XpHntib, to croak, xpHn.iiOjXpHniiiub. 
UlHHBTb, to hiss, lUHn^K), niHniiiub. 



KopMHrb,tonourish,KOpM.lio,K6pMHnib 
ToHHTb, to heat, Ton.iio, T6nHUib. 

.rtHHTb, to mould, AtnAH), A-hUHUlb 

rpa*iiTb, to rule, rpa*.iK), rpa*iiiub. 
Tpa*UTb, to hit, Tpa*.iK), Tpa*Hmb. 
HpaBHTbCfl, 

HpABHIUbCfl 



And also the prepositional verb] yMepTBiiTL, to pit to death 
(perfect aspect oi yMepmfiJiAmb), which changes m into m^ in 
the first person of the future: yMepiUBJK), yMepiBHUlb, &c. 

According to the 12th paradigm (^peMait) are conjugated 
verbs in 6amb, Manib, namb, which insert also the consonant 
A in the first person of the present, and retain it in the other 
persons as in all the inflections derivated from this first person. 
These are: 

And thus the following verbs which 
belong also to the ist branch of the 
first conjugation. [306aK). 

3o6aTb, tp peck up, pres. 306.IK) and 
Kanaib, to drop, KanJH) and KanaK). 



3M6aTb, to wave, pres. 3m6ji6, 3bi- 

fijenib. [fi^eiub. 

K0Je6aTb, to shake, K0Je6.iK), KO.16- 
KJen&Tb, to impute, K.ienJK), K.16- 

n.ienib, 
Tpen^Tb, to scutch, Tpen.iio, Tp^n^euib. Kpanaib, to dash, Kpan^io and Kpanaio. 



menaxb, to chip, men.iro, m^n.ienib. 
mHn&Tb, to pinch, man.iK), man-ieuib. 



XpOMaTb, to be lame, xpoM.lK) and 
xpOM&M). 



Cunaxii, to strew, cwn.no, cwn.ieiub {wiper, cunb, instead of cbitiAh). 



Lexicology. — the verb. 



133 



And also UMdmb, to take, which now is used only with a 
preposition, as npHHHMaTb, to receive, pres. npieMJEO and npHHHMaiO, 
and with other prepositions. 

According to the 13th paradigm (MyiHTb) are conjugated 
verbs in urnb and amb with a hissing consonant (JK, q, m, m), 
as one verb in mibmb (with the exception of the verbs in amb, 
which belong in the first conjugation). Such are: 

H'B/KHTb, to nurse, J>res. H-fiJKy, H-fi- CyniHTB, to dry, pres. cyniy, cyiuituib. 

>KHmb. [ApysKHmb. ./lejK&Tb, to lie, JeiKy, 4e5KHrab. 

4py>KHTb, to make friends, apyJKy, 4ep3K&Tb, to hold, 4ep>Ky, A^pJKHfflb. 

K6piiHTb, to shrivel, K6pqy, K6pqHnib. KpHi^Tb, to cry, KpHiy, KpHiumb. 

CTpauiHTb, to frighten, cipamy, CTpa- Mo^q^Tb, to be silent, M04qy,M0JqHmb. 

muiub. CiyqaTb, to knock, ciyqy, CTyiHiub. 

BomHTb, to wax, Bomy, Bomnnib. IIuniaTb, to burn, numy, nwraHnib. 

Aoia,yith, to gloss, -lomy, ^lomHiub. jyvLmkn, to breathe, 4Mmy, 4i>iinHiUb. 



C^yaJHTb, to serve, c^ysKy, c.iya?Hrab, 
^eiHTb, to cure, Je^y, A^^v^mb. 
y'qHTb, to teach, yiy, yiHoib. 



IlHm&Tb, to pipe, HHmy, nHQ^unib. 
Tpem&Tb, to burst, Tpemy, Tpemnnib, 
KHiu-BTb, to swarm, KHiuy, KHniHinb. 



According to the 14th paradigm (.ia4HTL) are conjugated 
verbs in dumb and 3umb, as well as the non-inchoatives in 
dfbmb (with the exception of eydiimb, dydumb, Mepsumb, 
mysumb and some others, which belong to the first branch 
of this second conjugation); these verbs change d and 3 into 
0/C in the first person of the present. Some verbs in dumb 
have retained the Slavonian change of d into otcd in the first 
person of the present. Such are: 

BpeAUTb, to hurt, pres. BpesKy, Bpe- VsHTb, to narrow, /r^^. yJKy, ysHUib, 

4Hiub. Mop63HTb, to frteze, Mop65Ky, Mop6- 
r^iaJiHTb, to even, r.iaHcy, r-ia4Hiub. 3Hnib. 

ma/lHTb, to spare, ma^y, ma4«iub. Bo3HTb, to carry, BO^Ky, B63Hrab. 

Po4HTb, to bring forth, pOJKy, p04HiUb. BiUtTb, to see, BHHty, (/;«/. BH4b and 
.'Iy4HTb, to tin, jyJKy, 4y4Hiub BH5K4b). 

Hy4HTb, to compel, Hy;Ky, Hy4Hiub. r4a4'6Tb, to look, rJtasKy, rJH4Hinb. 



By4HTb, to waken, 6y>Ky, 6y4Hnib. 
Bo4HTb, to lead, Boaty, B64Hiub. 
Cep4UTb, to anger, cepiKy, c6p4Hrab. 
Cy4HTb, to judge, cyjKy, cy4Huib. 
Xo4HTb, to go, xojKy, x64Hmb. 
TpysHTb, to lade, rpyacy, rpysHiub. 
E^H3HTb, to approach, fi.iHHcy, fi.iu- 

SHOIb. 

rpo3HTb, to menace, rpojKy, rposHiub. 
HH3HTb, to lower, HiiMcy, HH3Hrab. 



CH4BTb, to sit, CH5Ky, CH4Hmb. 

CMep4'BTb, to stink, c>iepa«y, CMep- 

4Hnib. 
y6li4HTb, to persuade, fui. y6'B5K4y, 

y6l;4Hmb. 
Harpa4HTb, to reward, HarpaHC4y, 

Harpaaunib. 
B036y4HTb, to excite, B03fiy5K4y, 

B036y4Hinb. ■ [ynpe4Hrab. 

ynpe4HTb, to prevent, ynpe5K4y, 



134 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



According to the 15th paradigm (Basaib) are conjugated 
some verbs in 3amb, zantb and damb, which change 3, z and 
d into QIC for all the persons of the present, as well as for 
the inflections formed from this tense. These are: 

Maaaib, to anoint, pres. MaHcy, Ma- FJoaaTb, to %xva.\v, pres. r.lo>Ky, r.i6- 

;Keiub. 4emb. 

Ptsaib, to cut, pijKy, pt/Kenib. And thus the following verbs which 

KasaTb, to show, Kawy, K&Kenib. belong also to the istbr. of 1st. conjug. 

Ka3aTbca,toseem,Ka3Kycb,K&5KembCfl. 4BuraTb, to move, 4BH3Ky and ^Buraio. 

HHSaTb, to thread, HHSKy, HHMtenib. Tflraibca, to be at law, lasKycb and 

.IflSaTb, to lick, JHMty, JHJKenib. Taraiocb. 

BpiiaraTb, to splash, fiphiaJKy, 6piJ3- CipyraTb, to plane, cipyHcy and 

JKenib. ciporaK) (instead of cmpyidw). 

According to the i6th paradigm (n.iaTHTl>) are conjugated 
verbs in mumb, as well as the non-inchoatives in mrbnib (with 
the exception of some verbs in mumb which belong to the 
20th paradigm), which change m into u in the first person of 
the present. Such are: 

BHHTHTb, to screw, pres. BBHqy, bhh- KaTHTb, to roll, pres. Kaiy, K^Tflnib. 
THiub. Mo.iOTUTb, to thrash, MOJoqy, moj6- 

SoJOTHTb, to gild, 30J0qy, 30-lOTHIUb. THHIB. 

3a66THTb, t J busy, 3a66qy, 3a66THnib. CBtTHTb, to light, CBBqy, CB-BTHiub. 

n6pTHTb, to spoil, n6pqy, n6pTHnib. IIIyTHTb, to joke, niyqy, myTHnib. 

MyiHTb, to muddy, Myqy, MyTHiub. KojoiHTb, to knock, KO4oqy,K0.i6THmb. 

KpyiHTb, to twist, Kpyiy, KpyiHiub. Bepitib, to turn, Bepqy, BepiHiub. 

MixHXb, to aim, Biiqy, mBthiub. Aeriib, to fly, Ae^y, JeiHiub. 

TpftTHTb, to spend, xp&qy, Tp&THfflb. HuxT-BTb, to puff, nuzqy, nuxiHinb. 

According to the 17th paradigm (n.iaKaTb) are conjugated 
several verbs in mamb and h'amb, which change m and k into 
H for all the persons of the present, and for the inflections 
formed from this tense. Such are. 



IIpflTaTb, to hide, pres. npaiy, npa- 

qemb [6op>i6qenib. 

BopMOTaTb, to murmur, 6opMoqy, 
AenetiTb, to chatter, .Jeneqy, Jien& 

qenib. 
ToniaTb, to tread town, xoniy, T6n- 

qenib. [n6qemb. 

XJionOTkih, to bustle, xjonoiy, xao- 
XoxoT^Tb, to laugh aloud, xoxoqy, 

xox6qenib. 
lUeniaxb , to whisper, menq y,ni6nqemb. 
UleKOTaib, to tickle, mcKoqy, K6qeuib. 



Ky4&XTaTb, to cackle, pres. Ky4axqy, 

Ky^axqenib. 
K.iHKaib, to call, KJHqy, K-iaqenib. 
CKaK&Tb, to leap, CKaqy, CKaqeiub. 
TbiKaTb, to thurst, ihiqy, itiqemb. 

And thus the following verbs which 
belong also to the ist branch of 
the first conjugation. 
A.lK&Tb, to long, a4qy and a.iK&K). 
HkAtb, to hickup, Hqy and hk&K). 
XHUKaib, to sob, xHuqy and xHUKaw. 
MexaTb, to cast, Meqy and MeiaK). 



Lexicology. — the verb. 



135 



According to the i8th paradigm (npOCHTt) are conjugated 
verbs in curtih (with the exception of Kydecumb and lydecumb 
which belong to the first branch of the lid conjugation), and 
also one non-inchoative in cihnib, which change c into m in 
the first person of the present. Such are: 
pres. BAKOiy, 



B&KCHTb , to black 
B^KCHOIb. 

BicHTb, to weigh, siniy, BtCHiub, 
KB&CHTb, to leaven, KB&iuy, KBiCHnib 
KpaCHTb, to colour, Kp&uiy, KpaCHUib 
KocHTb, to mow, Komy, KOCHiub. 
BliCHTb, to madden, 6tniy, fi'tCHUib. 



TpycHTb, to be dfraid, pres. ipyuiy, 

Tpycanib, 
PocHTb, to bedew, poiuy, pocHUib. 
TacHTb, to put out, rauiy, r^cHuib. 
M-6CHTb, to knead, iwfiiuy, MBCHlUb. 
HocHTb, to bear, Homy, H6cHmb. 
BacBTb, to hang, BHiuy, bhchuib. 



According to the 19th paradigm (iiHCaTb) are conjugated 
some verbs in camb and xamb, which change c and x into 
m for all the persons of the present, as well as for the in- 
flections formed of this tense. These are: 
YLARCkrh, to dance, pres. njflniy, And thus the two following verbs 



njamenib. 
HoflcaTb, to gird, noauiy, noaraemb. 
TecaTb, to hew, leuiy, i^menib. 
^ecaTb, to comb, ^leuiy, qemenib. 
BpexaTb, to yelp, 6peiuy, 6p6meiub. 
IlaxaTb, to plough, naiuy, nanieuib. 



which belong also to the ist branch 

of the first conjugation. 

KoJbixaTb, to swing, pres. KOJtimy 

and KOJbixaK). 
MaxaTb, to fan, siamy, Maiuenib and 

MaxaH). 



According to the 20th paradigm (qiicTUTfc) are conjugated 
verbs in cmumb and the non-inchoatives in cmrbnib, which 
change cm into lUf in the first person of the present. Some 
verbs in munib, which have retained the Slavonian change of 
m into Uif, belong also to this paradigm. Such are: 

TpycTHTb, to grieve, pres. rpymy, IIpeTHTb, to forbid, pres. npemy, 

rpycTHiub. npcTHiub. 

FocTHTb, to visit, romy, rocTHnib. CBaiHib, to sanctify, CBamy, cBaTanib. 



KpeCTHTb, to christen, Kpemy, Kp6- 

CTHmb. 
MoCTHTb, to floor, MOmy, MOCTHIUb. 

HecTHTb, to treat, lemy, qecTHiub. 



CuTHTb, to satiate, Cbimy, cuTiiiub. 
XHTHTb, to ravish, XHmy, xHTHiub. 
noctTUTb, to visit, fut. noc-fimy, 

nOCfiTHDIb. 



BjiecT-tTb, to shine, 6jemy, 6jecTHiub. YKpoiHTb, to appease , yKpomy, Kpo- 

CBHCliTb, to whistle, CBHmy, CBHCTHIUb. TillUb. 



XpycT-bTb, to cranch , xpymy, -CTiimb. 
npocTHTb, to pardon, fjtt. npomy, 

npOCTHnib. [CTHIUb. 

IlycTHTb, to let go, fttt. nymy, ny- 
BoraiHTb, to enrich, /r(?j. 6oramy, 60- 
raiHuib. 



CoKpaiHTb, to shorten, coKpamy, co- 

Kpaiuaib. 
npocBlJTUTb, to enlighten, npocB^my, 

npocB-bCTHiub. 
Bo3BpaTHTb, to return, B03Bpamy, 

BoaBpaxHoib. 



136 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

The verbs npOCTiiTfc, nyCTHTL, nocSTUTL and following, are 
the perfect aspects of npoiii,dmb, nycKdnib, nocrbiu,dmb, ynpo- 
Ui,dmb^ coKpaiUfdmb, npocerbWfdmb , eoaepaiu^dmb ; thus the in- 
flections npomy, nymy, noctmy, ynpomy, &c., are future tenses. 

According to the 21st paradigm (uCKaib) are conjugated 
some verbs in CKamb and cmanib, as well as four verbs in 
mamb, which change CK and cm, or m, into lUf for all the 
persons of the present, and for the inflections formed of this 
tense. These are: 

n.iecKaTb, to splash, ^res. nAem,}', CKpeHJeiaTb, to gnash, />res. CKpe- 

n46meiub. JKemy, cKpesK^menib. 

PbicKaib, to run, pumy, pumenib. TpencTaxb, to tremble, ipenemy. 

IIoJocKdTb, to rinse, no.iomy, no46- Tpendmenib. 

meiub. And thus the two following verbs 

CBHCTaxb, to whistle, CBHmy,CBHmenib. which belong also to the ist branch 

X.iecTaTb, to lash, x^iemy, X46memb. of the first conjugation. 

XBOCTaib, to brush, xBomy, xB6menib. BjHCTaTb, shine, 64emy, 6-i^memb and 

K^eBeTaib, to slander, K.iCBemy, 6JHCTaio. 

K4eB6menib. ITpwcKaib, to sprinkle, npwmy and 

PoniaTb, to murmur, ponmy, p6niiienib. npwcKaio. 

According to the 22d paradigm (TflHyil)) are conjugated 
verbs in Hymby as well as four verbs in amb and one in nmb, 
which have in the present y, observing that some of these 
verbs, accented on the last syllable in the first person of the 
present, transfer the accent to the penultima in the second 
and other persons of the present. The perfect aspect of unity 
belongs also to this paradigm, but the form Hy of these verbs 
is a future tense. Such are: 

ToHyTb, to sink, pres. TOHy, idHeiiib. Ki'iHyxb, to c&st,/7d. khhv, KHHemb. 

PaxHyTbca, to be crazed, paxHycb, Bepnyib, to turn, Bepny, Bepnenib. 

paxHeuibCfl. CBucHyib, to whistle, CBucny, cbhc- 
5K&acflaTb, to desire, ;K&}K4y, :k&3K- nemb. 

4erab. rpanyTb, to thunder, rpaHj', rpaHenib 

Op&Tb, to cry, opy, operab. TjanyTb, to look, rjany, rjaHCfflb. 

Coc&Tb, to suck, cocy, cocenib. ^BHHyib, to move, 4BHHy, 4BHHemb. 

CTOH&Tb, to groan, cTony, CTdnerab. OfiManyTb, to cheat, ofiMany, o6Ma- 
PeBtTb, to roar, peBy, peBenib. nenib. 

The verb cmOHdmb belongs also to the first branch of the 
Ist conjugation, having in the present: CTOHy, CTOnemB, and 
CTOHaio, CTOHaemB, &c. The verb opdmb, in the sense of to 
:plough, belongs to the first branch of the lid conjugation. 



Lexicology. — the verb. 137 

According to the 23d and 24th paradigms (COXHyTb and 
BHHyTb) are conjugated the inchoative verbs in Hymb^ which in 
the preterit syncopate the termination HyjlZ in 8 if this ter- 
mination is preceded by a consonant, and in JiTt if it is pre- 
ceded by a vowel (neiit. Jio^ fem, Jia). vSuch are: 

B.ieKHyTb, to {a.dQ,pret. 6-ieK'b,KJ0, KJa. IlaxHyTb, to smeW, pret. naxi, XAO, xA2l. 

3a6HyTb, to freeze, 3fl6i, fi.io, 6a&. MfiKHyib, to gro wwet, mokt., k-io, K-ia. 

KncHyTb, to turn sour, KHCb, CJO, c^a. BasHyTb, to sink in, BflSTi, 3J0, 3.ia. 

MepanyTb, to freeze, Mepa-B, 3J0, 3wia. TaCHyib, to go out, racT>, c^o, c.ia. 

r/ifiHyTb, to perish, rHfi-b, 640, 6ja. TfixHyxb, to grow still, thxt., x40, xasl. 

46xHyTb, to die, ^ox-b, XJO, xja. CTbiHyib, to cool, cthj^, ao, aa. 

And also the prepositional verb yumdiiTb, to contuse (and 
with other prepositions, perfect aspect oi yiuu6dmb) ^ which 
has in the future ymn^y, ymBdeniB, and in the preterit yuiridi., 
ymiifijo, ymH6.ia, &c. 

According to the 25th paradigm (lepeifc) are conjugated 
verbs in eperrib, which have in the present py, and which 
syncopate also the preterit, observing that Mepemb and nepemb 
transfer in the feminine gender of the preterit the accent to 
the last syllable. These are: 

Mep^Tb, to <ixQ, pres. iwpy, yi^^evoh; pret. Mep-B, MepJa, p40; p.iH. 
Ilep^Tb, to press, — npy, npenib; — nep^, nep4&, p-iO; p^H. 

And also the verb cmepnib, pres. CTpy, CTpemb ; pret. CTepT>, 
pja, p.10, which now is used only with a preposition, as: 
npocTepxB, pacnpocTepiB, to extend. 

• 

58. — The irregular verbs of the Russian language irregular 
are divided into three classes: i) the monosyllabic 
verbs in mh preceded by a vowel; 2) some dis- 
syllabic verbs in mh, which in some inflections do 
not follow the general rules of the conjugation, and 
3) the verbs with an irregular termination (in smh, 
cmb, Hb, mu and mu), as is seen in the following 
table. 

Among the monosyllabic verbs there are some which are 
regular and conjugated according to the paradigms of con- 
jugations. These are: (See page 142.) 



138 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 







l{ 



^1, 

D 



s ^ 



r J 



> 



1^ 



I I 






^o a 



g « g g 



^. t< H ^« 6- ~ H H H e 



40 >s ^w )a c )» w )a S )a 

Q,>,jaooo.2ooH!u 



a; ti b ■>« 



V ^ H 



- i^ « I 

-3" ^'' '* a" 

3 5 "2 S 

t H 5 'SB 

U U S M 



2 ~ 

5. >, r? <o 3 o. 3 

xs «i -K H cB a s 






. "5 



g i^ ta ^ (8 ^ 

5 a 2 H "^ 5 

2 s a s m CB 



M a 3 "? -^ H t 
H y S es u w a; 






4= «>, 






^2^ 2" I 2 2" 2^3 2"^ f 2" 2"" 2" -2 




I i^ s g 



6H (fl E ^ 



►0 5 S -* 

H S 5 — "* 
^ H u u CO 






.5P g, S 



^ S 



2 « 2 o 



c 

OoSoSoOO 



2 2 o « 



S rfT "7' >fi" rf" S fi' ^ >«~ H ,a H •0" •*" >«' 

a, s^ ,S ^ a 0-3 SaaSigSaH 



^^ 



3 3 
36 



ro ft! 




Lexicology. — the verb. 



139 



iiiliiii 



'S -S ^ -2 -5 "2 




)a c a> 



^ t ^ t 



^ t A t 



^ „ « 5 CU «5 



Jiiiflliiiliil 



«? eS es S 

e S ^ £ • ■ 



O U H 



f ■ I 



CK ^ H 

H *a o 

6- 



cTg 



^ t= 



t t t 



c= t si< "^ 



■ .3 • a S S 3 -- a . 1 I 

g - a ^.^ ^ " b ^ J -^- ^ e 

S S ^ 5-i ? .1 3 I ^ S S "„ 

- ^ s- ^ . ^ o I " "" ^ ^ ^ ^^2" 2 









3 '-S a 






6; ^ !; 5 <s •«« 

<5 <3 «« vc3 a, CI 

c- a. B o- a a 

>c "5 w S S S 



^ S S 



.0 lO rO . 

S S S S 

-o -B -a -ti 

ft. K s t 

S S 8 3 



1 I I 



S o 2 






2 2 2 



O 1; 






o *-> ♦- O *• o o 



J *j u VJ Q 









2 ? 



^.^ 



00000 



t- f- c3 rt H 



B fi fi -a" S 



B 5 S S 



S^ 



^ 5. ij ,5* 



d >ja wa 

H H H 

C4 C^ Ctf CS 



3 n: 



^ W K 



140 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



> 9- 

rt 1 



^ -S 



S s s 
S = .= 



■.o :o o 
a, p. X 



si^sKigiBii'iis 

S « I I I I ^i-i 



* I 



l{ 



S -a e 



s s; f- g 



O 9) V f ^ 



^ ( 



n n >a 



n e ih ■<; « 



^ 2 



•5 -s" 5 ' 
« n g 



§.5 



u s s e: 



s 2 
e s 

a. Sf 




r-s 









I 1 



1 3 



a n. ss o "3 



£ S 



s s 

a. y 



i -si-: 

"Si 



s g-.s 



^' ^ a yo 



s js ^ S 



■M O <^ O O -w u 









p -3 ^ § -a 

2 o "^ o v" o 

£ H ^H ?. fi g !1 K 



1) « . - 

1) D rt 



o p O O o 

•w '!u -w *J « <j ^ 



c- •=; 



Q. a, i« o !«; 



S i 



c »; cs Oh n, a. 



csaS'sauSSu 






Lexicology. — the verb. 



141 



2 3 2 2a . 

I I .> =i 'i I - I '^ 

'5 «^ 2i ??- « 5 S 



I I 2 E 



\ III 

=5? ~ « 



5> E c i ^- >^ « *:>>. jT fcfl c " S 



„ <X7> be •■ 
X P o = d, 



~3 ^ 



•= 6 






o t^ 






o.S 



■" O 3 o ^ 

3 <u°5^-|^l3u 




w Zi !: - z; M 



o & 



142 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



3HaTb, to know, I. I, pres. 3Haio, 


TMHTb, to darken, II. i, pres. tmK). 


anaeiub. 


B^tTb, to wake, — 641O. 


IIxaTb, to push, — nx&K). 


3p1iTb, to see, — 3piO. 


^KaTb, to clash, — ikhm). 


M/KHTb, to twinkle, II. 3, pres. M>Ky, 


TptTb, to warm, I. 4, pres. rpliio. 


MyKHDIb. 


Sp-BTb, to ripen, — apiio. 


MniHTb, to cover with moss, — MUiy. 


Mj-feTb, to be stupified, — M.iBio. 


TmHTbca, to endeavour, — imycb. 


nptTB, to stew, — np-fiM). 


Miaib, to hurry, — Mqy. 


Pfl-fiTb, to redden, — \\^%^Xi. 


Haumb (npOH3HTb), to pierce, II. 4, 


CM-fiTb, to dare, — CMBM). 


pres. -HJKy, H3Hinb. 


Cn-fiTb, to ripen, — cn-feK). 


^bCTHTb, to flatter, II. 7, pres. .ibmy, 


T.iHTb, to rot, — Tjiio. 


^bCTHnib. 


4^HTb, to prolong, II. I, pres. 4-lK). 


McTHTb, to avenge, — Mmy, 


4.1HUIb. 


MCTHDIb. 


4MHTb, to swell, — 4MH). 


TnyTb, to bend. III. i. pres. rny, rnenib. 


3.iHTb, to irritate, — 3-iio. 


./IbHynib, to stick, — Abny. 


MHHTb, to think, — MHK). 


M3rHyTb, to turn sour, — M3rHy. 


CHUTbca, to dream, impers. CHHTCa. 


MKHyib, to shut, — MKHy. 


TJHTb to corrupt, — t.im), 


CeyTb, to fall asleep, — CHy. 


tAwaxb. 





The preceding table of irregular verbs gives also the t/er(7- 
five aspect and Xhe passive participle, inflections which in these 
verbs do not follow always the general rules of the formation. 

Delineation eg. — The prooertv of the Russian verbs to have 

of verbs. -'•^ jt i • ^ 

more or less aspects, is named their dehneatton 
(Ha^epxaHie), and depends as well upon their ex- 
terior form as upon their meaning. With this re- 
lation the verbs, as is above mentioned (§ 50), are 
simple (npocTbie) or prepositional (npe/tJioHCHtie). 

I . The simple verbs, which are without a prepo- 
sition, can be co^nplete (noJiHBie), double (cyry6bie), 
incomplete (nenojiHBie) and defective (ne^tocTaTO^HBie). 
The co7nplete simple verbs are those which desig- 
nate a physical action of men or animals, as kh- 
^axB, to throw; nJieBaiL, to spit. The double simple 
verbs are those which express the movement of an 
acting object, as nwxk and xoMtl, to go; hgcth 
and HOCHTL, to bring. The iricomplete and defective 
simple verbs are those which are not included in 




Lexicology. — the verb. 



143 



the two preceding subdivisions, as ^jijaTB, to make-, 
imiTB, to have. 

2. The prepositional verbs, which are formed 
with any preposition, are subdivided, relatively to 
their delineation, according as they are derivated 
from the incomplete, defective, complete or double 
simple verbs. — In general the delineation of the 
Russian verbs, as well simple as prepositional, is 
seen in the following table. 



DELINEATION OF VERBS. 



I. SIMPLE VERBS. 



II. PREPOSITIONAL VERBS. 



The incomplete simple verbs have 2 as- ' i. Formed from the incomplete simple verbs, 
pects : I the prepositional verbs have 2 aspects : 



i) imperfect. 



2) iterative. 
at-^HsaTb. 



t) imperfect. ■£) perfect of duration. 



064'fi.4HBaTb. 



o64'fiJaTb. 



3. The defective simple verbs have only the 2. Formed from the defective simple verbs. 



imperfect aspect. 



BM-bTb. 



they have only the a.S'p&ct perfect of duration. 



BOa'bHM'BTb. 



3. The complete simple verbs have the 3 I 3. Formed from the complete simple verbs, 

aspects: j they have the 3 aspects: 

\) imperfect. 2) iterative. ;^) perf of unify . • t) imperfect. 2)perf.ofdurat.;^)perfofufiity. 

KH4&Tb KH4MBaTb. KHHyTb. ' 3aKH4I.IBaTb. ZdiRJiUkth. SaKHHyib. 

4, The double simple verbs are two verbs ' 4. Formed from the a57«(5/(? simple verbs, there 

which have together 3 aspects : are two various verbs, each with 2 aspects : 

' a) from the definite b) from the indefinite 
verb. verb. 

1) defjtiteimp. 2)indefin.imp. -^iterative. \) imp erf . 2) perfect, i) imp erf . 2) pCTfect. 

HeCTH. HOCHTb. HalDHBaTb. ' BUHOCHTb. BIJHeCTH. BblHamHBaTb. BUHOCHTb. 

60. — The incomplete simple verbs are those which ^^™fj^ 
do not designate a physical action properly so 
called, neither a movement of a place to another. 
These verbs have two aspects: i) the imperfect 
aspect, and 2) the iterative aspect. The first, which 
is the radical form of the verb, ends in mh, Hb, mu 
or mu, and the latter in hieamb, iieamb, eamb or 



144 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

ambj and is formed from the imperfect aspect, as 
is seen in the following examples. 

In the formation of the iterative aspect the tonic accent is 
placed on the termination eamb and amb, whilst in bieanib 
and ueanib it is placed on the antepenultima , and if in this 
syllable is an 0, this vowel is changed into a. We must yet 
observe that the iterative aspect is seldom used in the infini- 
tive, and it has in general only the preterit tense; e. g. hC 
nuednib xedi BHHa, you ought not to drink wine; OWh IbSOIcdAZ 
BepXOMT), he rid often; but this inflection is necessary to form 
the prepositional verbs. The table of irregular verbs, above 
shown (S 58), gives also the iterative aspect, which in these 
verbs presents some irregularities. 

1) Imperfect aspect. 2) Iterative asp. 

ra4aTfc, to guess, I, 1 ra4MBaTb. 

4yMaTt, to think, — . 4yMHBaTL. 

J'fiJaTfc, to make, — A^^blBaTt. 

Hrpaib, to play, — lirpLiBaib. 

Kyxaxb, to wrap, — KVTbiBaTb. 

Moxaib, to wind, — MaibiBaib. 

Padoxaib, to work, — padaxbiBaib. 

mynaib, to sound, — mynbieaib. 

Snaib, to know, — SHaBaib. 

KoBaib, to forge, I. 2. . . .... . . KOBbiBaib. 

PiicoBaib, to draw, — pucoBbiBaib. 

CoBixoBaib, to counsel, — cOBixbiBaib. 

Boeaaxb, to war, — BoeBbisaxb. 

^HCBaxb, to pass the day, — .... 4HeBbiBaxb. 
HoqeBaxb, to pass the night, — . . HO^eBbieaxb. 

ryjflXb, to take a walk, I. 3 ry.iHBaxb. 

PaBHHXb, to equal, — paBHHBaxb. 

CM-BflXbca, to laugh, — cMiiiBaxbca. 

• Biaxb, to blow, — B-bBaxb. 

Ciaxb, to sow, — c-bBaxb. 

CjadiXb, to grow weak, I. 4 CJiadtsaxb. 

Fp-fiXb, to warm, — rp-BBaxb. 

ToBixb, to keep fast, — raBJHBaxb. 



Lexicology* — the verb. 145 

1) Imperfect aspect. 2) Iterative asp. 



BpaHHTfc, to scold, II, 1 6paHHBaTb. 

Ila.iiiTb, to fire, — najuBaib. 

MoJHTb, to pray, — MajHBaib. 

CndpHTb, to contend, — cnapHBaxb, 

4apHTb, to give, — 4apHBaTT>. 

4pa3HHTb, to provoke, — 4paH(HHBaTb. 

BcitTb, to ache, — 6ajHBaTb. 

CMOTpilb, to look, — CMaipHBaTb. 

Fop-BTb, to burn, — rapaib. 

Be^liTb, to order, — Be^'BBaTb. 

3psTb, to see, — SHpaxb. 

Jloiiib, to give to drink, naHBaib. 

Kjeiiib, to glue, — KjeHBaib. 

BoHTbca, to fear, — 6anBaTbca. 

IIopoTb, to rip, — napbiBaib. 

MojOTb, to grind, — MajblBaib. 

JioSiiTb, to love, 11. 2 jH)6jHBaTb. 

^OBHTb, to catch, — jaBwIHBaTb. 

PydiiTb, to hew, — pydaib. 

KopMHTb, to nourish, — KapiVLfflBaTb. 

ToniiTb, to heat, — Tan^iHBaTb. 

TepniTb, to suffer, — lepn^HBaib. 

Kanirb, to boil, — KHnaib. 

4peMaTb, to slumber, — ApeMJHBaib. 

Cbinaib, to strew, — Cbinaib. 

XpOMaTb, to be lame, — xpaMblBaib. 

Je^iiTb, to cure, 11. 3 je^HBaib. 

CjyacHTb, to serve, — CjyffiHBaib. 

Tymiixb, to put out, — TyinHBaib. 

MopmHTb, to wrinkle, — MapmuBaib. 

/^epacaxb, to keep, — AepHiBBaib. 

Mo.aqaTb, to be silent, — Ma.iqaBaTb. 

/[wuiaTb, to breathe, — ^Bixaib. 

FjaAHTb, to even, II. 4 oaacHBaib. 

FopOAiiTb, to enclose, — ropaHtiiBaib. 

CyAiiTb, to judge, — ....... cyaiHBaTb. 

FpysiiTb, to lade, — rpyHCHBaib. 

10 



146 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

i) Imperfect aspect. 2) Iterative asp. 
ClIA'BTb, to sit, IT. 4 CHaCHBaiB. 

Baaaib, to tie, — BaSLisaTL. 

njiau'iTb, to pay, II. 5 n^ia^HBaib. 

KOJOTIITb, to knock, — KO^iaqHEaTb. 

MdOTJiTb, to thrash, — MO^aaqHEaib. 

n.iaKaib, to weep, — n^iaKHBaib. 

BicHTb, to weigh, II. 6 BimnBaib. 

IIpocHTb, to ask, — npauiHBaTb. 

FaciiTb, to extinguish, — rauiHBaTb. 

IlHCaTb, to write, — miCMBaib. 

n.iacaib, to dance, — njHCbiBaxb. 

IlaxaTb, to plough, — naxHBaib. 

FocTHTb, to visit, II. 7 ramnBaib. 

MocTiiib, to floor, — MamnBaib. 

CnacTUTb, to rig, — CHaiuHBaTb. 

HcKaib, to seek, — liCKHBaib. 

TonnyTb, to sink. III. i Tonaib. 

Tanyxb, to draw, — TflrHBaib. 

Banyxb, to fade, — Ba^aib. 

CoXHyib, to dry, — Cbixaib. 

DaxHyxb, to smell, — naxHBaxb. 

FHyxb, to bend, — rn6axb. 

MKHyxb, to shut, — MblKaXb. 

Cocaxb, to suck, — cacbiBaxb. 

Ilepexb, to press, III. 2 impaxb. 

Tepexb, to rub, — xnpaxb. 

61. — The defective simple verbs are those which 
have only the indefinite imperfect aspect, such are 
the following verbs: 

A4'BXb, to grow ruby. I. 4. HtCjiaXb, to wish, I. i. 

B'B4CXB0Baxb,tobeinmisery,L2. HMixb, to have, I. 4. 

BuHiixb, to accuse, II. i. Kapaxb, to punish, I. i. 

Bjia^iXb, to govern, I. 4. jIbCXHXb, to flatter, II. 7. 

Bpe^iiXb, to hurt, II. 4. Me^xaxb, to imagine, I. i. 

ropAiiXbCfl, to be proud, II. 4. Mapiixb, to pacify, II. i. 

^ajiXb, to have pity, I. 4. My^pHTb, to subtilize, II. i. 



Lexicology. — the verb. 147 

Mar^iiTb, to mollify, II. 3. Teopiixt, to create, II. i. 

nojiAHH^ait, to lunch, I. I. Tepaxb, to lose, 1. 3. 
PaAilL, to take care, I. 4. ToponiiTL, to hurry, II. 2. 

PacTHTb, to let grow, II. 7. y'MHHiaTb, to refine, 1. i. 
PonraTE, to murmur, II. 7. yMiTB, to know, I. 4. 

Pbl^aib, to sob, I. I. XHTpiiTb, to be artiful, II. i. 

CBflTiiTb, to sanctify, II. 7. Xpaniixb, to preserve, II. i. 

Cn-BUliiTb, to hasten, II. 3. XoTiTb, to will, irr. 

CiapaxbCff, to endeavour, I. i, Ul^aAHTb, to spare, 11. 4. 

The defective verbs differ from the incomplete verbs in as 
much as they have not the iterative aspect, which in general 
is used only in verbs designating an ordinary, non intellectual 
action, and it is not found in poetry neither in an elevated style. 

62. — The complete simple verbs are those which 
designate ordinarily a physical action of men or 
animals, or, speaking more correctly, a visible or 
audible action. These verbs have the three aspects : 
i) the imperfect, 2) the iterative, and 3) the per- 
fect of unity. The two first aspects have all the 
properties of those of incomplete verbs; but the 
perfect aspect of unity ends in uymb, and is formed 
putting this termination in the place of that of the 
imperfect aspect, sometimes with a little change of 
the vowel, and sometimes with the elision of the 
preceding consonant, as is seen in the following 
examples. 

i) Imperfect aspect. 2) Iterative aspect. 3) Perf. asp. of 

unity. 

A'xaib, to sigh, I. I. . . axHBaxb axnyxb, III. i. 

BjHCTaib, to shine, — . — djiecnyib, — 

Bojiaib, to shake, — . 6a.iTMBaTb 6o.iTHyTb, — 

r.iOTaTb, to swallow, — , rjaxbiBaib rjionyxb, — 

^BHraxb, to move, I. i. and 

II- 4 ABiirHBaxb and 4Bnraxb. 4BiiHyxb, — 

4ep3axb, to dare, I. r. . — 4ep3Hyxb, — 

10* 



148 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



i) Imperfect aspect. 



StBaifc, to yawn, I. i. 
KacaxbCfl, to touch, — 
KeaKaTL, to quack, — 
KHBaiB, to give a nod, 
KH^aib, to cast, — . 
.lonaxb, to burst, — . 
HibxaTb, to smell, — . 
Hopxaib, to flutter, — 
Ilpbiraxb, to jump, — 
IlpflAaTb, to bound, — 
CBcpKaxb, to flash, — 
TojiKaxb, to push, — . 
Tporaxb, to touch, — 
XapKaxb, to spit, — 
Xionaxb, to clap, — 
Coeaxb, to shove, I. 2 
Kjeeaxb, to peck, — 
ILjeeaxb, to spit, — 
}KeBaxb, to chew, — 
Kaiiuaxb, to cough, I. 3. 
Hbipaxb, to dive, — . . 
Cxp-B jHXb, to shoot, — . 
IIlBbipaxb, to sling, — . 
Piaxb, to throw, — . . 
CKOJbSliXb, to slip, II. 1. 
IlIeBe.iiixb, to stir, — . . 
Ko.ioxb, to sting, — . . 
4aBiixb, to press, 11. 2. . 
PySrixb, to hew, — . . . 
FpeMiXb, to thunder, — . 
Xpanixb, to snore, — . 
Tpenaxb, to brake, — . 
U^nnaxb, to pinch, — . 
BopomiiXb, to rummage,II.3 
Ejiomiixb, to flatten, — . 
BH35Kaxb, to squeak, — . 
4p03taxb, to tremble, — 



2) Iterative aspect. 3) Perf. asp. of 
unity. 

atBbiBaxb stBHyxb, III, 1. 

— KOCHyxbca, — 

KBaKHBaXb KBaKHyXb, — 

— KHBHyXb, — 

KH4bIBaXb KIIHyXb, — 

jonbieaxb .jonnyxb, — 

HibxiiBaxb HioxHyxb, — 

napxHBaxb nopxeyxb, — 

npb'irHBaxb opbirnyxb, — 

npa4biBaxb npaHyxb, — 

CBepKHBaxb CBepKHyxb, — 

xa^KDBaxb xojKHyxb, — 

xponiBaxb xpoHyxb, — 

xapKHBaxb xapKHyxb, — 

XjionbiBaxb xjonnyxb, — 

coBbiBaxb cynyTb, — 

KJeBbiBaxb KJWHyxb, — 

EjeBbiBaxb miOHyxb, — 

HceBbiBaxb jKeBHyxb, — 

KauuHBaxb Kanuanyxb, — 

Hb'ipiiBaxb Hbipnyib, — 

cxpi.jHBaxb .... cxpt.ibHyxb, — 
mBbipHBaxb iflBbipnyxb, — 

— piiHyxb, — 

CKajbSHBaxb. . . . CK0.ab3Hyxb, — 
meBe.iHBaxb. . . . meBe.ibHyTb, — 

Ka.ibiBaxb KOJibHyxb, — 

AaBjHBaxb AaBHyxb, — 

py6axb py6Hyxb, — 

— rpaHyxb, — 

xpanbiBaxb xpannyxb, — 

xpenjiiBaxb xpennyxb, — 

miinbiBaxb mnnnyxb, — 

BopaumBaxb. . . . BopoxHyxb, — 

iLubmHBaxb n.iH)CHyxb, — 

BHSniBaxb BiiarHyxb, — 

AparHBaxb Apornyxb, — 



Lexicology. — the verb. 



149 



i) imperfect aspect. 



2) Iterative aspect. 



3) Perf. asp. of 
unity. 



KpH^aiB, to cry, II. 3. . 
UbiinaTb, to burn, — . . 
Tpemaxfc, to burst, — 
r.iflA'BTL, to look, XL 4. . 
Bpw3raTb, to splash, — . 
jlHSaTb, to lick, — . . . 
Masaib, to anoint, — . 
Bepiiib, to turn, II. 5. . 
CKaKaib, to leap, — . . 
K.iHKaTb, to call, — . . 
ineniaTb, to whisper, — 
TpyciiTb, to sprinkle, II. 6. 
Kojbixaib, to swing, — . 
Maxaib, to wave, — . . 



KpHKHBaib KpHKHyibjIILl. 

nwxHBaTb nbiXHyib, — 

TpecKiiBaib TpecHyib, — 

r.W4biBaTb. ..... r.iaHyTb, — 

6pbi3niBaTb. ..... 6pbi3HyTb, — 

.JHSblBaib j!H3H)'Tb, — 

Ma3biBaTb Ma3HyTb, — 

BepTbiBaTborBepiiHBaTb. BepnyTb, — 

CKaKIIBaib CKOKHyib, — 

K.IHKaTb. KJl'lKHyXb, — 

inenibiBaTb mennyTb, — 

— TpyxHyib, — 

KOJblXHBaib KO.lblXHyTb, — 

MaxHBaib MaxHyxb, — 

II.iecKaTb, to splash, II. 7. n.iecKHBaTb njiecHyxb, — 

EpbiCKaxb, to syringe, — npbiCKHBaxb npb'iCHyxb, — 

CBHCxaxb, to whistle, — CBiicibiBaxb CBiicHyxb, — 

xjecxbieaxb xjecnyxb, — 

rpedaxb rpednyxb, — 

/tyBaxb AVHyxb, — 

HtHraxb, ...... jKurnyxb, — 

pbiBaxb pBanyxb, — 

cxparaxb cxpurnyxb, — 

xpacaxb. ...... xpaxHyxb, — 

Some verbs, as MHHyxb, oSManyxb, noManyxb, Bb'myxb, which 
are perfect aspects of MHHOBaxb, to pass; o6MaHblBaxb, to cheat; 
nOMHHaxb, to mention; BbiHHMaxb, to take' out, have the termina- 
tion of the perfect aspect of unity; but by their meaning they 
do not designate an action performed only once. In these 
verbs the letter H belongs to the root, and not to the termination. 

63. — The double simple verbs are those which 
designate the movement of an acting object, or 
sometimes a visible or audible action. These verbs 
have together three aspects: i) the definite imper- 
fect, 2) the indefinite imperfect, and 3) the iterative ' 



X.iecxaxb, to lash, 
Fpecxii, to scrape, irr, 
4yXb, to blow, — . 
JKe^b, to burn, — . 
Psaxb, to tear, — . 
CxpH^b, to shear, 
Tpacxii, to skake, — 



150 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

aspect. The definite aspect is the radical form, from 
which are derived both the others. These are the 
following verbs: 

1) Definite imperfect aspect. 2) Indefinite 3) Iterative aspect, 

imp. aspect. 

f — ■ -^ ^ r -^ -. r- ^ ^ 

B.jyAHTL, to ramble, II. 4. . 6jyH{4aTb,I. i. — 

BpeCTH, to wander, irr. . . 6p04HTb, II. 4- 6pa)KHBaTl.. 
BtHtaxB, to run, irr. . . . diraTb, I. 1. . diniBaiL and d-Braib- 
BaJHTL, to throw down, II. i. BajiiTb, I. 3. . Ba^HoaTb. 
BeSTH, to carry, irr. . . . B03liTb, II. 4. BaacuBaib. 

BecTii, to lead, irr BOAUTb, — . BaHCiiBaib. 

Bha-btl, to see, II. 4. . . . Bn^aTb, I. i. . BUAbiBaib. 
FnaTb, to drive, irr. . . . roHaib, I. 3. . raHHBaib. 

Hath, to go, irr. X04HTb, II. 4. xaadiBaib. 

KaiiiTb, to roll, II. 5. . . Ka^aib, I. i. . Ka^iiBaib. 

KpHBHTb, to crook, II. 2. , KpHBJHTb, I. 3. KpiIBJIIBaTb. 

JleiiTb, to fly, II. 5. . . . .leiaib, I. i. . .aeibiBaib. 
JIoMHTb, to break, II. 2. . jOMaxb, — . jaMbiBaib. 
jltSTb, to climb, irr. . . . jasiiTb, II. 4. JtSaxb and .laatHBaib. 
HeCTH, to bring, irr. . . . HOCHTb, II. 6. HaiUHBaib. 
n.lblTb, to swim, irr. . . . njaBaib, I. I. nJblBaib. 
HOJISTH, to crawl, irr. . . no.isaib, — . no.lSaTbandnaJSblBaib. 
PoHiiTb, to let fall, II. I. . pOHjiTb, I. 3. . paHHBaib. 
CjbimaTb, to hear, II. 3. . cjbixaxb, I. i. cibixiiBaib. 
CaAHTb, to seat, II. 4. . . cajKaxb, — . caHtHBaxb. 
Tamiixb, to trail, II. 3.' . . xacKaxb, — . xacKHBaxb. 
"B'xaXb, to ride, irr. . . . iSAHXb, II. 4. "BSHtHBaXb and ■BSHtaxb. 
The Russian language has some verbs which, with a double 
termination, do not designate a movement ; such are : d.lHCXaXb 
and djecxixb, to shine; MipHXb and MipaXb, to measure; CBH- 
CXaxb and CBHCXiXb, to whistle. These verbs do not belong to 
the class of the double verbs; they are two various forms 
which have the same meaning, and which do not express the 
definite or indefinite nature of the action. 

Prepositio- 64. — The prepositional verbs are formed from 
' the simple verbs by means of any preposition. The 
• prepositions, when they are joined to a verb, sub- 



Lexicology. — the verb. 151 

ject it to sundry changes either in the voice, in 
the aspect and time, or in the meaning. 

1. A neuter verb sometimes takes with the pre- 
position the active meaning, as: cnait, to sleep, 
and npocnaifc, to pass in sleeping-, 6htl, to be, and 
3a6biTb, to forget; njiaKaxt, to weep, and BbinjiaKaTt, 
to obtain by weeping. 

2. The influence of a preposition on the time and 
aspect is more important than that on the voice. 
A simple verb, taking a preposition, receives a 
more restricted meaning. Thus, by joining to a 
preposition, the iterative aspect becomes imperfect, 
and the imperfect aspect becomes perfect. But 
this latter remains a perfect aspect even with a 
preposition, as is seen by the two following examples. 

Simple figure. Prepositional figure. 



4BHHyTb, to move,\ J. f ^ f y^ BABHHyib, to move in, "v per/, asp. 

Bp6cHTb, to throw,/'^^"'"^*^^'"'^" Ha6p6CHTi., to throw on,/ of unity. 

4BHraTb,\ . ^ r ^ J. ^ B4BHraTb, \ , . , . ^ ^. 

6poc&Tb,/ "''/^^>^^ «-/-^^ HaCpocW^"^^- '"^- ^-^^"'■'^*^^- 

4BHraTb ^r 4BHrHBaTb,\ .^ ^. , B4BHraTb (Tt B4BHrHBaTb, \ imperfect 
- , > iterative asp. , , r 

op&cbiBaib, i ^ HaOp&cuBaTb, / as^. 

3. The acceptation of the verb, independently of 
the completion of the action, is modified by the 
meaning of the preposition, as is seen in the two 
following examples: xoahtl or hath, to go, and 
HMaxL or flTB, to take. 

BxOAliTB, BOiItH, to go in. HHCX04liTb,HH30HTH,tOgodo\vn. 

BocxOAHTb, BSOUTii, to go up, 06x0411X1., 06OHTH, to go round. 

BbixoAiiTt, Bt'iflTn, to go out. Oxxoahtb, otoiIth, to go away. 

/l,oxo4HTb, AOUTH, to come to. nepexo4iiTb , nepeiiTii, to go 

3ax04iiTb, SafiTH, to go behind. over. 

HcX04liTb, HSOflXli, to go out. npeB0CX04HTb, npeB30HTH, to 

Haxo4iiTb, Haaiii, to go upon. surpass. 



152 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

IXoxOAiiTb, to resemble, /[OEmilSiTb, 40HflT&, to get the 

noHTiJ, to go. remainder. 

noAXOAi'iTb, noAOMTii, to go 3aHHMaTB, sanaTb, to borrow. 

under. HSHHMaTB, H3HflTb, to take out. 

npe4X0AiiTb, to go before. HaHHMaib, naHiiTb, to hire. 

npHXOAi'iTb, npiHTii, to come in. OdHHMaxb, o6HaTb, to embrace, 

JIpoxoAUTb, npOHTii, to go OimiMaTb, OTHHTb, to take away. 

through. HepeHiiMaTb, nepeHflTb, to inter 

npOHCX04iiTb , npOHSOHTii, to cept. [stand 

proceed. HoHUMaTb, nOHaib, to under- 

Pacxo4iiTbca, paaoHTiica, to go noHMaib, to catch. 

asunder. IloAHllMaTb, n04HHTb, to take up. 

CxoAiiTb, COUTH, to go down. IIpeAnpHHHMaTb , npeAnpHHaib, 

CHHCXOAiiTb, CHHSOHTii, to con- to undertake. 

descend. HpHHiiMaTb, npiiHHTb, to accept. 

yxo4iiTb, yuTii, to go away. IlpHnoAHHMaTb, npHno4HaTb, to 

BmiMaib, BHflTb, to attend to. raise up. 

BSHMaib, to levy. DpoHUMaib, npoiWTb, to put 

Baaib, to take. through. 

Bo34bjMaTb, to raise. PaSHHMaTb, pasnaxb, to take 

BocnpiiHHMaib , BOcnpnHaib, to asunder. 

receive. CmiMaTb, CHHTb, to take off. 

BbiHiiMaib, Bbmyxb, to take out. YiniMaTb, yHaxb, to repress. 

The two preceding examples show that the prepositions 
which are joined to verbs, are: B (bo), b3 (b30, b03), Bbl, 40, 
3a, 03 (h30), Ha, Ha4 (Ha40), HH3 (HH30), or 06 (odo), OT (OTO), 

nepe or npe, no, no4 (no4o), npn, npo, pa3 (pa3o), c (co), y. 
We must remark that the prepositions which end in a vowel, 
never undergo a change, whilst those which end in a consonant, 
take the vowel o, when they have to be united to a verb 
which begins with two or three consonants, as well as to the 
verb 114TH [si. umu), in which the vowel u besides that changes 
into the semi-vowel (a). 

The prepositions 6e3 (6e30), npe4 (npe40), and also C (co) 
in the meaning of a reciprocal action, modifying the accepta- 
tion of a verb, do not communicate to it the meaning of the 
completion of an action. Joined to one of these prepositions, 
the verb remains in its imperfect aspect, as: 6e3'ieCTiiTb , /^ 
dishonour; iipe4BH4'BTb , to foresee; C04'BHCTB0BaTb , to cooperate. 



Lexicology. — the verb. 153 

It is the same with adverbs used sometimes for prepositions, 
e. g. npOTHBOCTOHTb, to resist; MHMOH4TH, to come by. 

Care must be taken not to confound the prepositional verbs 
with the verbs which are derived from nouns formed with a 
preposition, as: pasyM^Tb, to understand; horn. pa3yMT>, intelli- 
gence; noMHilTb, to remember, from naMHTB, memory; COB-BCTHTLCH, 
to have a conscience, from COB'BCTI), conscience. These verbs belong 
to the class of the incomplete simple verbs. 

65. — The prepositional verbs, with regard to their 
delineation, differ among them, according as they 
are formed from the defective, incomplete, complete 
or double simple verbs. 

I. Those which are derived from a defective 
simple verb, have only the perfect aspect, which is 
purely the imperfect aspect of the simple verb, 
joined to one of the prepositions above enumerated. 
Such are: 

no5Ke.iaTb, to wish, I. I. PaciepaTb, to lose, I. 3. 

DoKapaTb, to chastise, — BoStHMiTb, to have, I. 4. 

OiMeiiTaTb, to imagine, — SaBja^'BTb, to possess, — 

BocnbiJiaTb, to burst into CyMiib, to know, — 

flames, — OmeHUTbCa, to whelp, II. I. 

HapbiAaTbca, to wail, — OcieneHiiTbca, to grow sedate, — 

IIocTapaTbCa, to endeavour, — BosropAUTbCfl, to be proud of, 
Oine.ibMOBaib , to treat like a II. 4. 

rogue, I. 2. noma4nTb, to spare, — . 

Bo3oiiiflTb (for 636oniAmb), to SaxpeneiaTb, to tremble, II. 7. 

cry out, I. 3. no6.ieKHyTb, to fade. III. i. 

Some verbs derived from the defective simple 
verbs, have also the imperfect aspect, which is 
formed from the iterative aspect, not used in the 
simple verb and taken in its contracted form, as 
will be seen later (2. b). 

The preceding and the following examples show that the 
perfect aspect of a prepositional verb is formed from the im- 



1 



154 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

perfect aspect of the simple verb, by the mere joinmg of a 
preposition, without any change in the termination of the verb. 
Further, the infinitive and the imperative from imperfect 
become perfect (CTapaibCa, to endeavour; ciapaiica, endeavour ^ 
and noCTapaibCfl, to use all one's endeavours; nocTapaiiCfl, use all 
your endeavours); the present (ciapaioCb , I endeavour) becomes 
a perfect future (noCTaparoCB, / shall endeavour, I shall use all my 
endeavours), and the imperfect preterit (ciapajCfl, I endeavoured) 
becomes a perfect preterit (nOCTapa.ioa , / have used all my 
endeavours). 

As the prepositions serve generally to form the perfect 
preterit and future of the defective simple verbs, custom only 
can show what is the preposition which a verb takes in order 
to designate the completion of an action. Thus 3a expresses 
a beginning; no, a part; do, the finishing; om, the discon- 
tinuance ; «po, all the time ; c, y, 3a, no, the completion and 
simultaneousness ; 6bl, U3 , o6 , npu, nepe , a totality. E. g. 
SarOBOpi'iTb, to begin to speak; norOBOpi'iTb, to speak a little; 40ro- 
BOpi'iTb , to finish speaking; OTrOBOpiiTb , to leave off speaking; 
IiporOBOpiiTb, to pass the time in speaking; CA'B.iaTb, to have tnade; 
yKpaCTb, to have stolen; 3aCM^HTbca, to have laughed; nOKpaCHilb, 
to have blushed; BblXO^HTb, llCX04iiTb, 06X04iiTb, to have gone all 
over; npitCTb, to have eaten all up; nepeA'B.iaTb, to have made all. 

2. Derived from the incomplete simple verbs, the 
prepositional verbs have two aspects : i) the perfect 
aspect, and 2) the imperfect aspect, which are 
formed, the former from the imperfect, and the 
latter from the iterative aspect of the simple verb, 
at first without any change in the terminations, at 
other times with contraction, sometimes even with 
and without contraction at the same time: occasion- 
ally they vary widely from the general rules for 
the formation of the prepositional verbs. We some- 
times find: a quite irregular formation, the want of 
one of the two aspects perfect or imperfect, the 
loss or non-existence of the simple verb which has 



Lexicology. — the verb. 155 

formed the prepositional verb, and several other 
irregularities which are mentioned below. 

We must remark that in the prepositional verbs the tonic 
accent remains upon the same syllable as in the simple verb, 
with exception of the verbs formed with the preposition tffti, 
which in the perfect aspect transfer the accent of this pre- 
position. Some monosyllabic verbs, taking a preposition, 
transfer also, in the preterit of the perfect aspect, the accent 
to the preposition; as: yMepT>, oinept, npiiSLUi), Ha^a.n>, &c., 
from yMepeXL, to die; OinepeXB, to open; npH6blTb, to arrive; 
Ha^ait, to begin. 

a) The perfect and imperfect aspects of the pre- 
positional verb preserve both the terminations of 
the imperfect and iterative aspects of the simple 
verb. Such are: 

I) Perfect aspect. 2) Imperfea asp. 

yra4aTt, to guess, I. i yraAbiBaxfc, I. i. 

06AyMaTl), to deliberate, — .... o64yMLiBaTL, — 

OlA-B.iaTb, to finish, — OTA'B.lblBaTb, — 

Sanrpaib, to play, — saiirpMBaTb, — 

OKyiaxb, to wrap about, — .... OKyxbiBaib, — 
DpOMOXaXb, to squander, — .... npOMaXblBaxb, — 

CM'BUiaxb, to mingle, — CM-BUinBaxb, — 

YSHaxb, to recognise, — ySHaBaXb, — 

EpuKOBaxb, to chain to, I. 2. ... npHKOBbieaxb, — 
06pHC0Baxb, to outline, — oSpucoBbiBaxb, — 

OCHOBaXb, to found, — OCHOBblBaXb, — 

SaBoesaxb, to conquer, — 3aB0eBbiBaxb, — 

npory.iflXb, to walk, I. 3 npory.iHBaxb, — 

OcM'BflXb, to laugh at, — ocMiriBaxb, — 

yciflXb, to sow, — yc-BBaxb, — 

OciaSiXb, to grow weak, I. 4. . . . 0CJia6'BBaxb, — 

4oroBixb, to fast, — 40raBjiiBaxb, — 

CorpiXb, to warm, — corp'BBaxb, — 

Saacapnxb, to roast, II. i aaatapiiBaxb, — 

YcMOxpixb, to discern, — .... ycMaxpiiBaXb, — 



156 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

I) Perfect aspect. 2) Impet'fect cLsp. 



Saropixb, to be sunburnt, 11. i. . , sarapaiL, I. i. 

Bb'lKpOHTb, to cut out, — BBlKpailBaXb, — 

HaK.ieiiTb, to glue on, — . . . , . HaKjeiieaTb, — 

Bb'lCTpOHTb, to build, — BblCTpaHBaib, — 

OiCTOflTb, to defend, — OTCTauBaib, — 

OxnopoTb, to unrip, — oinapbiBaib, — 

OKOpMiixb, to poison, II. 2 OKapM.iiiBaxb, — 

Bb'uOBHXb, to catch all, — BbLiaBjiiBaxb, — . 

Bb'rrepntxb, to endure, — BbixepnjiiBaxb, — 

BcKiinixb, to -boil up, — BCKiinaxb, — 

Bb'ue^iixb, to heal, 11. 3 Bbue^iiBaxb, — 

Ynpoqiixb, to secure, — ynpoiiiBaxb, — 

3ac.iy5Kiixb, to deserve, — saciyHiHoaxb, — 

yMO.iiaxb, to keep secret, — ... yMa.i'iHBaxb, — 

Cia^HXb, to arrange, II. 4 c.ia/KiiBaxb, — 

IloKaaaxb, to show, — noKasbiBaxb, — 

ripHBHSaxb, to bind, — npHBaSbmaxb, — 

3aKO.ioxiixb, to knock, II. 5 saKO.iaiiHBaxb, — 

Bb'iMO.ioxiixb, to thrash, — BbiMOjaqHBaxb, — 

BfainjaKaxb, to weep out, — .... Bbin.iaKiiBaxb, — 

Hcnpociixb, to ask, II. 6 . HcnpauiiiBaxb, — 

no4n«caxb, to subscribe, — .... n04niicbiBaxb, — 

Bb'iMOCXHXb, to pave, II. 7 BbiMamnBaxb, — 

BsbiCKaxb, to exact, — B3biCKHBaxb, — 

yxonnyxb, to drown. III. i yxonaxb, — 

Bbixanyxb, to stretch, — BbixaniBaxb, — 

YBflHyxb, to wither, — yBfl^axb, — 

Sarnyxb, to bend, — sanidaxb, — 

Bcocaxb, to absorb e, — BCacbiBaxb. — 

3anepexb, to shut. III. 2 samipaxb, — 

Bb'ixepexb, to rub out, — ..... Bbixiipaxb, — 

Ynepexb, to die, — yMiipaxb, — 

Oxodpaxb, to choose out, irr ox6npaTb, — 

IIpHSiixb, to affix, — npiiSiiBaxb, — 

IIpiLnixb, to pour to, — npiuiiBaxb, — 

BbimiXb, to drink out, — ...... BbimiBaXb, — 

Sauiiixb, to sew up, — aauiHBaxb, — 



Lexicology. — the verb. 157 

1) Perfect aspect. 2) Imperfect asp. 

Bmmutl, to wash out, III. 2 BUMMBaib, I. i. 

SaKpuTB, to cover, — 3aKpMBaTb, — 

YatUTbca, to settle, yjKHeaxbCfl, — 

Han-BTb, to tune, — Han'SBaib, — 

Dpocnaib, to sleep away, — .... npocbinaib, — 

3806%, to bake, — saneKaib, — 

Hsci^b, to cut out, — HSc^Kaxb, — 

Ct>'Bct'l, to eat up, — Cb-fi^aib, — 

Bn.iecTb, to plait in, — BMeiaib, — 

b) In the verbs in umb of the lid conjugation, 
the termination of the iterative aspect is often con- 
tracted into Rim, or into amb after a hissing con- 
sonant; this happens esp.ecially when the simple 
verb belongs to the class of the defective verbs, 
that is when the iterative aspect is varying. In 
this case the tonic accent is placed on the termi- 
nation. Such are the following verbs: 

l) Perfect aspect. 2) Imperfect asp. 

. ^ '■ , ^ ^ 

OdBHHHTb, to accuse, II. 1 oSBHHaib, I. 3. 

YTOJiixb, to appease, — yTOJflTb, — 

IIpHMHpiiTb, to reconcile, — .... npHMopaib, — 

COTBOpiiTb, to create, — COTBOpflTb, — 

HcnecTpiiTb, to variegate, — .... HCnempaTb, — 
PaSMbiciHTb, to meditate, — .... pa3Mbim.iaTb, — 
yMy4puTbca, to grow wise, — ... yMyApaibca, — 

yxiiipHTbca, to use art, — yxumpaibca, — 

ITorydHTb, to ruin, II. 2 norydjaib, — 

YTOMHTb, to fatigue, — yTO>uaTb, — 

IIOTpa^HTb, to hit, — noxpa^.iaTb, — 

Oc.i^niiXb, to blind, — OCJ'Bn.jaxb, — 

nocn-BniHXb, to hasten, 11. 3 noCD^maxb, I. i. 

CoBepiniixb, to perfect, — coeepuiaxb, — 

OSHaiHXb, to denote, — 03Ha^axb, — 

OxariEHTb, to burden, — oxar^axb, — 



158 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

1) Perfect aspect. 2) Imperfect asp. 

nOBpe4nTL, to damage, II. 4 nOBpeHCAaib, I. i. 

no6yAHTb, to incite, — no6y3K4aTb, — 

npH6.ni3HTl>, to draw near, — .... npii6.iH5KaTb. — 

SaM-BTHTb, to remark, II. 5 saM'B'iaTL, — 

noracHTB, to put out, II. 6 noramaib, — 

OSojbCTiiTb, to seduce, II. 7 odo.ibiaaTb, — 

OlOMCTHTb, to avenge, — OTMmaib, — 

DocBaTHTb, to hallow, — nocBaiuaTb, — 

c) Sometimes in the same verb the imperfect 
aspect is formed in two ways, with contraction and 
without contraction. Here we must remark that, if the 
prepositional verb retains its primitive, simple, phy- 
sical meaning, the termination of its imperfect aspect 
is without contraction, and that on the contrary it 
is contracted, if the prepositional verb takes an ab- 
stract, figurative, intellectual acceptation, as is seen 
in the following examples: 

i) Perfect aspect. 2) Imperfect asp. i) Perfect aspect. 2) Imperfect asp. 

PaafipaHHTb, to scold, II. i. paafip&HHBaTb, I. i, & Bo36paHHTb, to forbid, I. i. . BoaCpanaTb, I. 3. 

3ana4HTb, to kindle, — . san&JHBaTb, — , & Bocna.iHTb, to inflame, — . BOcnaJflib, — 

IIepen6-iHHTb, to fill, — . nepen^jiHHBaTb. — , & Hcn6^HHTb, to fulfil, — . . HcnOviHaxb, — 

IIepecTp6HTb, to rebuild,— nepecTpaHBaib, — , & YcipdHTb, to arrange,— . . ycipoHTb, — 

SaBOCipHTb, to sharpen,— saBacipHBaTb, — , & DoocTpHTb, to excite, — . . noompsTb — 

HaJOBHTb, to catch, II. 2. H3JaB.iHBaTb, — , & YjOBHTb, to surprise, II. 2. y.iOB^HTb, — 

Uo^MoquTb, to wet, II. 3. no^M&qHBaTb, — , & OMoquib, to steep, II. 3. . . OMOiaTb, I i. 

BwyiHTb, to teach, — . . BwyiHBaTb, — , & HayqHTb, to initiate, — . . Hayq^Tb. — 

3aropo4HTb, to fence, II. 4. aaropaJKHBaib, — , & 0rpa4HTb, to guard, II. 4. • orpa5K4&Tb, — 

nepecy4HTb,torejudge,— nepecyjKHBaxb, — , & OcyflHib, to condemn, — . ocyacMTb, — 

0ca4HTb, to plant, — . . ocaJKHBaxb, — , & Oca^Hib, to besiege, — . . ocaHfA&Tb, — 

Bhinepe4HTb, to outgo, — Bbinep^JKHBaTb, — , & IIpe^ynpeAHTb, to prevent, — npe4ynpe^4&Tb, — 

BwTBep4HTb, to rehearse, — BbiTB^pJKHBaib, — . & YTBep/lHTb, to affirm, — . . yiBepHtMib, — 

IIOMyTHTbjtomuddy, II. 5. noMyqHBaTb, — , &Bo3MyTHTb, to raise, II. 7. . B03Mym§,Tb, — 

3acB'bTHTb, to light, — . sacB-bqHBaTb, — , & IIpocBtTHTb, to enlighten, — npocBlsm&Tb. — 

3aKp&CHTb, to colour, II. 6. saKp&niHBaTb, — , & YKp&CHTb, to adorn, II. 6. yKpaniaTb, — 

3arocTHTbca, to visit, II. 7. saramHBaTbca, — , & YrocTHTb, to regale. II. 7. . yrom&Tb, — 

d) The inchoative verbs in Hymh, which by their 
nature have not the iterative aspect, take, in the 



Lexicology. — the verb. 159 

formation of the imperfect aspect of prepositional 
verbs, the termination amb, e. g. 

i) Perfect aspect. 2) Imperfect asp. 

3aM§p3HyTL, to freeze, III. i saMCpsarL, I. i. 

rioTyxHVTB, to go out, — HOTyxaTb, — 

noradHyxb, to perish, — nornSaib, — 

OKHCHyxB, to grow sour, — OKHCaiB, — 

YTHXHyib, to abate, — yTHXaib, — 

noracHyxb, to go out, — iioracaib, — 

03fl6HyTb, to starve, — 03fl6aTb, — 

SaMOKHyib, to grow wet, — saMOKaib, — 

HscoxHyib, to dry up, — H3CMXaTb, — 

H3A6xHyTb, to die, — H34bixaTb, — 

IIpHBbiKHyTb, to habituate, — .... npHBMKaTb, — 
Hcie3HyTb, to vanish, — HC^e3aTb, — 

e) The Russian language has some prepositional 
verbs, the simple verb of which is no more used 
or is lost. Such are: 

i) Perfect aspect. 2) Imperfect cup. 

/ — ^ ■ — ^ r ^ ^ 

Onpae^aib, to justify, I. i 0iipaB4i>iBaTb, I. i. 

OOHapoAOBaib, to publish, I. 2. . . . oSnapoAWBaTb, — 

Saiiaxb, to devise, I. 3. saTtBaiB, — 

OAOJiiXb, to surmount, I. 4 040j!'BBaxb, — 

YKopeHHXb, to root, II. I yKopeHHXb, I. 3. 

Bo4BOpiixb, to settle, — B04B0paxb. — 

PasopHXb, to ruin, — pasopaxb, — 

YAapiiXb, to strike, — y^apaxb, — 

IIoBXopHXb, to repeat, — noBXopaxb, — 

Hcxpediixb, to destroy, II. 2 HCxpe6jaxL, — 

OytymeBiixb, to animate, — .... o^ymeBjaxb, — 

YcblHOBriXb, to adopt, ^- yCblHOBJflXb, — 

Ha4oyMHXb, to instruct,- -^ . . . . . Ha4oyM.raBaxb, I. i. 

IIpH.^O}KiixB, to add, II. 3 npH.iaraxb, — 

Yhh^hjkiixb, to humble, — yHH^fflHcaxb, — 



l6o RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

i) Perfect aspect. 2) Imperfect asp. 

yHHlTOHtllTb, to annul. 11. 3 yHnqTOHtaxL, I. I. 

BoopyHii'iTb, to arm, — BOOpymaib, — 

BHymiiTL, to suggest, — BHyiuaTb, — 

BpyquTb, to hand, — Bpy^aib, — 

HcTOiuiiTb, to exhaust, — HCTOmaib, — 

Coopy4«Tb, to erect, 11. 4 coopyjKaib, — 

IloS'BAHTb, to vanquish, — no6'B)K4aTb, — 

YcjaAiixb, to delight, — ycjajKAaib, — 

IlpOHSUTb, to pierce, — npOHSaib, — 

Ofiuj'BTb, to offend, — o6H!KaTb, — 

BcTpiiiiTb, to meet, II. 5 BCxps^aib, — 

OTOSTHTb, to answer, — OTB'B^aTb, — 

BocKpeciiTb, to revive, II. 6 BOCKpemaxb, — 

IXoxM-Bcxiixb, to place, II. 7 noMsmaxb, — 

no4ycxHXb, to instigate, — .... noAyiuaxb, — 

nocBTUTb, to visit, — noc-Bmaxb, — 

ynpoxiixb, to appease, — yKpomaxb, — 

Hacb'ixuxb, to satiate, — Hacbimaxb, — 

3amiixiixb, to protect, — aaiuamaxb, — 

^ocxiirnyxb, to reach. III. i Aocxuraxb, — 

BoCKpeCHyxb, to resuscitate, — ... BOCKpecaxb, — 

OKynyxb, to dip, — OKyHweaxb, — 

SaMKHyxb, to lock, — saMbinaxb, — 

ymiiSiixb, to bruise, — ymndaxb, — 

Ilpocxepxb, to extend, III. 2. . . , . npocxupaxb, — 

06yxb, to put shoes, irr o6yBaxb, — 

Honpaxb, to trample, — nODHpaxb, — 

Pacnaxb, to crucify, — pacnnnaxb, — 

Ha^iaxb, to begin, — na^Haxb, — 

OxHflXb, to take out, — oxmiMaxb, — 

OxBepaxii, to open, — oxBepsaxb, — 

OSp-BCXH, to find out, — oSptxaxb, — 

C^ecxb, to count, — c^Hxaxb, — 

Pa3CB-BCXH, to grow light, — .... pascBi&xaxb, — 
3anpaqb, to put to, — sanparaxb, — 

Among these verbs there are several which are also used 
with other prepositions besides those which are above indicated. 



Lexicology. — the verb. i6i 

/) The following verbs do not form their perfect 
aspect from the imperfect aspect of the used simple 
verb, but from some disused aspect of this simple verb. 

I) Perfed aspect. 2) Imperfect aspect. 



SaMtHiiTL, II. I (instead of 3aMIbHHmb). SaMtHHTl., to compensate, I. 3. 
3acTpt.iiiTt, — (instead of aacnipibAHmb). aacTpijHBaiL, to shoot, kill, 1. 1. 
BcKOqiiTb, II. 3 (instead oiecKOKamb) . . BCKaKHBaib, to leap in, — 
yKyciixb, II. 6 (instead oi yKycdmb) . . yKyctieaTb, to bite, — 
HoSB-BCTiiXb, II. 7 (instead of eo36rbiu,dmb). BOSB'BmaTB, to announce, — 
nor.aoTiiTb, — (instead of nozAomdmb) . nor.«omaTb, to swallow up, — 

^) Some prepositional verbs are formed irre- 
gularly, and occasionally they have two formations, 
one regular, and the other irregular. Such are: 

REGULAR FORMATION. IRREGULAR FORMATION. 

1) Perfect aspect 2) Imperfect aspect. i) Perfect aspect. 2) Imperfect aspect. 



Upeap-BTb, to despise, II. i, . . npesHp&Tb, 1. 1 &06o3piTb, to examine, II. i. ofioaptBaTb, I. i. 

CuCKaib, to find, II. 7 CUCKHBaib, — &CHHCK&Tb, to obtain, II. 7. . CHHCKHBaib, — 

06y34aTb, to curb, I. i. . . . o6y34MBaTb, — &B3Hy34&Tb, to bridle, I. i. . BSHysAUBaib, — 

C034aTb, to build, 7>r. (C03H«4y) C03H4&Xb, — & CoSA&Tb (COSMMt), . . . . C034aB4Tb (C034ai6). 

HarpecTH, to rake up, irr. ■ ■ Harpe6aTb, — & norpe6cTH, to bury, irr. ■ norpe6&Tb, 1. 1. 

no3B6.iHTb, to permit, II. i. . n03B0-iflTb, I. 3 & yB64HTb, to discharge, II. i. yBOJbHHTb, I. 3. 

OcMtflTb, to deride, I. 3. . . . ocMtHBaTb, 1. 1 &HacMl5aTbCfl,tolaughat,I.3, HacMtxaTbca, I. i 

OCfias^Tb, to bind, II. 4. . . . ofiBflSMBaTb, — & Ofias^Tb, to oblige, II. 4. . o6fl3UBaTb, — 

CpaBHHTb, to even, I. 3. . . . cpaBHHBaib, — &CpaBHHTb, to compare, II. I. cp&BHHBaTb, — 

npHHHTb, to take, irr. (npHMy) npHHHM&ib,— &BuHyTb, to take out. III. i. BHHHM4Tb, — 

IIpH6-fe«4Tb, to run up, irr. • npHetr&Tb, — & UpHOirHyib, to resort. III. i. npHe-firaib, — 

//) Other prepositional verbs have no perfect 
aspect and therefore fall into the class of defective 
simple verbs; such are the following: 

OdoHCaib, to adore, I. i. OHiHAaib, to wait, I. i. 

06ja4aTb, to dominate, — 06HTaTb, to habit, — 

Od^maib, to promise, — Onacaibca, to fear, — 

3aB-BmaTb, to bequeath, — 06ypeBaTb, to agitate, — 

YB-BmaBaTb, to exhort, — HoApaacaib, to imitate, — 

0xyH;4aTb, to criticize, — IIo^odaTb, to be necessary, — 

Ocasaib, to touch, — IIopHliaTb, to blame, — 

II 



1 62 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

no403p-BBaTB, to suspect, I. i. YmepdjaTbCfl, to decrease, I. 3. 

CoMH'BBaTbCa, to doubt, — CoJKajiTL, to take pity, I. 4. 

Co3epuaTb, to contemplate, — Cmbicihtl, to understand, II. i. 

H3o6ii.iOBaTb, to abound, I. 2. GocToaTb, to consist, — 

HaCwli40BaTb, to inherit, — ynpaMiiTLCH,tobeobstinate,II.2. 

IlOBHHOBaTbCa, to obey, — CoAepaiaTb, to maintain, II. 3. 

IIpilBiTCTBOBaTb, to Avelcome, — npe4BH4'BTb, to foresee, II. 4. 

060HaTb, to scent, I. 3. IIoxOAHTb, to resemble, — 

ynpaH(HaTb, to occupy, — SaBiiCMb, to depend, II. 6. 

i) Lastly the following simple verbs have the 
properties of prepositional verbs, in other words 
they express the accomplishment of an action with- 
out being joined to a preposition and without 
having the termination of unity in uymb. They 
are called perfect simple verbs. Some of them 
have also the iterative aspect. 

i) Perfect aspect. 2) Imperfect aspect. 3) Iterative asp. 



B.iaroc.iOBiiTb, to bless, II. 2. . (5jarocjoB.iaTb, I. 3. . . — 

BpocHTb, to throw, II. 6. . . dpocaib, I. i 6pacbiBaTb. 

BblTb, to be, irr. CblBaxb, — 6biBbiBaTb. 

Be.liib, to order, II. i. . . . (Be.iiib) Be.atBaTb. 

BopoTHTb, to turn, 11. 5. . . Bopo^aib, I. I Bopa^HBaib. 

^aib, to give, irr. . . ... . ^asaib, — (Aaro) ... — 

/^tTb, to put, irr ^-BBaXb, — — 

JKeHiiTb, to marry, II. i. . . (jKeHiilb) — 

KaamiTb, to execute, 11. i. . (KaSHi'iTb) ....... — 

KoHiHTb, to end, II. 3. . . . KOHiaib, — KaHqiiBaib. 

KyniiTb, to buy, II. 2. . . . (noKynaib). — . . . . — 

.le^b, to lie, irr .lOHtiiibCa, II. 3 — 

.iHiniiTb, to deprive, II. 3. . .miiiaTb, I. i — 

IlacTb, to fall, irr. na^aib, — (na^aib). 

rij-BHiiTb, to captivate, II. i. iLitHaib, I. 3 — 

IIpocTHTb, to pardon, II. 7. . npomaib, I. i — 

IlycTHTb, to let go, — . . . nycKaib and nymaib, — — 

PanHTb, to hurt, II. i. . . . (paHHTb) — 

P04iiTb, to beget, II. 4. . . . poHtaib and pa5K4aTb, — — 



Lexicology. — the verb. 



163 



i) Perfect aspect. 



2) Imperfect aspect. 



PymHTb, to break down, II. 3. (pymHTfc) 

PtmiiTb, to decide, II. 3. . . p'BinaTb, — 

Cbo6o4hti>, to deliver, II. 4. . CBo6ojK4aTb, — . . 

r to become, irr. . . CiaHOBiiTbCfl, II. 2. . 

' I. to be sufficient, irr. ciaBaTb, I. i. (ciaib) 

CTyniiTb, to go, II. 2. . . . ciynaib, — ... 

C%CTb, to sit, irr. caAiiTbCfl, II. 4- • • 

XBaiiiTb, to seize, II. 5. . . xBaiaib, I. i. . . . 

HBliTb, to show, II. 2. . . . HB.lflTb, I. 3. ... 
ffmb, to take, irr UMdnib, I. I. and II. 2 {u^. 



3) Iterative asp. 
pymiiBaTb. 



CTaHaB.3HBaTbCH. 



XBaqiiBaib. 



dio «& eMAfo). 



To the list of perfect simple verbs we must add some verbs 
taken from foreign languages and ending in oeanib, e. g. 
aTiaKOBaib, to attack; KOH*HCKOBaTb, to confiscate^ which express 
both the perfect and imperfect aspects with the same termi- 
nation and without preposition. 

The verbs Be.l'BTb, acCHiiTb, KaSHHTb, paHHTb and pyiiiHTb, do 
not change their termination to form the perfect and imperfect 
aspects; the perfect future (eejK), iKeHK), KaSHK), paHK) and 
pymy) is also used for the present. In the verb Kynrixb, the 
present and the imperfect preterit are borrowed from the 
prepositional verb nOKynaib. The verbs 4apOBaTb, to give; 
MHHOBaib, to pass , and o6pa30BaTb , to form, as well as the in- 
flections AapOBajiT., MHHOBaJT> and oSpasOBaJT., are of the per- 
fect aspect; but the inflections AapyH), MHHyiO and o6pa3yiO 
are of the present. The verb MHHOBaib forms its future with 
Mimy, MiiHeiUb, and the preterit has the two inflections MHHyjT> 
and MnHOBavll. 

With regard to the perfect simple verbs we remark that in 
such of them as express a physical action, performed by a 
single motion (as 6p6cHTb, 4aTb, A'BTb, naCTb, nyCTIiTb, CXyniiTb, 
XBaXHTb, HTb) the meaning of their perfect aspect is the same 
as that of the aspect of unity in complete verbs {% 62). 

These perfect simple verbs, with the exception 
of o.iazocAoeumb, o/ceHumb, Kasuumb, jiumumb, pd- 
Hiimb and nAibHumb, form also prepositional verbs. 

Such are: 

II* 



164 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

I) Perfect aspect. 2) Imperfed aspect. 

. ^ . ' —^ -^ 

3a6biTL, to forget, irr 3a6bIBaTb, I. I. 

HoBejiTb, to order, II. i noBe.itBaTb, — 

Pa34aTb, to distribute, irr pas^aBaXb, — 

04'BTb, to dress, irr OAtBaib, — 

PacKynHTb, to buy up, II. 2 pacKynaib, — 

Sajeib, to hide one's self, irr 3a-ieraTb, — 

YnacTb, to fall, irr yna^aib, — 

PacnpocTHTbCfl, to take leave, II. 7. . . pacnpomaibca, — 

riponycTHTb, to let pass, — nponycKaxb, — 

yp04HTb, to produce, II. 4. ypoHtaib, — 

PaspyiuHTb, to destroy, II. 6 paspyuiaTb, — 

Paap'BiUHTb, to decide, — pasp^BinaTb, — 

0CB060AHTb, to free, II. 4 OCB060HC4aTb, — 

40CTaTb, to procure, irr. AOCiaBaib, — 

OciaHOBliTb, to stop, II. 2 OCTaHaBJHBaTb, — 

BbiCTynHTb, to go out, II. 2 BbiCTynaib, — 

SaciCTb, to sit, irr 3acS4aTb, — 

Ha-bflBHTb, to indicate, II. 2 H3iaB.5}iTb, I. 3. 

The verbs 6p6cumb, eopomunib, KdHHumb and xeamumb 
have the two perfect aspects in their prepositional verbs, like 
those derived from the complete simple verbs, as we shall 
subsequently see. For the prepositional verbs derived from 
HMb, see S 65. 3. 

3. Such prepositional verbs as are derived from 
the complete simple verbs, have in addition to the 
preceding perfect and imperfect aspects, a second 
perfect aspect, which, being formed from the aspect of 
unity of the simple verb, indicates that the action 
has been or will be performed at one time and 
by a single movement, whereas the perfect aspect, 
which is formed from the imperfect aspect of the 
simple verb, indicates that the action has been or 
will be accomphshed by various motions, and that 
occupied or will occupy a certain length of time. 



Lexicology. — the verb. 165 

The same remark applies to such prepositional verbs 
as are formed from certain double verbs, and also 
from the perfect simple verbs 6p6cHTfc, BopoTHTB, 
KOHHHTB and xBaiHTt; e. g. 

1) Perfect aspect. 2) Imperfect aspect. 



a) of duration. b) of unity. 
Bwdo^xaTb, I. I. BHdojTHyxb, III. i. BwCajTMBaTb, to divulge, I. i. 
HaKH^aTb, — . HaKHHyib, — . . . HaKHAMBaTt, to heap up, — 
Bcnopxaib, — . BcnopxHyxB, — . BcnapxHBaiB, to flutter, — 
BbinpLiraib, — . Bb'inpurHyTb, — . Bbinpb'irHBaTb, to skip out, — 
CidKaib, — . CTOJKHyib, — . . ciajKHBaib, to push down, — 
Saxionaib, — . saxjonHyib, — . aaxjonbiBaib, to shut with a clap, - 
3a6pu3raTb, — 3a6pM3HyTb, — . 3a6pbi3rBBaTb, to besprinkle, — 
BcoBaib, I. 2. . BcyHyTb, — ... BCOBbiBaib, to shove in, — 
BbiKJCBaib, — . BMKJiOHyTB, — . . BbiK.ieBbiBaTb, to peck out, — 
IIpH4aBHTb, 11. 2. npHAaBHyxb, — . npHAaBJHBaxb, to press to, — 

OK.IliKaTb, II. 5. OKJIlKHyib, — . . OK.IHKaTb, to call to, — ■ 
C^yib, irr. . . CAynyib, — . . . CAyBaib, to blow off, — 
no4Hce^b, — . no4«HrHyTb, — . noAHtHraib, to fire, — 
BbiBa.iaTb, I. 3. BbiBa.iHTb, II. i. . ebiBajHBaTB, to throw out, — 
JIpoKaiaTb, I. I. npoKaiiiTb, II. 5. . npoKaibiBaxb, to roll through, — 
Bbi.ioMaib, — . BbuoMHTb, II. 2. . BbuaMbiBaxb, to break out, — 
CpOMTb, I. 3. . cpOHHTb, II. I. . . cpaHBBaib, to throw down, — 
BbixacKaib, I. i. BbiTamnTb, II. 3. . BbiiacKHBaxb, to pidl out, — 
3a6pocaTb, — . 3a6p6cHTb, II. 6. . 3adpacbiBaTb, to throw beyond, — 
Ceopoqaib, — . CBOpoTiixb, II. 5. . CBopa^HBaxb, to avert, — 
OKOH^axb, — . OKOHTOiXb, II. 3. . OKan^iBaxb, to terminate, — 
SaxBaxaxb, — . saxBaxiixb, II. 5. . saxBaxbisaxb, to catch, — 

The simple verbs roBopHxt, jiobhtl, 6hti>, 6paTL 
and KJiacTb, to indicate an action performed by one 
movement, borrow their perfect aspect from an- 
other verb; as: 

1) Imperfect expect. 2) Perfect aspect. 

a) of duration. b) of unity. 
FoBOpiiXb, to speak, say, II. i. . noroBOpiixb . CKasaxb, II. 4. 
JoBfixb, to seize, catch, II. 2. . hsjobhxb . . noMMaxb, I. i. 



1 66 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

i) Imperfect aspect. 2) Perfect aspect. 

a) of duration. b) of unity. 

Bhtl, to beat, irr noOiiTb . . y^apHTb, II. i. 

EpaTb, to take, irr nodpaib, . , B3flTB, irr. (B03bMy). 

RiacTb, to lay, irr. noK.iacTb . . uo.iojKiiib, II. 3. 

4. From the double simple verbs two prepositio- 
nal verbs are formed, which with their two aspects, 
the perfect and the imperfect, have each a particular 
signification. Such are: 

i) From the definite verb. 2) From the mdefiniU verb. 

, — ^ V , '- ^— ^ 

a) Perfect asp. b) Imperfect asp. a) Perfect asp. b) Imperfect asp. 

BkiOpecTH, TTT. Bbi6po4HTb, to go out, II, 4. & Bii6p04Hib,II.4. BM6p&»HBaTb, to ferment,!. I, 
BwCtJKaTb, — Bu6"Brfi,Tb, to flee, I. i. . . & BiiOtraTL, I. i. BbiCtrHBaib, to precede,— 
3aBe3TH, — . 3aB03Hib, to bring back, II.4. & 3aB03HTb, II. 4. 3aB&;KHBaTbj to transport, — 
npOBecTH, — . npOB04HTb, to conduct, — , & IIpoB04HTb, — . npoBO^K&Tb, to accompany, — 
3arHarb, — . . saroHaib, to drive, I. 3. & SaroHaib, I. 3. sarfiHEBaib, to harass, — 
BufiiH, — . • BUXOAHTb, to go out, II. 4. & BuxoAHTb, II. 4. Bfaix&XvBBaTb, to obtain, — 
B.aeTiTb, n. 5. BJeiaTb, to fly in, I. i. . . & IIepe-ieTaTb,I.i.nepe.ieTUBaTb, to fly by, — 
40HecTH, irr. AOHOCHib, to denounce, II. 6. & 4oHOCHTb, II. 6. flOH&niHBaTb, to wear out, — 
Bn0jl3TH, — . BnoJSatb, to creep in, I. i. & Oind^saib, I. i. 0Tn&.43hiBaTb, to go away,— 
Butxaxb, — . BU333KS,Tb, to go out, I. I. & Bu-BS/iHTb. II. 4. Bui3HtHBaTb, to train, — 

From the other double verbs are formed prepositional verbs 
as from the incomplete or complete verbs. The verbs Ba.lHTb, 
KaTHTb, .lOMiiTb, pOHHTb and TamHTb form prepositional verbs 
with the two perfect aspects of duration and of unity, as we 
have seen above. 



EXERCISES ON THE VERBS. 
Regular I do good, as much as I wish. Thou desirest in- 

verbs. n • ^ , , ^ m 

H 4'B.aaTb 400po, CKcibKO a Hcejaib. Tbi H(e.5aTb 



Present. 



Struct thyself. He imagines that he knows all the sciences, 
y^HTbca. OhT) ^yMaib ^to ohi SHaib eecb HayKa, 

and he boasts of his success. We dare not believe in 
H xeacxaTb {instr.) cbou ycnixT>. H 4ep3aTb ne sipHTb {dat.) 



Lexicology. — the verb. 167 

your words, even when you speak the truth. My neighbours 
Bauii CjIobo, xoth Tbi roBopuTb npasAa. Mou cociAi 

only live on bread, and trust in Providence. 

04Hin> \MikihZfi.{instr.) xjt6i., h ynoeaTB Ha {acc^ IIpoBHAtHie. 

You trade in cloth, and you ask much. 

TbI TOprOBaTB {instr.) cyKHO, H TBI Tpe6oBaTB (^^.) MHoroe. 

The pigeon cooes; the turtle moans; dogs bark; puppies 
r6.iydB BopKOBaiB; ropjHua CTOHaiB; codana JiaaiB; menoKi 

yelp; the frog croaks; the i^aven croaks; the crow caws; 
dpexaiB; .laryuiKa KBanaTB; BopoHi rpaKaxB; BopoHa'KapKaxb; 

lions roar; the stag bells; fowls cluck; the cat 

.leBT. pBiKaiB; ojeHB TOKOBaiB; KvpHija KyAaxiaiB; Komna 

mews; oxen bellow; the bee hums; the serpent hisses; 
MaynaTB; 6bikx MBi^aiB ; nqe.ia HtyHOKaiB; 3Mta mnntTB; 

eagles scream; nightingales twitter; sheep and lambs 
ope.5T. ipyduTB; cojiOBefl medeiaTB; OBua n arHCHOKi 

bleat; pigs grunt; the fox yelps; the ass brays; the 
6jeaTB; CBlIHBfl XpWKaTB; JHCHqa BH3H;aTB; ocejT. peB-BTB; 

turkey gobbles; the quail calls; the cock crows; 
Ka.iKyirB K.«oxTaTB; nepeue.iKa BaBaKaiB; ni&TyxT> K}T{ypeKaTB; 

the magpie chatters; the parrot prates. The thunder roars; 
copoKa CKpeKOxaxB; nonyraft ddiaiB. FpoMx rpeMixB; 

water boils; the doors creak; the brooks murmur; the fire 
B04a Knniib; 4BepB CKpiiniiB; py^efl myjKHtaTB; oroHB 

crackles; the stars twinkle; the sun shines; honey-bees 
TpeiuaiB; 3B-B3Aa CBepKaiB; c6.iHqe CBtxiiiB; nie.ia 

swarm; diamonds sparkle; dry leaves rattle; the wind 
poiiTBca; ajiMa3T> djecx-BXB; cyxofl jihcxt. xpycx-BXB; Bixepi 

whistles; the snow melts. The sun illumines the earth with 
CBiicxaxB; CH-Bri xaaxB. Co^Hue 03apflXB 3e]yua (m/r.) 



1 68 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



its rays , 


warms 


and vivifies her. 


The earth turns 


CBoft .lyq-L, 


rp-BTb 


H JKHBHTL OHT>. 


3eMjfl o6pamaTLca 



round the sun. You grieve in vain. 

BOKpyr-L Um.) CO Anne- Tbi ropeBait nanpacHO. 

Preterit. I walked yesterday on the bank of the river, when 

H ryjflTb B^epa no(^/.) ^epen p-fiKa, KorAa 

the sun was setting. My sister sat under a tree, 
co.iHue caAHTLca. Moii cecipa CHAiii. noAi {instr.) ^epeBO, 

which was shaken by the wind. Yesterday we worked, 
KOTopufi KaqaTBca {instr.) Biiepi. B^epa a paOoiaxb, 

read, wrote and drew much. The sheep perished 
iHiaTb, DHcaib H piicoBaib MHoro. OBua Mepeib 

through the cold. His mother has been dead a long time. 
OTT> {gen:) ciyaa. Oht. Maib ynepexb AasHo. 

The enemies have shut him up in the fortress. This 

Henpiaiejb sanepexb oh-b hi {prep.) Kpinocib. 3'toti 

man has become blind, and his wife has become deaf. My 
^e.iOBiK'b oc jinny Tb, h oht> aena orjoxnyTb. Moh 

trees have withered, and my flowers have faded. 
AepeBO BbicoxHyib, n moh iiB-Bib saBaHyxb. 

Future. Moscow will shine long at the head of the cities 

MocKBa KpacoBaxbca AOJro bo {prep,) rjasa r6po4T> 

of Russia. Thou wilt play, and I shall write. The empire 
pyccKifl. Tbi Hrpaxb, h a nncaxb. TocyAapcxBO 

of Russia will develop itself incessantly, and acquire constantly 
PocciflCKitt BOSBbiinaxbca 6e3npepbiBHO, h npioSp-Bxaxb Bcer^a 

more force and glory. A great monarch will never 

doj-Be {gen.) cpua h cjasa. BejHKm rocyAapi ne HHKor4a 

die. 
yMepexb. 

Imperative. Do what thou art bidden, and do not think of resisting. 
^ijaxb TTO xbi roBoprixb, h ne 4yMaxb ynpaMHXbca. 



Lexicology. — the verb. 169 

Do not lose hope, and trust in God. Go home, 

He lepflTB Ha4eH{4a, h ynoBaib na {ace) Bori. CiynaTb 40M6fl, 

and do not dispute so much. Do not lose thy time, and 
H He TOJKOBaTB CTO.IBKO. He TpaiHTt {gen.) BpeMH, H 

do not torment the animals. Speak always the truth, and 
He MyiHTb {gen.) jKHBOTHoe. FoBopHTt Bcer4a npaB4a, b 

do not dispute about trifles. 
He cndpHTL {prep.) nycTHKi, 

The nightingale sings; the horse neighs; the wolf howls. Irregular 
Co.iOBefl n-BTB; .i6ma4B pataiB; bojkt. bbitb. 

There are animals which sleep during the whole winter. 
Bbitb sb-bpb, KOTopBifl cnaiB {ace.) bccb 3iiMa. 

Thou takest much upon thyself, and I do not under- 

Tbi 6paTB MHoro na {ace.) ce6H, h a ne 6paTBca 

take this affair. How do you crumple this book? He 
3a {acc^) 3T0TT> 4'B.IO. Sa^iM'B TBI MSTB 3T0TI KHIira. OhI 

lives at Moscow, and is thought to be a rich man. 

H;HTB BT> {prep.) MoCKBa, H CIBITB {instr.) 6oraTBlii ^e.IOB-BKT>. 

The shepherd shears the sheep; the peasants spin the flax 
nacTyxi CTpnqB oeiia; KpecTBHHHH^ npacTB .leni 

and weave the linen. He wishes to sleep, and you wish 
H TKaTB XO.ICTT>. Oh^ XOTBTB CnaTB, H TBI XOTtTB 

to play. My neighbour kept me as his own son, and could 
HrpaTB. Mofi coci4'B depeiB a Kan-B po4H6fi cbihx, n mo^ib 

not part with me. The enemies have burnt several 
He paacTaTBca co {instr.) a. HenpiaTejB cjKeiB MHoro 

towns; they were inflamed by hatred and vengeance. The 
r6p04'B; OHi ys.ie^Bca {instr.) 3.166a h Mmeme. 

shepherd pastured the sheep in the meadow. I will send 
riacTyxT. nacTii OBiia na {prep.) .iyn>. H nocjaTB 

for the doctor, and thou wilt send me money. This 

3a {instr.) .liKapB, n TBI npnciaTB a {gen.) 4^HBrn.. 3'tott> 



170 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

town is flourishing, and it will flourish long through its 
r6pOAT> UBBblli, U OHT> UBtCTII 40.ir0 {insir.) 

strength and wealth. I will give thee a book, and thou, what 
ciua H 6oraTCTBO. fl Aaib tli KHiira, h tu ^to 

wilt thou give me ? Thou canst not say : what will he give 
4aTL a? Tm Moqb He roBopuTt : ito oht. 4aTb 

me for that? Do not take upon thyself, 

H 3a {ace.) 3T0Tb ? He Opaib na {ace.) cedn {gen..) tott> {gen.) 

what thou canst not perform. Children, live in peace, do not 
'iTO Tbi Mo^b ue iicn6.aHiiTb. AwiA, Hiuib aiiipHO, hc 

swear, never lie, and behave yourselves well. 

OHCTbCfl, He HHKorAa jraxb, u Beciii ceda xopomeabKO. 

Definite and Beasts walk and run, birds and flies fly, fishes 
indefinite _ . , . . • > ' t 

imperfect oBtpb xoAUTb o^raib, iiTuqa H Myxa jeiaib, pbioa 

aspect. 

swim, and worms crawl. See, a soldier is coming 

DjaBaib, n ^epsb n6.J3aTb. nocMoip-BTb, CdAaii h4Th 

here; behind him runs a dog. Thou seest, how this 
cK)4a; saC/W/r.) 0HT> dtacaxb coOaKa. BiiA^Tb, KaKT> 3tott> 

swallow flies fastj they fly always so. This mariner 
jacTO^a .leiiTb dbicipo; ohi. jeiaib Bcer4a xaKi. Cea Mopani 

has long sailed on the Black Sea. What is swimming 
AOjro njaBaib no {dat.) ^epHbitt Mope. %o n.ibiib 

there on the water? The wives of the Slavonians carried 

laMTi Ha(^;'<^.) eo^a? iKena C.iaBaHHHT> Hocnib 

water and fetched wood. What dost thou carry in 

BOAa H xacKaxb 4poBa. ^xo xw Hecxii bt. {prep:\ 

this bag? See, what a heap of wood this 

axoxT> MtinoKi? CMOxpixb, KaKoii BaaaHKa 4poBa 9xoxt> 

man is drawing. One saw then what one had not 

^e-iOBtKi. xamiixb. BiiAixb xor4a [gen.) ^xo He 

seen for a long time. 
BH4aXb 40x6^-6. 



Lexicology > — the verb. 171 

The enemy dashed into the town and seized the Perfect 

T¥ . • • / V ' ' / X aspect of 

HenpiaTe.jL p-BaibCfl b-b {ace.) ropo4i » KHAaiBCa Ha (ace.) duration 

and of unity, 
booty. It began to lighten. It lightened, there was a 

KopbicTL. SacBepKaib MOJiria. CBepKaib Mo^iida, rpeMiib 

violent clap of thunder, the earth trembled, the church 
CHJbHbiii rpoMi, 3eM.ia ApoacaTb, qepKOSb 

was shaken. My brother went to bed, and began to snore. 
saTpacaibca. [Moh dpaii .ie% h saxpaniib. 

He gave a loud snore and awoke. May I hope, that 
Xpan^Tb rpoMKO h npocbinaibca. Mo^b a HaAiaTbca, tto 

my lyre will touch once more your hard heart? The sun 
wofl jHpa xporaib eme Baim> x.ja4HbiH cep^iie ? CojHue 

began to shine, but not for a long time; it shone for a moment 
3a6jHCTaTb. HO He Ha46.iro; djieciiib 

and disappeared. We have thrown out of the window all 
H CKpbiBaibca. H BbidpacwBaxb 3a {ace) okho Becb 

the sweepings; among the sweepings we 'have thrown out 
cop-b; BT> {prep.) copi fl BbldpaCblBaib 

also a paper of importance. 
H 6yMara BaHcnaa. 

Last year I often went to the town. Socrates Iterative 

{gen.) npdm.ibiii ro^i a xoAiiib bi {ace.) ropo^i). CoKpan. ^^^^^ ' 

was accustomed to say. The Germans had long inhabited 
rOBOpriTb. HiMCHT. H34aBHa HtHTb 

Novgorod. When living at Moscow, I 

BT. {prep.) HoBropo/t'b. 5KHTb bt» {prep.) \ MocKBa, a 

often w^ent to the monastery of the Trinity. In my youth 
iSAHTb BT> {ace.) ^aapa TpoHUKiii. Bt. {ace.) MOJ046H JiTo 

I often lived in the country, 

a JKHTb BT> {prep.) ^epeBHa. 

If the stones could speak, they would teach thee Conditional 

ri, , , . . g and Sub- 

E;cj!h Obi KaMeHb Mo^b roBopiiib, oht> Hay^nib Obi tm jimctive. 



172 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

prudence. If any one had come to us 

(^W?.) OCTpOSHOCTb. • E'CIH 61* KTO Hn6y4t BOHTli K1> {dat.) a 

at this moment, he would have seen us in despair 

BT> (ar^.) a'TOTi MHHyra, OHT» yBiUtTL 6bi a BT)(/r<^.) OTqaaHie, 

and would have heard our groans and our sighs. There 
H ycibimaTt 6hi Harat CTenaHie o Harai BSAOxt. Ectl 

are few things in the world, on which I 

mIio (^<f«.) npeAMeii bi {prgp.) cb-btt,, Ha {ace.) KOTopbift a 

have not fixed my attention. There was no heart 
He o6pamaTt .6hi {gm.) BHnMame. Butb {gen.) ne cep4Ue 

so insensible that it did not melt into tears. 

laKOH KaMeHKHil, KOTopMil HB H3.ioBaTBca (ihi BT> {prep.) cjesa. 

The differ- This soldier has served long and has received for his 
andi^pects. 3'TOTI C0J4aTT> CjyHHTb 40.!r0 H BblCjyjKHBaTb 

service a pension. It is not every soldier that will obtain 
nencia. He BcaKiii BbiaiyatHBaib 

it with such distinction. He was in many 

OH-b Cb {instr.) laKOfl OT.lH^e. OhT> 6bITb ^'h{prep.) MHOrO 

battles and distinguished himself everywhere by his re- 
cpajKenie, h ouHqaibca Be34i {imir.) 6.«icTa- 

markable courage. He distinguished himself particularly 
Te.ibHbiii xpa6pocTB. Owh OT.in^aTbca oc66eHHO 

at the capture of a battery of the enemies. He mounted 
upii{prep.) BSarie Caiiapea HenpiaTejbCKiil. Owb BsCHpaibca 

first on the parapet, killed the hostile soldier, and 
nepBbiii Ha {ace.) 6pycTBepT>, yfiHBaib Henpiaie.ibCKift co.i4aT'b, n 

captured a cannon. For that he was rewarded by a 

BSaib nyiEKa. 3a {ace.) aio oht. HarpaHt4aTb {insfr.) 

decoration. Afterwards he was rewarded also with other 
6p4eH'b. IIoTOM-b OHT> Harpa3K4aTb h {ins^r.) 4pyr6M 

marks of distinction. Now he will return to his country, 
OT.!Hqie. Tenepb oht> oinpaBj/iTbca ^^{acc.) p64nHa, 



Lexicology, — the participle. 173 

will establish himself with his family, and will relate 

nocejfiTbca bi ^prep.) cbou ceMba, h pascKaSMBaib {prep.) 

his campaigns, how he marched against the Turks and 
CBOH nOx64T>, KaKT> X04liTb Ha {ace.) TypOKT. H 

the French, how he beat the enemy, how he indured hunger, 
4>paHuy3T,, KaKt 6iiTb Bpari, Kan-b lepniib r6.«04T., 

suffered from his wounds, and consoled himself with the 
CTpa4aTb Qi-h^gen.) pana, 11 yi-BuiaTbca {instr.) 

thought that he is serving his sovereign with heart and 
MbiMb, qio OHi cjyHtHTb {dot.) CBofi rocy4apb {instr:) cep4ue h 

soul. Trust in me. 

4yma. VnOBaTb YOi^ace.) a. 



THE PARTICIPLE. 

^. — The participles (npHHaciifl) have, as a part ^['^^'^'Jjf ^ 
of the verb (§ 53) voice, aspect and te^ise, and, as cipies. 
adjectives, that they may agree with their sub- 
stantive, they have gender, number and case. As 
regards voice, they are active or neuter (or, with 
the pronoun CH, pronominal) and passive. They 
have the same number of aspects as the verbs 
whence they are derived, but they have only two 
tenses, the present and preterit. 

67. — The active and neuter (as also the prono- Active and 

' \ J. • neuter par- 

minal) participles are formed as follows: ticipies. 

I. The present participle is formed from the third 
person plural of the present indicative by changing 
the termination ms into mill (neut. w,ee, fem. M^a/?), 
and this without any exception; e. g. ^ijaiomifi, 



174 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

making; .iK)6flmin, loving; KpiiHamifi, crying; ne- 
cymiii, bearing (from dfh.iaiomd^ jiMHim, KpimdmSy 
necymz), 

2. The preterit or past participle is formed from 
the preterit indicative, by changing AZ into emiii, 
and z (in such verbs as have not M in the preterit) 
into miii (neut. mee, fem. uiaR)\ e. g. ii;i.iaBmin, 
having made; HOCHBiniii, having borne \ noxyxiuin, 
being extingtdshed; lepniiH, having rubbed (from 
drbAttAd, hocujU, nomyxz, mepa). An exception to 
this rule is found in some irregular verbs in dy 
and my, which, though forming their preterit in 
M, change y of the present (or of the future) into 
mill; these are: 6.(iM);iinifl, having kept; Beitiuin, 
having lead; naAuiiii (and naeuiiH), having fallen; 
^pfl;^I^iH, having [spun; nJieTiniii, having plaited; 
MeTinin, Jiaving swept; o6piTuiiH, having foimd; 
iIBiTinifi, having flowered (from 6ji]ody, eedy, nady, 
npndy, Ujumy, Memy, o6pjbmy and uewmy), and 
also yBa^uiin, being faded; me,/nnift, having gone ; 
HeTinifi, having counted (from ye Any, udy and mny). 

Passive 68. — The passive participles, which are only 

participles. ^ ^ ^ i i i • i i 

formed from active verbs, are used both with the 
full and the apocopated termination, ending: a) in 
the present, in eMhiii, UMbiu or OMbiii (neut. oe, fem. 
afi) in the full, and in ems, um3 or om3 (neut. o, 
fem. \a) in the apocopated termination, b) in the 
preterit, in UHhiii or 7726m (neut. oe, fem. afi) in the 
full, and in uz or mz (neut. o, fem. ^) in the apo- 
copated termination. 

I . The present participle is formed from the first 
person plural of the present indicative, by chang- 



Lexicology. — the participle. 175 

ing the termination M<i into Mhiiiy as: ^B.iaeMHii, 
being made; jik)6hmEiIH, being loved (from dfbAaeM5 
and Aib6uM5). But ;iBHH;y, / move, and 6opK), / 
conquer, from jtBHJKHMHii and 6opHMHH (instead of 
deuoiceMbiii and 6opeMbiu). The irregular verbs with 
the first person in ems (i. e. with the accent), have 
OMbiUy resuming the guttural consonant; e. g. 30- 
BOMHil, being called; TpacoMbiH, being shaken ; 
6eper6MtiH, being kept; neKOMLiii, being baked (from 
306eM5, mpnceMS, depeoice'MS, nenemd), and in like 
manner cocomlih, beijig sacked; hckomhh, being 
sought (from cocems and iimeMs). 

2. The preterit participle' is formed of the preterit 
of the indicative by changing jU of the terminations 
aAZ, RjU and ibJiz, into mibiu with permutation of 
the commutable consonants or with intercalation of 
the consonant Ji, as also in the first person of the 
present; Ji<i and 5 of the terminations o.u, Hy,i5 
and 3j into mbiii; e. g. ^ijiaHHtiM, done; pasciflHHLiii, 
dispersed; BHAtHHBiii, seen; naJieHHKtS, burnt; HBJieH- 
HHii, shown; BiiHHeHHBlH, screwed; KOJlOThm, pricked ; 
;iBHHyTBiH, moved; Tepitin, rubbed (from dwAaAd, 
pa3cihfiJi5, eudibAS, naAUAd, Heujis, euumuAs, koaoas, 
demy A3, mep5). 

The passive participles of the irregular verbs, which] also 
present some irregularities in their formation, have been given 
in the List of the irregular verbs, pages 138 — 141. 

69. — The participles, being used as adjectives, Declension 
and as such agreeing with their substantive in participles. 
gender, number and case, are declined like the 
qualifying adjectives (§ 40, parad. 4). The active 
and neuter participles are only used in the full ter- 



176 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

mination, while the passive participles are used both 
in the full and the apocopated. 

Passive 70. — The passive participles, both present and pre- 
terit, with the apocopated termination, joined to the 
auxiliary verb 6bimb, form what is called the passive 
verb (cTpa^aieJiLHBie rjiaro^iBi) ; e. g. cbikx (ecmb) 
JiJo6uMd CBOHM-L oiixewb, the son is loved by his 
father-, yHeHHKt 6hiAZ Hazpaowdms aa npiMeatanie, 
the scholar has beeji rewarded for his assiduity. 
We have here to remark that from the present and 
preterit of the passive participles are formed two 
aspects of the passive verb: the imperfect and the 
perfect aspect. As regards the present, preterit 
and future tenses, they are determined by the 
auxiliary verb 6bimhj as seen below. 

I) Imperfed asp. 2) Perfect asp. 



1. Present: . . fl (ecjw6) HarpaH£4aeMT>. a {fiCMb) HarpaatAeHi). 

2. Preterit: . a 6bui> HarpaHv4aeMT>. a Omji HarpajKAeai. 

3. Future: . . a 6y4y HarpaH(4aeMT>. a 6y4y HarpaHtAeHi.. 



EXERCISES ON THE PARTICIPLES. 

Active and The man who loves truth, hates falsehood. The child 
"^^"JJpiPf''' ^e-WBiKT, .nodiiTB npaB4a, HeHaeHA'BTi, .aoacb. J\wik 

that bathes; the dog that attacks passers by. The 

Kynaiica; co6aKa 6pocaTBca na {ace.) npoxoHtift. 

tradesman who received the goods from London, 

KyneuT>, no.iyqaib Toeapt h3t> {gen) .Iohaohi, 

sold them advantageously. The tradesman who has received 
npoAaBaib oht. Bbir04H0. Kynem nojyraib 

the goods from London, has sold them advantageously. 

ToeapT, H3T. {gen) JIohaoh'b, npo^aib OKI Bbiro4HO. 



Lexicology. — the participle. 177 

Suflfering from illness^ he seeks relief. Light 

CipaAaib {instr.) dciiSHb, iiCKaxb {gen.) od.ier^euie. 3a%eu 

the candle which has gone out, and wipe the window 
cBsqa noTyxHyib, h Bb'iTepeib cieKJo 

which is frozen. Glory to the hero who has saved his 
3aMep3HyTb. Ciaea repofi cnaciH CBOfl 

country. The roaring lion, the bellowing ox, the barking 
oie^ecTBO. PbiKaib jeBi, Mwiaib dbiKi), jaaxb 

dog, the crowing cock, the cooing dove, express their 
codaKa, n-fiib n-Biyxi, BopKOBaib rojydb, Bbipaacaib cboh 

feelings and wants. 
TyBCTBO H Hce.iaHie. 

The sea agitated by the winds frightens the sailors. Passive 
■\m ' r , , participles. 

Mope, BOJHoeaTb B-Bxpi), ycTpamaib njOBeu-b. 

The daughter beloved by her father, seeks to deserve his 
40%, jiodHTb oieu-b, HCKaxb sac^yatHBaxb oitb 

love. One must succour the unfortunate man, harassed 
jioddBL. 4o^3KHO noMoraxb {dat.) necqacxHWH, rnaxb 

by fate and pursued by disasters. This is skimmed milk, 
cyAbda H npecj-BAOBaxb ney^a^a. 3'xon> chaxl mojoko, 

and here is rappee snuff. It is a loaded gun. In the 
H BOXT. xepexb xadaKT>. 3'xoxt> sapa^axb pyacbe. Ha {prep.) 

market they sell killed geese, tarred ropes, little 

pbiHOKT. npo^aBaxbCfl dnxb rycT>, CMOJiixb BepesKa, oxKopMiixb 

sucking pigs, and shorn sheep. , 

nopoceHOKT> h cxpii^b OBi^a. 

Russia is inhabited by various nations. Good sovereigns Passive 
Poccifl odHxaxb {instr.) MHoro HapoAT.. ^o^pbifi rocy4apb ^^^ ^' 

are loved by their subjects and respected by their neighbours. 
jiodiixb CBOH nd/uaHHbiH h yBaataxb cocbab- 

The Tartars have been vanquished and defeated in the 
TaxapiiHt nod-BAHTb • h pasdiixb naC/r^/.) 



178 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

plains of Koulikof, Thy labours will be crowned -with 
nd.ie Ky^iiiKOBT.. Tbou ipy^i yB-BHiaiB [instr.) 

success. Nouns are declined, and verbs conjugated. This 
ycn-BX-L. H'Ma CKJOHaiB 11 r.iar6.iT, cnparaib. Ceii 

great captain will be revered by posterity. Moscow 

BejIHKiH nOJ[KOB6AenT> qillTb Wh iprej).) nOTOMCTBO. MocKBa 

has been devastated and burnt by the enemies. This gun 
pasopiiTb H C/Ke^b spari). 3'totx pyacbe 

is charged. This book is well bound. 
3apfl4iiTb. 3'tott> KHiira npeKpacHO nepen.ieTaTb. 



THE ADVERB AND THE GERUND. 

Division of 71, — Xhe adverbs (nap-BHifl) are divided into 

the adverbs. ' \ i / 

different classes according to their meaning: 

1. Adverbs of quality or vianner (Hapiqia Ka- 
necTBa), e. g. laKi,, thus : ima^e, otherwise; xopoino, 
well; xy;to, badly; napoHHO, intentionally; CKopo, 
quickly; nanpacHO, hi vain; H-ayra/ii'B, at random; 
3ao;i;H6, by agreement; no-CBoeMy, i7i one''s own 
way, &c. 

2. Adverbs of time (BpeMemi), e. g. Bnepa, 
yesterday; cero^tHfl, to-day; saBxpa, to-morrow; 
yTpoMii, in the morning; BeHepoMij, in the evening; 
HbiH-fe, now ; lenepL, at present; TOr;i;a, then; nocji'fe, 
afterwards ; npeai;te, before; imorAa, sometimes; 
TOT^acB, presently, &c. 

3. Adverbs oi place (Micia): a) such as indicate 
a place without motion: a^ttCL, here; TaM^, there; 
Hiir^ti, flow here ; ^OMa, at home; Be3;i;i, evejy where; 
b) such as indicate -the place to which the action 



Lexicology. — the adverb and the gerund. 179 

is directed: CK);ia, hither; xyiia, thither; HHKy;^a, 
nowhere ; ^tOMoii, home; BCH);^y, everywhere ; c) such 
as indicate the place whence the action proceeds; 
e. g. OTCWJiR, from here; OTTy;^a, from there; HaBHi, 
from without; CHapymii, from the exterior; OTBCib^y, 
from all sides, 8ic. 

4. Adverbs oi order (nopn/tKa); e. g. BO-nepBi>ixT>, 
firstly; BO-Biopbix-L, secondly; noiOMi., subsequent- 
ly, &c. 

5. Adverbs of quantity (KOJiHHecTBa) ; e. g. ^0- 
BOJiLHO, enough; Majo, little; MHoro, much; ni- 
CKO.itKO, some, &c. 

6. Implicit (saMtHHxejiBHLifl) adverbs, as: ;ta, j/^j; 
h'£t'l, ;2^; MOJii., ;te, j^^j^^- /^^, &c. 

7. Interrogative (BonpocHieJitHBia) adverbs; e. g. 
Kor;i;a, 2£///^?2 .? /tOKOji'fe, how long ? vfl,%, where (with- 
out motion)? Ky^a, where (with motion)? oiKV^a, 
whence? ckojIbko, how much? saHiMT), why? &c. 

72. — Adverbs are for the most part derivatives, Formation 
being lormed irom nouns, adjectives, pronouns or verbs. 
verbs. Nouns in the instrumental and other cases 
are often employed adverbially: e. g. KpyroMt, in 
a circle; BepxoMt, on horseback; ^apoMi*, gratis; 
na noKast, for show ; wb loponax'L, in haste, &c. 
Every qualifying adjective, in the apocopated ter- 
mination of the neuter gender, can become an ad- 
verb, as: OKpacHTB 6TbM, cum, to dye white, blue; 
nocxynaxL xopomo, to conduct himself well. The 
possessive and circumstantial adjectives form ad- 
verbs of manner by means of the preposition no^ 
as: no-HeJiOB-EHLn, as a man; no-pyccKH, in Russian; 

12* 



l8o RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

no-j^pyJKGCKH , as a friend; no-3B'£pHHOMy , like 
beasts; no-MoeMy, according to my view. 

c?m^aTison^ 73* — '^^^ adverbs formed from qualifying adjec- 
tives admit of degrees of comparison; e. g. yMHO, 
wisely, and yMHie, 7nore wisely; xoponio, well, and 
JiyHine, better; noKopKO, humbly, and BcenoKop- 
Hinme, very humbly. We must here remark that 
the comparative of the adverbs is the same as that 
of the adjectives in the apocopated termination, 
with the exception of the five adverbs: 66ji'£e, 
more; Men-fce, less; ;t6j'£e, longer; ^ajite, further; 
TOHte, more finely, which must be distinguished 
from the adjectives 66irLuie, greater; MenLiue, less; 
AOJBuie, lo7iger; ;tajLine, more distant; TOHtme, 
finer. The qualifying adverbs can also be used in 
the diminutive and augmentative aspects; e. g. 
cimeBaTO, bluisJily ; MaJientKO, a little; iieMHoaiKo, 
not much; noxyace, a little worse; npeyMHO, very 
wisely. 

Gerunds. 74. — The gerunds (A'£enpHHacTifl) are nothing but 
verbal adverbs formed - from active or neuter par- 
ticiples. They have two terminations in each of 
the two tenses, viz : a) in the present^ R or (after a 
hissing letter) a, and }0%u or j^m, e. g. ^j-Biiafl and 
/tijiaio^H, iri doing; AHina and ^biniyHii, in breath- 
ing; Hecfl and Hecynn, in bearing; b) in the pre- 
terit, 65 and eiuu; e. g. j^ijiRB-b and ^"BJiaBinH, after 
having done; npociiB'Land npocHBinn, having prayed, 
remarking however that verbs which have not the 
letter A in the preterit, have only the termination 
mu^ e. g. yMepmii, being dead; noxyxmii, being 



Lexicology. — the adverb and the gerund. i8i 

extinguished. The same is the case with the pro- 
nominal verbs ; e! g. yHHBinHCL, after havi7ig learned; 
BOSBpaiHBniHCB, having returned. 

The full terminations of the gerunds JOHU and emu are 
more commonly employed in familiar language, while the 
apocopated termination R and (?5 are more usual in the written 
tongue. 



EXERCISES ON THE ADVERBS AND THE 
GERUNDS. 

Come here, for I live here. Where is your brother? Adverbs. 
noilTii cwAa, h6o a jKHib sa-bcl. F^-b eamx dpaxi,? 

He is not at home. Where did he go yesterday evening? 
Oht> VL%Th AOMa. Ky^a OHt noixait B^epa eeqepoMi? 

Thou judgest wisely, and thy brother judges more wisely. I 
Th cy^HTL yMHo, a tboii dpan. . fl 

walk quick, and thou walkest quicker. You speak Russian 
X04iiTB iniidKO, a tm . Tm roBopiiTt no-pyccKH 

purely, and your sister speaks it more purely. To-morrow 
^licTO, a Baim> cecipiiua . SaBipa 

we shall go very far, and in a year we shall go still 
a noixaib oient Aa.«eKO, a qpeai {ace.) ro4T> eme 

further. Thou singest well, but she sings better. I beg 
. Tm ntTt xopomo, ho oht, . fl npocHib 

you very earnestly. I thank you very humbly. 
TM yd'BAiiTe.ibHO. fl d.iaro4apiiTb tm noKopno. 

While walking on the bank of the river, I ^^^J^Y Gerunds 

ry.«flTb • Ha {prep:) geperi. ptKa, a nacaaacAaTbca 

the freshness of the evening. \Vhile pitying the unfortunate, 
{instr.) npoxja^a Be^epT>. 5Kaj'BTb o {prep>j nec^acTHbiii, 

try to aid them. I instruct you, because I wish 

cxapaTbca noMoraTb ohT). fl y^uTb tw, mejaTb 



1 82 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

you well, and because I hope, that you will make progress 
Tu (^<w.) Ao6p6, D Ha4iflTbCfl, ^TO Tw ycn^Baxb 

in the sciences. When thou dost not know how to do 

B-biprep.) HayKa. He yMiii. A'B.iaib {g'en.) 

a thing, ask advice without blushing. Do right, 

qio HH6yAb, npocHTb {^en.) cob-btt., ne KpacHixb. /1,'kiSiTb Ao6p6, 

without fearing any man. One ' must not eat when 

He 6oaTbCfl i^en.) hhkto. Jl,6Amuo ne tcTb 

lying down. In serving our country, and dying for 
.leacaxb. Qyacnxb (dai.) oxe^ecxBO, ii yMnpaxb 3a (ace.) 

it, we do our duty. Having received your letter, and 
OHi, a. Bcno.iHflXb CBofl 40.in>. Ilo.iyiiixb Bam-b niicbMo, h 

having learned what you want, I have answered imme- 
ySHaiB ig^n.) qxo xbi Hce.iaxb, a oxBi^axb HeMe- 

diately. After having dined, stop at home. Having 
^.leHHO. Oxodi^axb, ocxaeaxbca AOMa. Hami- 

written your letter, I placed it in an envelope, and 

CaXb DHCbMO, UOAOMllTb BT> {acc) KyB^pXX>, II 

sealed it, put it in the post. Having returned 

aane^axaxb, ox^aBaxb OH-b na (ace.) no^xa. ripiMxii 

home, I set about writing. After being married, he repaired 
AOMOM, a C'ficxb micaxb. /KeHiixbca, oh^ noixaxb 

to the country. Having remained an hour with him, 
B-biacc.) ACpeBHa. npociiAixb [ace.) qaci. y {gen.) oni, 

I returned home; after undressing myself and going to bed, 
a noHXH AOMofi; pasA'BBaxbca ii .!e%, 

I fell asleep immediately. 
fl ycHyxb CKopo. 



Lexicology. — the preposition. 



183 



THE PREPOSITION. 



75. — The prepositions (npe^iiorii) of the Russian Division of 
language are simple (6e3'L, na, no) or compowtd sitions. 
(n3'L-3a, H3'L-n6;t'L) ; the following is a general list 
of them: 



Be3T> (de3o), without. 

Ba- or B03- (B30), up. SUS-. 
Bl) (bo), in, into, to, at. 
Bbi-, out, without, ex-. 
4-ia, for. 

40, as far as, until. 
3a, behind; after; for. 
Il3T> (h30), from. 
H3T>-3a, from behind. 
HS'B-noA'L, from under. 
Kt (ko), to, towards; for. 
Ha, on; against. 
HaA^ (Ha40), upon, over. 
Hn3- (hh30-), down, de-. 
or o6l (060), of 
against. 



Olt (OTO), from; since; out of. 
Ho (na-), about; until; after. 
Il04T)(n040-), under, underneath. 
Ilpa-, {indicating a removed rela- 
tionship; npa^'BTT), great grand- 
father). 
npe-^^nepe-, beyond, trans-; re-. 
npeAT> or nepe4'B (npe40), before. 
Hpii, near; in the time of. 
IIpo, of, about. 
PaAH, for the sake of. 
Pa3- or p03- (paSO), apart, se-. 
CkboSB, through. 
Ct> (co, cy-), since; about; with, 
round; Y, at; by, near. [ing. 

^pe3T> or ^epe3'B, through ; dur- 



The following adverbs also belong to the class 
of prepositions: 



B.1H3T>, near. 
B^O.ib, along. 
BMiCTO, instead of. 
BnyTpb and BHyTpii, within. 
Bh'B, out of, without. 
BoS-i^B, beside. 

BonpeKii, against, in spite of. 
KpoM'B, besides, except. 
Mea(4y<7rMejKT>,between,amono 
MiiMO, past, by. 
Ha3a4H, behind. 
HacynpoTHBi, opposite. 



O'kOJO, round; about. 

O'KpeCTli, around. 

Onpim, except, excepting. 

noBepXT>, upon, above. 

n64.i'B, beside. 

no3a4H and n(>3a4b, behind. 

ndci-B, after. 

npeH{4e, before. 

npoTiiBt or npOTHBy, against. 

CsepXT), above; besides. 

C3a4H or C03a4ii, from behind. 

Cpe4U and cpe4b, in the middle. 



184 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

Certain adverbs, formed from qualifying adjectives, 
are also used as prepositions; e. g. OTHOCHxejiBHO, 
in reference to; KacaieJiLHO, concerning. The same 
is the case with certain gerunds, as: iiCKJiiOHafl, 
excepting; He CMOipa na, not withstanding, and 
also some nouns in different cases, as: bT) pa3- 
cyHc^eniH, i7i consideration of; nocpe^CTBOMt, by 
means of &c. 

^6 — The prepositions in every language have a 
twofold use. In the first place they are used, as 
prefixes, in the formation of the different parts of 
speech, of which they become an integral part; 
e. g. 6e3^m.% absurdity; 63rJiajL, look, aanaji'L, the 
west; o^OJiLmaiB, to seduce; wacHHOK'L, the son-in- 
law; npdBKjKh, the great-grand-son ; cjMepKii, 
twilight; ^p^SBH^aHHBiH, extraordinary^ &c. Secondly, 
as particles of speech, they are placed before nouns 
and pronouns to indicate the relations of the ob- 
jects; e. g. HejiOBSK-L 6e3z yMa, a man without 
talent; np6cL5a do cyiiLH, a request to the judge ; 
niiCBMO KZ ji;pyry, a letter to a friend; CKasna 
JiiiCHii;^, the tale of the fox,, 8ic. 

These examples show that some prepositions are 
used conjointly and separately, while others of them 
can only be employed in one of these ways. Such 
as are only used separately, are: 4-ia, Kt (ko), 
pa/tii, CKB03L, Hs-L-aa and H3^>-^6;^'L. Such as are 
only used conjointly, are: b3 (bo3, b3o), bbi, hii3 
(hh3o), na, npa, npe (nepe), pa3 (po3, pa3o) and cy, 
and for this reason are called insepaj^able preposi- 
tions. All the other prepositions may be used both 
conjointly and separately. 



Lexicology. — the preposition. 185 

"jn. — The separable prepositions require the com- Government 

, 1 , . . rr-i of the pre- 

plementary word to be put in a certain case. Thus: positions. 

Be3i>, ;tjifl, Ao, Hs-B, 1131.-34, ii3'L-n6;ri>, ot-l, pajnii 
and y, as well as almost all the adverbs used pre- 
positionally, require the genitive. 

Ki, and the adverb BonpeKH require the dative. 

IIpo, CKB03B and Hpe3'L govern the accusative. 

Ha;^'L requires the instrumental, as does also the 
adverb MejK;ty or mghcl, though used occasionally 
with the genitive. 

IIpH governs the prepositional. 

3 a, no At and npe^'L require the accusative, when 
they indicate motion towards an object, and the 
instrumental when they design repose. 

B-L, Ha and or 06^ govern the accusative, when 
they indicate a change of place, and the preposi- 
tional, when there is no motion indicated from one 
place to another. 

Ct governs the genitive, the accusative and the 
instrumental. With the genitive it means from, 
since; with the accusative, as, about, of the size of, 
and with the instrumental, with. 

Ho requires the dative, the accusative and the 
prepositional. With the dative it signifies about; 
with the accusative, as far as, and with the pre- 
positional, after. 



EXERCISES ON THE PREPOSITIONS. 

Without hope it is impossible to live in the world. From 
Be3T. Ha4ejKAa He^LSa jkhtb bt. cb^ti. Ott> 

the river to the forest there are two versts. Of what are you 
ptKa AO jI-bcl (ecwft) ABa Bepcia. ^ito th 



1 86 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

talking? We labour for the public good. Between the 
roBopiiTB? H Tpy4HTfcca AAK 66mxu 6jaro. MemAj 

house and the garden there is a large court with stables. 
AOMi> H 0341. {ecmb) npocTpaHHfaiu 4Bopi CT> KOHibmHa. 

For God's sake do not grieve. The love of the sovereign 
Pa^H Bort He yHUBaxL. .IiodoBb kt> rocy4api> 

and of one's native land. He lives at his uncle. The soldier 
H OTeiecTBO. Owb trutl y cboh ahah. Co.waT-B 

started from behind the bush. The ray of the sun passes 
BucKO^HTb ii3T>-3a KycTt. .ly^-L cdjHeiHbiu npoHHKaxb 

through the water. This man is at death's door. 
CKB03L B04a. S'TOTt ^e.iOB'BK'i. {ecmb) npH CMepTB. 

The bird flies under the clouds. I have put the book under 
IlTiiaa Aei&Tb noAt od.iaKO. fl nojoacHib KHiira uoat> 

the table. Sit down to table and remain at table. My 
CTO.IT,. GaAHTLCa 3a CT0.IT> H CHA'BTb 3a CTO.!!.. Moil 

brother starts for Moscow, because his wife lives at 
dpaiT. -Bxax-b B-b MocKBa, noTOMy ^ito oht> aena acaxb B-b 

Moscow. The eagle is perched on the tree. This glass 
MocKBa. Opej-b cuA^xb Ha AepeBO. 3'toxx pioMKa 

has been broken into several pieces. I am angry with my 
pa36HBaxbca Ha MejKm ^acxb. H AOcaAOBaxb na moh 

brother for his laziness. Never mind the affairs of others. 
6paxT> 3a OH-b .liHOCXb. He 3addxHXbCfl o a'SJO qyatofl. 

My friend has wounded himself against the corner of the table. 
Mou Apyn. ymiidaxbca odx. yroj-b cxojt>. 

The water runs from the roof. Here are trees with leaves, 
BoAa xeib ct. KpoB.ia. Boxt> AepeBO Cb jhcxt., 

but without blossoms. This dog will be of the size of 
HO des-B UB-Bxi. 3'xoxT> codaKa dbixb ct> 

a cow. The children run about the court and about the 
KopoBa. ^Hxa diraxb no ABop-b h no 



Lexicology. — the conjunction. 



187 



garden. We worked from the first to the fifth of August. 
ca^T.. H padoTdTt oxt nepBtm no iwtuu ^hcjo A'srycii. 

He wears mourning for his brother. 
OhT) hochtb Tpayp'B no cboh dpait. 



THE CONJUNCTION. 

j^. — The following is a general list of the Rus- 



sian ^^;^'//;?^^'^/2.$' (coibsBi). 

A, and; but. 

By^e, if, provided. 

By4T0, 6y4TO 6li, that, as if. 

Bnp6^eMT>, as for the rest. 

4a, and, but; let. 

4a6LI, that, in order that. 

4^fl TOro ^TO, because. 

E'atejH and ecJH, if, in case, 

when. 
}Ke or Wh, then, also. 
H, and; also, too. 
H'do, because. 
Iljli or H.lb, or. 
H xaKT., therefore. 
KaKX, as, when. 
KaKT)-TO, for instance. 
Kor^a, when, whenever. 
,Ih or A\i [interrogative); if, 

whether. 
.Ih6o, either, or. 
.IhuiI), just, as soon as. 



He TOJbKO ... HO, H, not only 

but even. 

HejKGJH, than. 

Hh, HHJKe, neither, nor; not 

Ho, but. [even. 

04HaK0, however. 

IloceMy, then. 

HOTOMy HTO, because. 

HpaBAa, it is true. 

HycKaft or nycTB, let. 

Cko.il hh, whatever. 

Cj-BAOBaie.ll.HO , consequently, 

To, then. [then. 

Tord paAH, therefore. 

To.ibKO andiQUMO, only, merely. 

XOTH, though, although. 

XoTfl 6m, even though. 

^TO, that. 

^T06li or qiodx, that, in order 

that. 
^.1aWh, than. 



There are other parts of speech which perform 
the office of conjunctions; such are the relative 
pronouns: kto, ^to, KOTopuH, koh, who, which; 
Hen, whose; KaKoii, which; the interrogative adverbs: 
Tji^, Ky^na, where; OTKy;ta, whence; ^toKO.it, how 
long; CKOJILKO, CKOJIL, Jiow muck ; and others: xaKt, 



1 88 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

thus; noKa, as much as ; T%wb . . . '^%Wh, so much 
the more . . . that; HiMt .... i%Whj the more . . . 
the more ; Hacxiio, in part, &c. 

EXERCISES ON THE CONJUNCTIONS. 

My uncle was born and lived at Moscow, and not at Tver. 
MoH 4fl4a po4HTLca ii mnxb bt> Mockbe, a ne bt. iBepb. 

Do you know that our tutor is indisposed? If you do 
SnaTb AW ^TO HauiT, yqHiejL HesAopoBWH? E'Hcejn tm 

not come I shall be angry. Ask him if he 

He npi-BSHcaxb, to a ocep^HTbca. GnpocHit y oht., .«h oht. 

will come, or if he has the intention to stop at home. He 
xoiiTL ixaiB, HJii BOSHaMipiiTbca ocTaBaibCfl AOMa. OhT) 

distresses himself more about his brother than about his sister. 
3a66THTbCfl do.ite o 6paTT>, He^ejii o cecipa. 

It is more agreeable to do good to others, than to receive 
npiaxHO A'BJaib /io6p6 Apyrofl, ^^wh nojyqaib 

benefits one's self. Let him come; let them go. 

6jiaroTBopeHie caMi. HycTb oht> npiiiTii; nycKafl oht> yixaib. 

Do not let the sun find you on your bed. Long live 
He Aa cojiHue sacTaBaib tm na joaie. 4^1 s^paBCTBOBaTb 

the Tzar. The more thou learnest diligently, the more study will 
I^apb. ^■BMT> Tbi yqiiTbCfl npiueacHO, T%wh y^cHbe duTb 

be easy to thee. 
jerniH 4^a tbi. 

THE INTERJECTION. 

79. — The principal interjections (MeaJAOMeiifl) of 
the Russian language are the following: ypa! ra! 
expressing y^j/; axi)! ox'l! ysbi! hxth! expressive of 
pain; a&l yxt! oii! indicate/ear; Toy! indicates aver- 
sion; yoi)! expresses /rt:/^^//^; Hy! nyme! are used to 
encourage; ctb ! tcb ! to impose silence; 3h ! ren ! to call. 



Syntax. — concord of words. 189 



SECOND PART 



SYNTAX. 

Zo.— Syntax, which treats of the union of the ^^^^J°^"^ °^ 
different elements of speech, and of the order in 
which those different elements ought to be arranged, 
is divided into three parts: i) the concord of words 
(corjiacoBaHie), or the syntax of agreement, which 
teaches how to express the union existing between 
the words forming the proposition ; 2) the dependence 
of words (ynpaBiieHie), or the syntax of government, 
which teaches the manner of indicating the relation 
existing between a term and its antecedent; and 
3) the construction of words (pasM'Smenie), or the 
place to be assigned to the single words in the 
proposition, and to the propositions in the period. 

CONCORD OF WORDS. 

81. — The following are the rules of the concord 
of words in the Russian language: 

I. The .f?^/^>^^ (^o;^JIeaiaI^ee), <2//r/^2//^ (cKasyeMoe) 
and copula (cBflSKa) must agree in gender, number 
and person; e. g. Bot'b gctl BceMorymi), God is 
almighty; nayKii (cymb) iLOJie^nhi, the sciences are 
usefid; MocKBa dhiJik ciiaBHa, Moscow has been 
celebrated; A'aia 6y;ieT'L cnoKoiiHa, Asia will be 
tranquil; cojiHite BSoniiio, the sun has risen. — When 
the attribute is a noun, it retains its gender and 
number; as: opejx ecxt xAmnafl nmuua, the eagle 



I go RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

is a bird of prey ; but the movable nouns agree 
with the subject; as: Jiyna ecTB cnymnujia aeM^iH, 
the moon is the satellite of the earth. 

To this rule there are the following exceptions: i) The 
persona] pronoun of the 2d person, with its determinatives, 
as also the verb and the attribute when an adjective is used, 
from politeness, in the plural ingtead of the singular; but 
when the attribute is a noun, it remains in the singular; e. g. 
BH ca'MH, 4pyri. MOM, uesdopoebl, you yourself, my friend, are 
indisposed; dyALie ceudrbmeAeMZ , be a witness. — 2) The verb 
6bimb, in the sense of exist, though the subject be plural, 
remains in the singular in the 3d person of the present; but 
in the preterit and future it agrees in number with its subject; 
e. g. y Hero ecmb ACHLrn, he has money; y nero 6biJiu AeHbrn, 
he had money; y nero 6y^yrm /leHLrH, he will have money. — 
2) In the case of nouns indicating a title, the verb and the 
attribute agree in gender with the sex of the person who 
bears the title; as: Eto Bejii^eCTBO {KopoAb) Hesdopoez, His 
Majesty (the King) is indisposed; Efl CillTe^bCTBO {rpa(pUHR) 
6blJld SA-BCL, Her Excellency (the Countess) has been here; Ero 
CBix^ocTb {KHH3b) npozfAueaACH, His Highness (the Prince) 
has taken a walk. 

2. Determinative words agree with the noun they 
determine, in gender, number and case; e. g. Be- 
AUKiu neipx npeo5pa30Baji'L odmupnyH) Pocciio, 
Peter the Great has regenerated the vast Russian 
empire. If the determinative is a noun, it only 
agrees in case\ e. g. cjieati, ymibiueuie Hec^acTHHX'L, 
y Hero HScaKiiii, tears, the consolation of the unhappy, 
were dried Up within him. 

3. Two or more subjects in the singular require 
the verb and the attribute in the plural; e. g. 
jiiHOCTB II npas^iHOCTB (cymb) epedubi, laziness arid 
inactivity are pernicious. If the two nouns in the 
singular are united by an alternative conjunction, 



Syntax, — concord of words. 191 

the verb and the attribute must be in the singular; 
e. g. 3iiMa \im pecna Te6'B npiAmua? is it winter 
or spring that is agreeable to thee"! 

4. The infinitive, when it performs the office of 
subject, requires the verb and the attribute to be 
put in the neuter singular; this is also the case 
with the adverbs MHoro, much; MaJio, little; ckojilko, 
hoiu much; HicKOJiLKO, some; e. g. yMiipaiL 3a 
OTenecTBO {ecmh) CAdeuo h npiumHO, it is noble and 
pleasant to die for one's country; ckojilko nputUAO 
ceMeHCTBT), how many families have arrived'^ 

5. When two nouns, the one appellative and the 
other proper, both relating to the same object, 
differ in number or gender, the adjective or verb 
agrees with the appellative noun; e. g. dpeemu 
r6po;ti> Gmbli, the ancient city of Thebes; CAaeuaH 
ptKa itynaH, the celebrated river Danube. When 
there are two nouns of different genders, the ad- 
jective agrees with the masculine; e. g. CAdeubie 
uapH H i],apHii,H, the celebrated kings and queens. 
In the verbs the first person has the priority over 
the two others, and the second over the third; as: 
TH H fl lyjiAeMZ BMicTt, thoii and I walk together; 
TH n QiWh He 3Hdeme wio ^ijiaifc, thou and he know 
not what to do. 

6. The numerals compounded of o/i;hh'l, one, 
require the noun in the singular (§ 43); e. g. 
jlBSimSiih ojiiiwb py6Ah, twenty one rubles; TbiCflHa 
OilHa «o^6, the thousand and 07ie nights. 

7. The relative pronouns agree in gender and 
number with the noun to which they relate, but they 
take the case that the verb of the phrase in which 



192 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

they occur, may require; e. g. a anaio jiijio, 
KomopoMS BH roBopHie, / know the affair of which 
you speak. The pronoun neii^ occurring always with 
a noun, must agree in every respect with that 
noun; e. g. totI), b-l %hiiX5 pyKax-L Moa cy^boa, 
he in whose hands is my destiny. 



EXERCISES ON THE CONCORD OF WORDS. 

Winter is agreeable. Men are mortal. Novgorod was 
SiiMa npiaTHbifl. ^g.iob'Bkt. CMepTHtiil. H6Bropo4i> 6fciTb 

rich. Russia is a vast empire. The Wolga is the king 

doraiMH. Poccia dwib o6miipHbifl iiMnepia. B6.ira dhiih qapt 

of the rivers of Russia. My friend, you shall be satisfied. 
p-BKa pyccKiii. Mofl npiaTe.jb, tm 6mti> A0B6.ibHbiH. 

We have great stores. I shall have to-morrow some 
y fl 6biTb dojibinoH 3anacT>. Y a 6biTb saeTpa 

money. Her Majesty • {fhe Empress) is gone out. His 
AeHbni. Ohi BcjHi^ecTBO {IlMnepampuu^a) Bbi-Bxaxb. Owb 

Excellency (the general) is gone. His Imperial 

npeBocxo4iiTejbCTBO [zenepdAZ) ysxaxB. Oirb HMnepaiopcKifl 

Highness {the Grand-Duke) has been satisfied. Geography 
Bbico^ecTBO {BeAUKiu Khasb) dbiib AOBOjbHwfl. Teorpa^ia 

and history are very useful branches of knowledge. 
n HCTopia dbiib BecbMa no.ie3Hbifl 3HaHie. 

It is difficult to be silent. How many children were there? 
TpYAHUH MOwI^aTL. CKOJbKO AHTa dblTb laMX? 

Moscow is celebrated; the town of Moscow is celebrated. 
MocKBa 3HaMeHHTbii1; ropoAT* 

China is densely peopled; the empire of China is densely 
KiiiaH MHorojwAHbifl; rocyAapcxBO 



Syntax. — dependence of words. 193 

peopled. He has , thirty one horses. The book 

y OHT. dbiTb TpH4uaTb 04HHT. j6ma4b. KHHra, 

which you are reading, is very amusing. Here is 

KOTOpufl TW qHTETL, O^eHL 3a6aBHbIM. BOTT. 

the man by whose works we profit. 
tcejOBiKT., {instr:) qeu Tpy4T> nojbSOBaTbca. 



DEPENDENCE OF WORDS. 

82. — For '(ki^ dependence ox government of words 
in Russian the following rules are to be observed: 

1. Words which, having the same root, appear in the form 
of substantive, adjective or adverb, as also in the form of 
verb, participle of gerund, require the same cases; e. g. Bpe4HTb 
6.lH5KHeMy, to do harm to Ms neighbour; Bpe4amiu 6.«H}KHeMy, 
doing harm to his neighbour; Bpe4fl 6.1HHiHeMy, in doing harm to 
his neighbour; Bpe4T> 6jUH{HeMy, the harm done to his neighbour; 
Bpe4Hblfl 6jiHH(HeMy, prejudicial to his neighbour; Bpe4H0 (iXim.- 
HeMy, prejudicially to his neighbour. 

2. The governing power of the verbs depends on their 
meaning: the same verb used in different significations requires 
different cases; e. g. rOBOpHTb npaB4y, to speak the truth; rOBOpiiTb 
4'bJ'B, to speak of an affair; rOBOpiiTb aSblKOMl, to speak a language; 
rOBOpiiTb CT. 4pyrOMT>, to speak with a friend; OTKaaaib npoCHreJlO, 
to refuse a petitioner; OTKasaXb BT> npoCbS'B, to refuse a request, 
OTKasaib 40MT>, to bequeath a house; OTKasaxb OTT> 46jIHCHOcth, 
to deprive of an office. 

3. The prepositions communicate to the verbs to which 
they are joined a double quality. In the first place they ex- 
press simply the commencement of the action, its duration 
and its completion; as: HrpaJT> Ha ^.ICHT'B, he played on the 

flute; aanrpaj-b na *.ieUTS, he began to play on the flute; DOHrpaBT> 
Ha *.ieilTt, Sanajca OHT. qTeHieMl>, after having played a little on 
the flute, he busied himself with reading; B^epa Cbirpaj!T> na *.ieHT^ 
npeTpy4H0e CO^HHenie , yesterday he played on the flute a very 
difflcult composition; OHX 40Hrpa.n> Ha *.!eflT;B Ha^aioe na CKpiinK-B, 

13 



194 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



he finished playing on the flute what he had begun on the violin; 
OTMrpa.li Ha *JeiiTt b^l no.iHOit, he ceased playing on the flute at 
midnight. Secondly the preposition gives to the verb another 
meaning; e. g. iracaib nHCbMO, to write a letter; BOCDHCaTb 
XBajy', to confer praises upon; BnncaXL Bt KHUry, to inscribe in 
the book; BLinHCaifa I13T> KHiiril, to extract from a book; 3anH- 
caib BT. C.iyaiSy, to .enter on the service; Ha4nucaTb a4peCb, to 
write an address; OTilHCaTt Kt 4pyry, to inform a friend; nepe- 
micaib HadtJO, to make a fair copy; npunHcaib CTpo^ncy, to add 
a line; nponHCaib BCiO CiyacCy, to describe the luhole service; 
pacnncaxb KOMHaiy, to paint a room; cnncaibCfl ct> npiaie^eMi, 
to correspond with a friend. The prepositional verbs of the first men- 
tioned class require after them the same preposition and the same 
cctse as in the simple form, while those of the second category, 
in which the addition of a preposition modifies the sense, 
take after them the preposition with which they are formed, 
or a corresponding one, as is seen below. 



40, 



4) 
ii 

4) 

•£^ 
$ 

g 

o 



Ha, . 
Ha4, • 

HH3, . 
OT, . 

nepe, 

no4, . 

npe4, 

npH, . 

npo, . 

I npoHS, 

I pa3, . 

^ c or CO. 



Ha; e.g. . B30Bth h& ropy, to ascend the vionntain. 

Vh\ ■ ■ . BCiynaxb bt» 40>n>, to enter in tJie house. 

331; . . BUUTH HSX -Itcy, to issne from the forest. 

40; . . . 40'BxaTb 40 r6p04a, to go as far as the town. 

3a; . . . saKHHyib 3a cnHHy, to throw behind one's self. 

03*6; . . H3B.l6qb H3T. KHHFH, to extract from a book. 

Ha; . . . HaBbioiHTb Ha .l6nia4B, to place upon a horse. 

Ha4'b; • • Ha4CMaTpHBaTb HaA'b 4'6TbMH, to watch over the children. 

Ch:, . ■ ■ HH3.ieT-BTb Cb Kp6B-lH, to fly down from the roof. 

OTl; . . . OTOpB&Tb OTT* pa66TM, to tear from labour. 

ipe3T>; . nepecKOqHTb «ipe3'i> poBT>, to leap across a ditch. 

no4'b; • • no4^oatHTb no4'b .r640By, to put under his head. 

npe4'b; . npe4CTaTb npe4'b cy46H, to present himself before the judges. 

YCh\ . . . nplHTH KT* 4pyry, to come to a friend. 

CKB03b; . npOHTH CKB03b or6Hb, to pass through the fire. 

OTT.; . . . npOHSOHTH OT'b 6o.fB3HH, to arise from a disease. 

Ha; ... pa3pi3aTb na q&CTH, to cut into pieces. 

CB; . . . CKHHyib CT» ce6a, to throw of one's self. 



Z'^. — We now give the application of these rules 

in every case, with the exceptions thereto. 

Nominative. In the iioiuinativ 6 are put: i) The subject, or 

the principal member of the proposition ; as : coJiHufi 

CB'feTHT'L, the sun shines; Mope uiyMHT'L, the sea 



Syntax* — dependence of words. 195 

roars. (The subject with a negative verb is some- 
times put in the genitive; see below.) — 2) The 
attribute, united to the subject by means of the 
verb ecmh^ 6biji<i or 6ydy^ when it expresses a per- 
manent quality of the subject; as: ope.!!, ecTL 
nmuua, the eagle is a bird; A'^taM-L 6hjI'l uejoerhHS, 
Adam was a man. The adjective in this occasion 
is used in the apocopated termination; as: Bort 
ecTt eceMOiymd, God is almighty; CjiaBflHe 6biJiH 
xpdopbif the Slavonians were brave. If the attribute 
does not express some permanent quality of the 
subject, but only a transitory one and of short 
duration, it is then put in the instrumental; as : 
MOH 6paT'L 6i)ijrB b-l to BpeMa KademoM3^ my, brother 
IV as at that time a cadet; OHt CKopo 6yj!teT'L lem- 
pdJ0M5f he will soon be a general. This exception 
however occurs only with the preterit and the future, 
never with the present. 

In the vocative is put the name or denomination vocative. 
of the person addressed; e. g. Eooice, cnacii Ilapa! 
God, save the Tzar! rocnodii, noMHJiyH MenA! 
Lord, have 'inercy upon me! 

The accusative is used: i) After the active verbs; Accusative. 
as: nxHiza nBeii. eodyj the bird drinks the water; 
fl noracHJU. ceibuy, I have put out the candle; moh 
cociit'L KynHJi'L ^0jW5, my neighbour has bought a 
house. The verbal nouns, formed from these verbs, 
require the genitive; as: niixie eodhl^ the drinking 
of the water; noraineHie ceibuu, the putting out of 
the candle; noKynKa doMa^ the purchase of a house. 
— 2) To indicate the duration of an action for a 
given time or over a given distance; as: a niicajii> 

13* 



1^6 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

ecfo HOHb, I have written the whole night ; OHt 
npoixajii. eepcmy^ he has run a verst. — 3) After 
the prepositions 65, ua, 3a, nods, npeds, npo, CK603b, 
upesd, or 0^5, no and C5 (S 77)> 

Dative. The dative is used: i) With the accusative, to in- 
dicate the person to whose gain or loss the action 
is performed; e. g. tbi noiiaJFL mhjioctsihk) MdHOMy, 
thou Jiast given alms to the poor man. — 2) After 
the verbs formed with the prepositions npebs and 
CO (in a sense of reciprocity), or with the adverbs 
6Adio, npomued and npeuO; as: ocenb npe^JtuiecT- 
ByeiT. suMih, autumn precedes iviiiter; He npeKOCJioBb 
cmdpmuM5, do not contradict the aged. — 3) After 
the verbs expressing command or prohibition, pleas- 
ure or grief, compliance or opposition, assistance 
or obstacle; e. g. mm ^o;^paacaeM'L dpeeuuMS, we 
imitate the ancients; He Jib cm ^ozdmbiMS, do not 
flatter the rich; CJiyacH ycep^HO Focyddpio, serz'c 
the sovereign with zeal. The verbal nouns formed 
from these verbs also require the dative; as: no- 
itpaatanie dpeeuuMd, the imitation of the ancients; 
jiecTb 602dmbW3, flattery to the rich. — 4) After such 
verbs as are used in the infinitive instead of the 
future; as: 6biTb 6ibdib, there will be a misfortune; 
He Bii^aTb uams acHbix'b iinen, we shall see no mo7'c 
fine days. — 5) With the impersonal verbs; as: Mum 
xoiexca tcib, / want to eat; eamz nes^opoBHTca, 
you are indisposed. — 6) With such adjectives and 
adverbs as are derived from the above mentioned 
verbs, or which express advantage or detriment, 
utility . or uselessness, pleasure or dislike; e. g. 
npiaTHHH CJiyxy, agreeable to the ear; acHTb npn- 



Sy?ltax. — DEPENDENCE OF WORDS. I 97 

jIhhho cBoeMY cocmomlH), to live suitably to one's 
condition. — 7) After the prepositions m and no, and 
the adverb eonpem {% jj). 

The instrumental is used: i) With the active, ^"nJaf, 
neuter, pronominal and passive verbs, a) to desig- 
nate the instrument, the means by which the action 
is performed; as: orft 6epeTi> KHMry pyKUMii, he 
takes the book zvith the hands; a moiocl eodoWj 
I wash myself with water; KHHra nanHcana MOHMt 
XHumeAeMd, the book has been written by my master; 
b) to designate the name, surname or quality given 
to an object; as: ero soByTt IleduoMS, they call 
him John; Te6a noHHiaiOT'L fMUbiMd, you are con- 
sidered intelligent. Some active verbs expressing 
motion, which usually govern the accusative, are 
also found with the instrumental; as: 6pocaTL 
KCLMem and 6pocaTb udMueMZ^ to throw a stone; 
^IBHraTL cepdad and cepdudMU, to move the hearts. — 

2) With the verb 6h\mb and 6hiedmb^ to designate 
a quality; as: OHi> xoHex-L 5htl yiio6iiMbiM5, he 
desires to be loved; He 6i>iBaTB Te6i eduuOMd, thou 
wilt not be a warrior, (See above the nominative.) — 

3) After such verbs as indicate contempt, indig- 
nation, esteem, possession, sacrifice, &c.; as: npe- 
He5peraTfc ondcnocmbio, to despise danger; BJia;iiTL 
UMThHieM5f to possess a property ; aiepiBOBaTL co^ow, 
to sacrifice one's self. The verbal nouns formed 
from such verbs also require the instrumental; as: 
npeHe6peHteHie ondcuocmbio, the contempt of danger; 
BJia^inie UMTbuieMd, the possession of a property. — 

4) To designate that part of an object which is 
distinguished by some particular quality; as: .mu,eMZ 



198 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

6't,Ji'h, white in the face; niiipoKt tiAeuaMU, broad 
in the shoulders. — 5) To indicate the road an object 
takes; and also to designate the seasons and the 
parts of the day; as: nJifciTB MopeMS, to go by sea; 
eecHOH) ciH)Ti>, ojie sows in sprifig; HoubH) cnan., 
one sleeps at flight. — 6) After the prepositions 3rt, 
«a^3, no^z, npeds, cs, and the adverb meoicdy or 
Meoicd (§ '/y). 

Genitive. The genitive is used: i) With nouns to indicate 
that one object is the property of another, and also 
its origin, &c.; as: xoaaiiiTL doma^ the master of 
the house ; jsflwh cocrbda^ the house of the neighbour; 
CBiHi) cojddma^ the son of a soldier. The comple- 
mentary noun in such occasions may be converted 
into a possessive adjective; as: dOMoebiu xoaaiiH'L, 
cocfbdmu Jiowb, coAddmcKiu cbih'b. The dative may 
sometimes be substituted for this genitive; as: 
^pyrt 6pdjny^ the friend of the brother; u-feHa 
MTbcmdMd, the price of the places. A noun with 
a qualifying adjective indicates in the genitive the 
quality of the object in a higher degree; as: naii 
Ay%maio copma, a tea of stiperior quality ; HeJiofiiKi. 
cmpozuxs npdeuAd, a man of rigid principles. — 2) 
With the verbal nouns, formed from active verbs 
governing the accusative; e. g. HTenie /rww2W, the 
reading of a book; aname dibAa^ the knowledge of 
an affair. — 3) To designate number, weight, 
measure, and in general after adverbs of quantity; 
as: nyAt cmua^ a pood of hay ; apniMHt cynnd, an 
ell of cloth; HicKOJbKO khuzz^ some books. — 4) To 
designate the years, the months and the day of the 
month; as: mecmdio aHBapa Tbicana BOceMtcoi'L 



Syntax. — dependence of words. 199 

uembipnaduamazo zoda, January 6th 18 14. — 5) After 
active verbs preceded by the negative adverb He, 
and with the impersonal negative verbs Hibms, He 
cmdAO, He CAbmno, ne UMrbemcR, and others in- 
dicating privation; e. g. He jiio6jiw neerhoicdbij I do 
not like the ignorant ; He BHaiy noAbSbij I do not see 
the advantage; y nacL H-feTt XAib^a, we have no 
bread; Kor^a meuA He 6y^eT'B, when I shall be no 
more; ne bh^ho nepeMJbHbi, one sees no change. — 
6) With the active verbs, when the action extends 
only to a part of the object, or lasts only a limited 
time; e. g. npimecH eodbi, bring me some water; 
^taii MHt nepd, give me your pen for a little while. 
The same is the case with some verbs formed with 
the prepositions na and no, as: Hay^HTL pb\6b\, to 
catch some fish; hokochtb mpaebi, to mow some 
grass. — 7) With such active and pronominal verbs 
as express desire, expectation, disobedience, fear, 
privation, &c.; e. g. JKeJiaeM'L cudcmi/i, we desire 
health; owh hc^gt'l pascerhma, he awaits daybreak; 
6oaTLCfl jqieBHaro ceihma, to fear the light of day; 
/lep^axLCfl npdeuA3 necTii, to keep to prhtciples of 
honour. The verbal nouns formed from these verbs 
also require the genitive; as: ^eJianie CAdebi, the 
desire of glory ; jmnieme UMfbHiR, the loss of a 
property. — 8) After the adjectives ;50Ct6hhhh, worthy; 
no JiRhim, full ; hytrmjau, a stranger to; and the adverb 
aiaiifc, it is a pity; e. g. a HyHJ;^'L cero MHWHi/i, I 
am a stranger to this opinion; :^ajii> eaiy 6pdma, 
he is sorry for his brother. — 9) After adjectives and 
adverbs in the comparative, when not followed Jjy 
a conjunction; e. g. coKpoBHma AparoutHHinmia 



2 00 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

dOAOma, treasures more precious than gold; cjioh'L 
Bbime eep6Aibday the elephant is larger than the 
camel; oh'B atii.i'L ^ojite 6crbX5, he has lived longer 
than all, — lo) After the prepositions (fe33, dJiR, do^ 
U35, u35-3di u33-noddj omdy pddu, cd and j, as also 
after most of the adverbs used as prepositions 
(S 77)f remarking that the prepositions dAM and 
pddu are sometimes placed after their complement ; 
as: AJia. Bora and Bora jiJisi, /or God's sake; ^km 
HecTH and necTii pa^, for honour. 

Lastly the genitive is used with the numerals. 
See the particular rules relative to the numerals § 43. 

^tioSaf '^^^ prepositional case is only used with the pre- 
positions 03, «a, or oJa, no and npii (§ jj). 



EXERCISES ON THE DEPENDENCE OF WORDS. 

Nominative. Water is an element. Alexander of Macedon was a great 
Bo4a 6MTb CTHxifl. A.ieKcaH4pT> MaKeaoHCidfl 6wti> Be.iiiKifl 

captain. The Tatars were ferocious. My grand-father 

no.!KOB64eq'L. TaTapHHT> 6biTT> CBupinLiii. Mofl 4^At> 

was an officer; my grand-father was then an officer. It is said 
6LiTb o*HuepT>; Tor4a . FoBopiiTb 

that the comets have been or will be once planets. 
^TO KOMeia 6mtb hjh Sbitb eme njaHeia. 

Accusative. The rain refreshes the earth. Rogues hate honest 

4oH{4b ocB-BataxL 3eMja. 3^04-611 HeHaBH4'BTB qecTHtift 

men. The storm which devastated our fields, has ruined 
jib4H. Bypa, onycTomaiL Haim> n6.ie, paaopaTt 

many peasants. Speak always the truth. My brother has 
MHorie nocejflHHHT>. Fobophtl Bcer4a npaB4a. Moil 6paTT> Obitb 



Syntax. — dependence of word s . 201 

been sick all winter. I have been a whole verst on horseback. 
6o.ibH6u Becb 3HMa. fl ixait alibiii eepcTa BepxoM-b. 

Thou art praised for thy assiduity. He struck himself against 
Tm XBajHTb 3a npHjeatame. Ohi> yAapaTLca o6i 

the wall. We are in the water up to the neck. The son 
CTtHa. H CHaiTb bt> BOAa no mea. Chhti 

is the size of the father, and the daughter almost the size of 
pOCTT> CJh OTem>, H AO^b nO^Tli CT> 

the mother. 

Maib. 

The miser prefers money to glory, and the warrior Dative. 
CKynem> npeAnoqaiaxb ACHbru cjasa, h b6iiht> 

prefers glory to money. The lightning precedes the 

c-iaBa 4eHbrn. MojHia npeAinecTBOBaib 

thunder. I admire your patience. Do these pictures 
rpoMi.. 4HB"TbCfl BafflT> Tepntnie. S'TOTt Kapinna 

please you? Do not avenge thyself on thy enemy, 

HprBHTbcajH Tbi? He MciHib TBOii Henpifliejb, 

and do good to him who has offended thee. There will 
H A^JaTb 4o6p6 oSHHtaxb tm. Buib 

be a prodigy. Bitter tears will be shed. The child wishes 
qyAO. rdpbKiii cjeaa .iiiibca. Pe6eH0KT> xoTtibCfl 

to drink. It is not proper for a strong man to offend 
DHTb. He npH.iiiqHbnl ciubHWH ^ejiOBiKi> odHacaib 

the weak. The imitation of Jesus Christ. The love of 
cja6biH. no4pajKaHie Iiicyci XpHCioci. jK)66Bb kI 

virtue and the hatred of vice. 

4o6po4'BTe.ab 11 HeHaBHCXb Kt nopoKi. 

I see with the eyes, I touch with the hands, I hear with instru- 
BH4'BTb rjaST., ocasaxb pyna, c.ibimaxb mental. 

the ears, I smell with the nose, I taste with the tongue. 
yxo, o6oHaxb hoct,, BKymaxb asb'iKi. 



202 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

Ismail was taken by Souvorof, and Otchakow by Potemkin. 
HSMaHJT. B3flTB CyB6pOBl, H O^aKOBl nOTeMKHHT>. 

Evey body calls these officers heroes. The patient moves 
Becb HasuBaib dTOTi> o^Huepi. repou. EojbHOu meBe.iHTk 

scarcely the lips. I detest fraud and falsehood. Here 
CABS. ry6a. rnyinaTLCfl ofiMani. h .jo«l. SA-fiCb 

one breathes a pure air. The sacrifice of one's life for 
4bimaTb ^ucTufi Bos/iyxi. IIoxcepTBOBaHie xtuSHb 3a 

his sovereign and country. He is kind in heart, but weak 
rocy4apb H oie^ecTBO. Oht> 4o6pbm c^p4ue, ho cja(5biH 

in head. One must rise in the morning, work during 
rdOBa. Ha4o6HO BCxaBaxb yipo, paOoiaib 

the day, rest in the evening and sleep during the night. 
4eHb, 0T4UxaTb Be?epT>, h cnaib HO^b. 

Reconcile my friend with his uncle. I congratulate you on 
IlOMHpHTb MOfi 4pyn> Cb OHT> 4fl4a. n034paB.^aTb TbI CI 

your success. 
Baiui ycnixi. 

Genitive. The son of my faithful friend departed yesterday. Quick- 
GbiHT> Mou licKpeHHiu 4pyn> ytsataTb B^epa. Bojbindfl 

witted children are often delicate. There has been made 
yM-b 4HTfl dbiBaib Hep'B4K0 xiubifi. CocTaBjaib 

a list of the officers of our division. The baking of bread. 
cnticoKT> o*imepT> nann. 4HBH3ia. ne^enie XA'h6'b. 

I have bought a pound of tea and a cord of wood. Such 
fl KyniiTb *yHn. ^aii u caaceHb 4poBa. CT6.jbK0 

labour and pains have been lost uselessly. The Russians 
Tpy4i H saCoia nponaAaib no-nycioMy. PyccKift 

took Paris March l8th 1814. I do not eat bread, but 
dpaib napHJKT. MapiT. 18 1814. fl ne tCTb xa%6i,, ho 

I drink water. I eat the bread, but I do not drink the water. 
DHTb B04a. H -BCTb JAt6-h, HO HB HHTb B04a. 



Syntax. — dependence of words. 203 

I have received neither letter nor packet. In this letter there 
H nojy^aTB He hh nncBMo, hh nocbUKa. Bt> 8'tott> nacbMo h-bti 

is not a fault. Procure me money. The warriors wish 

HH 04HHT» omiidKa. 4ocTaBaTL a AentrH. Bohhi scej^Tt 

for the battle and seek glory. The ambitious man thirsts for 
6HTBa H HCKaxb c^aea. CjaBojH)6em> %a»(AaTi> 

honours. Thou desirest riches, and thou fearest labour. 
noqecTi. Tm xoiiib 6oraTCTBO, h Coaibca Tpy4T>. 

The barrel is full of wine. A worthy man is a stranger to hatred 
E6wa nojHbifl bhho. 4o6pbiu ^e.ioBiKi ^y«4bm 3j66a 

and envy. Gold is dearer than silver; lead is heaver 
H saBHCTb. 36.JOTO AoporoH cepe6p6; cbhrcuT) xaHte^bm 

than iron. He asks alms for Christ's sake. Rest is 
ae.«'B3o. Oht. npocHib MH^iocTbiHa Xpiicioci paAH. O'tamxi 

agreeable after labour. Along this shore runs a chain 
opiaTHbiH nocjt paSoia. B40.ib ^tott. 6epen. TflHyibca u^nb 

of mountains. The wolves prowl round the villages. 
ropa. BojK'b 6poAHTL okojo AepeBHa. 

My brother preserves his presence of mind in all the Preposi- 
MoH opai^ xpaHHTb npncyxcTBie Ayxi. npH Becb 

troubles of life. This town is built on the precipitous 

nenpiaxHOCTb bt. 3KH3Hb. Cefl r6po4T> nocxpoHXb na KpyxoH 

bank of a rapid river. A church with five cupolas. He 
6epen> dbicxpuu ptKa. I|epKOBb naxb r.«aBa. Ohi 

weeps over his father. 
n.iaKaxb no cboh oxeqi. 



THE FAIRY. The differ- 

„ , . ent rules of 

BOJUIEEHHUA. Syntax. 

A widow had two daughters: the elder resembled 
04nHi> B40Ba HMixb 4Ba 40% : cxapuu 6bixb nox6»dH na 

her mother both in face and temper, that is to say, she was 
CBOH MaXb H JHUe H HpaBT>, XO eCXb, OHT) 6HXb 



A 



204 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

as ugly and as malicious as her mother. Nobody 
TaKT) me AypHofl h laKt ace 3joh, KaKT> oht> MaiL. Hhkto 

loved them; every one avoided them. The younger was 
He jrodHTb OHT.; Becb 6iraTb ott> oht>. Ma.iMH me 6bnh 

beautiful and good. Every one loved her. But her 

npeKpacHMil h 4o6po4yinHbiH. Beet AVi6iiTb oht>. Ho ohx 

malicious mother and her wicked sister detested her; 
3JbIM Maib H SJblfl CeCXpa HeHaBHAtTb OH-b; 

they scolded her without ceasing; she alone was obliged 
6paHHTb 6e3iipecTaHHO; OH-b o^hhi 6biTb AOAmnbiii 

to work in the house, to heat the stove, to sweep the rooms, 
paSdiaTb Bi 40MT), ToniiTb neib, Meciri ropmma, 

to cook. The poor child wept from morning till 

CTpanaib bi Kyxna. BsAHHHtKa luaKaTb ex yxpo 40 

night, but she was not lazy at her work; she was 
Beqepx, HO OHT» He .i-BHiiTbca paCoiaxb; 6biTb 

obedient, patient, and all that was in vain, for 

nocjymHbiil, lepntjiiBbifl, h Becb 3T0tt> 6biTb nanpacHbiH, h6o 

she could in no way satisfy her wicked mother and 
Mo^b He HH^To yroHCAaib na ceoii 3.1011 Maib h na 

her wicked sister. 
CBofl 3.1011 cecxpa. 

Every day this poor girl was forced to go with 
E3Ke4HeBHO 3xoxT> d-B4Hbm 4iBymKa 6bixb AOAmubm xo4tixb cb 

a large pitcher to fetch water in a neighbouring wood, 
6oAbm6u KyeuiHHX sa B04a bt> S.iHHtHiH poma, 

where there was a clear spring. One day she 
BT> KOXOpblH HaX04nXbCfl ^liCXblH HCxd^HHKT.. 04HaHt4bI OHX 

had gone according to custom to this spring. The day 
noHXH no odbiKHOBCHie kx axoxx hcxotohkx. ^enb 

was very hot. After having filled her pitcher with water, 
6bixb o^eHb HiapKift. Hano.iHiixb KyBmiim. B04a, 



Syntax, — dependence of words. 205 

she returned home. All at once she saw before her 
OHt B03BpamaTLca 40M6ft. B4pyri BH/itTb npeAi ce6H 

an old woman. "My child!" said to her the old woman, 
cTapyuiKa. «Mofl 4HTa!» CKasbieaTb oht> ciapyiiiKa, 

"give me water to drink; I am wearied; I am very hot." — 
«4aBaTb a HanHoaTbca; a yciaBaib; a {jSmmh) KapKiM.w — 

"With pleasure, good mother", said the young girl, "here 
•Ci oxdia, 6a6yiiiKa», CKaSMBaib A^ByniKa, wboti! 

drink." And she presented the pitcher to the poor woman. 

HanHBaibca.* H oht. noAaBaib KyBuiriH'b ciapyniKa. 

The old woman sat down on the grass from weariness, and 
CiapyuiKa ca^HTbca na ipaea oti. cja6ocTb, a 

the young girl kneeled down before her, and 

MOJO^OH KpacaBHiia CTanoBiiTbca Ha Kojino nepe4T> oht>, h 

held gently the pitcher, while she drank. 

n044epH(HBaTb OCTOpOJKHO KyBUIHHT), nOKa OHT> miTb B04a. 

"I thank thee, my dear!" said the old woman after 
«Bjaro4apHTb tw, mhjImh!* CKaSbiBaib ciapyniKa, 

having drunk. "I see that thou art a good, an amiable 
HanHBaibCa. aBHA-BTb, ^TO tw {eCMh) AodpblH, jaCKOBblH 

child, and I wish to reward thee for thy kindness. 

4HTfl, H xoT-BTb HarpajKAaib Tbi 3a TBOH ycjiyaiJHBOCTb. 

Know then that I am a fairy, and that I took pur- 
Snaib Hce, a BOJunefiaHqa, h BSaib na ce6a na- 

posely the form of an old woman to put thee to the proof. 
po^HO BHA-b CTapyiuKa, ^To6bi tm HcnbiTbiBaxb. 

I am delighted that thou art so good, and this is what 
PaAOBaibca, ^to tm {ecMh) TaKofl Aodpbifi, h bott., ^to 

I will do for thee: every time that thou shalt pronounce 
xoT-BTb CAi-iaTb 4ja Tbi : BcaKifl pasT., ^to tw CKaSbiBaTb 

a word, there shall issue from thy mouth either a pretty 
CjIobo, Bbina4aTb aa-b y tw poTi. aiii npeKpacHwfi 



2o6 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

flower, or a precious stone, or a large pearl. 

ijBtTOKi, H^iii 4parouiHHbiH KaMeHfc, \ia\\ do.itmoH xceM^yxcHHa. 

Farewell, my little friend." And the fairy disappeared. 
npocTii, 4py3KOKT).» H BOjuiedHHua HSqeaaifc. 

The pretty girl returned home. "Where hast 

IIpeKpacHfcm AtsyuiKa BoaepaniaTLCfl aomou. uTa"^ 

thou been so long", asked her mother with ill 

Tbi 6tiTb TaKT» 4o.iro», cnpaumeaTb y ohi Maib ct> 

humour? — "What hast thou been doing so long in the wood?" 
cep4ue? — «^T0 Tbi A'BJaTb laKi. 46jro bt. p6ma?», 

cried her wicked sister. — "I beg pardon ! I lingered by the 
saKpaqaxL s.iou cecipa. — uBaHOBaTbifl! saMiuiKaTbcaB, 

way", replied the poor child, and at the same instant 
OTB^^aTB 6t4HaHCKa, H Bt T0T1> caMbifl MHHyia 

there issued from her pretty lips two roses, two pearls, 
CKaTbiBaibCH H3i> OHi iipeKpacHbiu ryda 4Ba posa, 4Ba xeM^yHCHHa 

and two large emeralds. "What do I see?" exclaimed 
H 4Ba 6oAbm6a H3yMpy4'B. «^to h BH4^Tb?» BOCKjeqaib 

the mother astonished. "These are flowers ! these are precious 
Maib y4HBjeHHWH. «3 tots qstTt! aTOTT> 4paroi|iHHbiH 

stones! What has happened to thee?" — The young girl 
KaMCHb! ^To C4'B.iaTbca ct Tbi?» — KpacaBHua pas- 

related to her with simplicity her meeting with the fairy, 
CKaSbiBaib OHTi iipocT04ymHO o cboh BCTpiqa ct BCimedHima 

and while doing it the [flowers, diamonds and pearls 
H MeHt4y 10Tb UBBTl, aJMa3T> H HteM^Fl 

issued just so from her lips. "Good!" muttered 

Cbinaxbca TaKi ci oht> ry6a. «Xop6mifl }Ke!» npoBop^aTb 

the mother; "to-morrow I will send to the wood my elder 
MaTb; «3aBTpa nocbuaTb bt> poma Moii CTapwH 

daughter, and it will be the same with her." 
40^b, H 6bITb TOTT. JKe CI OHT>.» 



Syntax. — dependence of words. 207 

And the next morning she said to her daughter: 
H Ha 4pyr6fl yipo oht. CKasbiBaib cboh 40111: 

"To-day thou shalt go to fetch water: take the pitcher; but 
«HbiHtie TM noHTH 3a B04a: BSaib KyBuiHHT>; ho 

pay attention, if thou meetest at the spring an old woman, 
cMOTptTb »e, eciH BCTpt^aib y HCidqHHKi cxapymKa, 

give her to drink, and be very civil to her." 

4aBaTb owh HaoHBaTbCA, h xopomeHbKO npH.iacKUBaTbCfl kii owh.y> 

The wicked girl frowned, took the pitcher with ill 

3joh 4SBi6HKa HaxMypeBaibca, bshtb KyBimiH'b ct. 

humour; went to the wood against her will, and grumbled 
40ca4a; dohth Bt pdma Hexoxa, h Bopiaxb 

all along the road. The good old woman was already 
Becb BT* 40p6ra. CxapyuiKa cH4'BXb y«e 

seated near the spring. "Draw me some water, my 

y Hcx6iHHKT>. «3aqepnaTb a B04a, moh 

dear!" said she to the young girl; "it is hot, I wish 
MHJbiH!» CKasaxb oht» 4'BBoqKa; i{ecmb) HtapKifi, xoxixb 

to drink." — "What stuff! I am not come here 
HanHBaxbca.w — «KaKT> 6bi ne xaKT>! H He npiiixH CH)4a 3a xo, 

to serve old vagabonds; thou wilt have to drink 

qxodb'i yciyatHBaxb cxapbifl 6p04ara; nanHBaxbca h 

without me." — "How rude thou art I" said the old 

6e3T) a.» — uKaKOH ate rpydbifl xbi!» CKaSbiBaxb cxa- 

woman to her; "I will punish thee. From this moment with 
pyiuKa OHT>; «fl HaKa3biBaxb xbi. Ct> axoxi nopa npa 

each of thy words there shall issue from thy mouth either 
KaHC4biH XBOH CJOBO Bbina4axb h3t> y xbi.poxi H.iii 

a serpent or a- frog." She disappeared, and the wicked 
3Msa HJH jaryuiKa.B Oht> H3qe3axb, a 3Jofl 

girl ran home after having broken her pitcher 

4'BBi6HKa no6tHtaxb 4pMdii pa3dHBaxb cbou KyBuiHHi» 



208 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

from spite. "What hast thou to tell me my dear daughter?" 
ci. 40ca4a. «^To CKaabiBaib, muauH 46wa?» 

asked her mother, when she saw her at a distance. — 
cnpaiuHBaxb Maib, biU-btb owl H34aj!eKa. — 

"I have nothing to tell!" answered the daughter; and all 
«He^TO CKa3MBaTb!» oiBsqaib AO^b; h 

at once there issued from her mouth two vipers and two 
B4pyn> BbicKaKMBaib h3t> oht> pon, 4Ba smih h 4Ba 

toads. "What do I see! what horror!" cried the mother; 
)Ka(5a. «Hto a bh4'£tt>! KaKofl cipax-biw aaKpnqaTb Maxb; 

"but it is thy sister who is the cause of all that! I 
«H0 TBOfi CeCTpa (ecnib) BHHOBaTUfl BT. BeCb 3T0T'b! fl 

will make her feel it." And they ran to beat the young girl. 
4aBaTb owb SHaTb.n H ohi 6pocaTbCA 6vnb Meubiudu 4oqb. 

Frightened by their threats, she went to hide herself in 
HcnyraxbCH yrpoaa, ohi CKpbiBaibca bt, 

the wood, ran long without daring to look behind her, 
poma, diraib 46.110, He cM^xb or.jfl4biBaxbca, 

fled very far and at last lost herself. But this 

aaS-braxb 4ajeK6, h HaKOHeu-b noxepaxb 40p6ra. Ho axoxi. 

was for her good. The son of the king, who was 
6bixb Ki OHT* c^acxie. CbiH-b uapcKia, Koxopbifl 

amusing himself at that time with hunting, was just 

3a6aB.iflXbCH xyxi. oxoxa, Haxo4HXbca bt> xoxi 

then in the wood; he saw the young girl, who, seated 
BpeMa B-b poma; yBiiA'bxb KpacaBHua, Koxopbm, CH4'BXb 

on the grass, was weeping bitterly. "What has happened to 
Ha xpaBa, n.jaKaxb ropbKO. «Hxo C4'B.«axbca ct> 

thee? why dost thou weep, my dear?" asked he, taking 
xbi? ^xo Xbi Manaxb, mh.«wh?» cnpamaBaxb oht., BSaxb 

her gently by the hand. — "Alas! how can I help 
owb JiacKOBO 3a pyna. — «Bon. mom! KaKX. h ne 



Syntax. — dependence of words. 209 

weeping! My mother has driven me out of the house." She 
njaKaib! MaiyuiKa BtiroHHTb a n3i 40Mi.» Ohi 

spoke, and the flowers and the precious stones issued from 
roBopHTb, a uB-BTi H AparouiKHMU KaMeHL cwnaibca ci 

her rosy lips, and her tears were changed into pearls. 
poaoBMH ry6a, h cieaa odpamaibCH B-b HteMvyxdiHa. 

"What is the meaning of that?" asked the son of the king; 
«%o SHaqnTb 3T0TT>?» cnpaiuHBaib CbiHi yapcKifl; 

"whence come these flowers, these pearls and these stones?" 
«OTT> ^TO 3T0T'b UB-BT-b, H{eivmyn> n KaMeHb?» 

The. poor child related to the prince what had 

B-BAHHJKKa pa3CKa3bIBaTb UapCKiH CWHT. TOTT,, ^TO 

happened to her. He became in love with her, and 
cjiy^iaibcfl z-h OHi. Oht. nojiK)6iiTb oht>, h 

he loved her more on account of her being so good and 
no.iio6iiTb eme 66.ite 3a to, ^to oht> dbiib lani 4o6pBifi h 

so pretty, than on account of her flowers and precious 

Miubiil, He}Ke.«i 3a oht. ub-btt, h AparouiKHbiH 

stones. He took her with him, presented her to the king 
KaMGHb. Ohi> B3aTb OHi CT. ceCia, npe4CTaB.iflTb ohi. uapb, 

his father, whom she pleased also, and the king 
CBoii OTeuT>, KOTopbiu OH-b noHpaBHTbca TaKHte, a uapb 

permitted his son to marry her. Thus she became 

no3BO.jflTb cbiH-b ateHiiTbca na ohi.. TaKoit oOpas-b OH^b C4'BJaTbca 

a princess, and on the death of the king, when her husband 
^apeBHa, a no cMepib uapb, Kor^a oht> MyjKx 

mounted the throne of his ancestors, she became queen, 
B0cx04iiTb Ha npecTo.n. omoBCKiii, uaprma, 

and was a good queen. And her wicked sister, what 
II 6biTb 466pwH uapiiua. A ohi> 3joi1 cecipa, ^to 

happened to her? She closed her life in a miserable 
C4t.iaTbCa CT> 0HT>? OhT> KOH^iaTb CBOH /KH3Hb Hia^OCTHblH 

14 



2IO RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

way. Her mother, whom she vexed and irritated inces- 
66pa3i. Maib, KOTopbiii oht> cep4HTb h oropqart 6e3- 

santly, was forced to drive her from house: 

npecTaHHO, dtiib npHHyjKAenHMH BbiroH/iTi, oht> u3i aomi; 

nobody would give her an asyhim, and she went to hide 
HHKTO He xoT-BTb Aasaxb OHT> DpHCxaHiime, n oht. CKpuBaib- 

herself in the forest, where she died shortly after of vexation 
Ca BT> AZCb, TA-h yMHpaib CKOpO Cb AOC&AdL 

and hunger. 

H rO.JOA'b. 

CONSTRUCTION. 

84. — The grammatical order of the words in 
Russian is further removed from the natural con- 
struction, and inversions are more frequent than in 
English, French or even German; this however 
causes no obscurity, in as much as the inflections 
of the words sufficiently indicate their relative con- 
cord or dependence. With respect to the order of 
the propositions in the sentence, it is nearly the 
same in the four languages, as is seen in the follow- 
ing examples. 

E'ciH renift 11 AapoeaHia yna If genius and talents merit 

HMiroTT. npaBO Ha 6jar04ap- the gratitude of the nations, 

HOCTb HapOAOB'b, TO PocciH Russia owes a monument to 

40JH(Ha JoMOHOCOey MOHyMen- Lomonossof. Karamzin. 
T0M1>. KapaM3UHZ. 

no6i4bI, aaBOeBania h Bejnqie The victories, the conquests 

rOCyAapCTBCHHOe , B03BbiCHBT> and the grandeur of the empire, 

4yx^ napOAa PocciilCKarO, HMijH by elevating the intelligence 

cqaCT.n'fBOe A^HCTBie H Ha caMbiH of the Russian nation, had a 

flSbiKT) ero, KOTopblH, 6y4yq:H happy influence even on the 

ynpaB.iaeMT> AapOBameMi h language, which, when em- 



Syntax. — construction. 



211 



BKycOiMi niicaTe.ia yMHaro, mo- 

H{eTl paBHflTBCfl HLIHt BT, ClUt, 

KpacoTt II npiaTHOCTH ct> .lyi- 

milMII H3bIKaMH 4peBH0CTH H 
HailIHXT> BpeMeHT). 

KapaM3UHZ. 

nOBeJliie^Jb MHOniXTi fl3LIK6BT> 
fl3bIKl PoCClHCKifl He TO.lbKO 

odmiipHOCTiro m-bcti, ta% oht. 
rocn64CTByeTT>, ho Kynno h cod- 

CTBeHHblMT. CBOliMl HpOCTpaH- 
CTBOMT) H 40B6jbCTBieMT> Bej!liK1> 

nepe4'b BciMii B-b EBpons. 
Kap.!!, V, PiiMCKiii IlMnepaTopi., 
roBapHBa.i'b, qio IIcnaHCKiiM'b 
asbiKOMi CT. BoroMT., $paHuy3- 

CKHMT> CT> 4py3baMH, HtMeUKHM'b 

ch HenpiflTe^iflMH, HiajiHHCKiiMi 

CT> JKCHCKIIMl nOJOMl rOBOpiITb 

npu.iiinHO. Ho ea«i 6bi OH-b 
PocciiiCKOMy asbiKy dbiAiy hckv- 

CeHT>, TO KOHeqHO Kh TOMy 

npucoBOKyniijT. 6bi, ^to hmt> co 

BCiMlI OHblMH rOBOpiITb HpH- 

CTofiHO. H'do HainejT, 6bi B-b 
HgMT> BejHKOjinie HcnaHCKaro, 
HdiBOCTb <l>paHuy3CKaro , Kpi- 
nocTb HtMei^Karo , HtacHOcxb 
HTa.iiaHCKaro, CBcpxi Toro 60- 
raiCTBO II cii.ibHyK) wh ii3o6pa- 
JKeniaxT. KpaiKOCTb FpeqecKaro 
II .laiiiHCKaro asbma. 

JoMOHocoez. 



ployed by the talent and the 
taste of man of genius, can 
now rival in strength, beauty 
and delicacy the noblest ton- 
gues of ancient and modern 
times. Karamzin. 

The Russian language, the 
parent of many others, is su- 
perior to all the languages of 
Europe not only by the extent 
of the countries where it is 
dominant, but also by its own 
comprehensiveness and rich- 
ness. Charles the Fifth, Emperor 
of the Romans, said that one 
ought to speak Spanish to 
the Divinity, French to one's 
friends, German to one's ene- 
mies and Italian to ladies. But 
had he been acquainted with 
Russian, he would assuredly 
have added that one could 
speak it with each and all. 
He would have discovered in 
it the majesty of the Spanish, 
the vivacity of the French, the 
strength of the German, the 
sweetness of the Italian, and 
in addition energetic concise- 
ness in its imagery with the 
richness of the Greek and 
Latin. Lomonossof. 



14* 



212 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



THIRD PART 

ORTHOGRAPHY. 
USE OF THE LETTERS. 

85. — We have already seen (g 7 — 10) that several 
letters lose their own peculiar sound, taking that 
of the letter with which they have the closest affinity, 
and that certain other letters are silent, disappear- 
ing entirely in the pronunciation. In such cases 
the object of Orthography is to indicate the letter 
which has lost its own peculiar sound and taken 
an accidental one; and, to do that, recourse must 
be often had to etymology, in order to discover a 
derivative and give it, by the help of the gram- 
matical forms, such an inflection as may serve to 
show the form of the doubtful letter. 

Vowels. Z^. — Several vowels are often confounded in writ- 
ing, on account of the close affinity or perfect 
identity of their pronunciation. As this confusion 
arises almost invariably from the absence of the 
tonic accent, it is necessary, in order to discover 
the form of the letter, to find a derivative or an 
inflection of the word where the doubtful vowel is 
accented. Thus : 



Orthography. — use of the letters. 2 1 3 



flMD^HKl (and not emufUKz), a postilion 
lliv,6 (and not eujio), nn egg, . 
AQM^Hb (and not eHMCHh), barley, 
TflHy (and not menf), I draw, . 
Ba«y (and not eeoicjf-), I bind, . 
x.a..\iiO (and not oiceMiHt), I pity, 
nia^yH'b (and not w,eAfm), a rogue, 
qacM (and not uecbt), a -Match, . 
n^a^UTb (and not mediimb), io spare, 
MO.iHTBa (and not MaAumea), a prayer, 

I B40Ba (and not edaed), the widow, . 

^ rOBopHTb (and not zaeapumb), to speak. 



flMT. {primitive word), a relay. 
flHi^a {tiom. plur.). eggs. 
fllHMU {derivative), of barley. 
TfliHyT-b (3^ pers. pi.). Hiey draw. 
BH^Kenib (2d pers. sing.), tJiott bindest. 
;Ka.lb {priviitive), pity. 
ui&..lOCTb {derivative)., roguery. 
uacb {primitive), the hour. 
nomaja {derivative), pardon. 
OWb Md-lHT-b {^d pers. sing.), he prays. 
B46Bbi {nom. plur.), the widows. 
rdBop-b, speaking, & paaroBdp'b, discourse. 



E. "B. — The two vowels most commonly confounded are 
e and Jh. In order to know which of them ought to be used, 
recourse must be had to the dictionary. We may however 
observe that the letter jh is never used in words taken from 
foreign languages; as: KaAeTT., a cadet; Ciecapb; a locksmith 
{Germ. (Sd^Ioffer) ; neHH, fine {Lat. pcena), excepting in Bina, 
Vienna, which is properly speaking a Slavonic word. Some- 
times the vowel u{oxi) is changed in the derivatives into /b; 
as: 6eci4a, conversation; 4'BTn, children; A-jeKCifi, Alexis; Cepriil, 
Sergius; AnptJfc, April (from CH4iTfc, to be seated; 4HTfl, child; 
A.ieKCiH, Ceprift, AnpiLufi). In the words .liKapb, a physician-, 
.itKapCTBO, a medicine; .I'BqiiTfc, to heal, &c. ; which some persons 
write JieKapb, JieKdpcmeo, JteHunib, the Dictionary of the 
Russian Academy preserves the letter /&. These vowels may 
in some occasions be distinguished. As the vowel e is in 
certain cases pronounced io or 0, and the vowel lb has this 
sound only in some words {$ 8), it is necessary to look for 
an inflection or a word in which the doubtful vowel is 
accented. Thus: 



V 



c.ieaa (and not cjiibsd), the tear, 
e.ib (and not nxb), the fir, . . . 



c.leShi {}iom. phir.), ilie tears. 
e.lKa {ditninutrve), a little fir. 



fiep63HHKT»(andnot<5'ep763K«K8), «3zVcA/?r^/jf, S J 6epe3a {primitive), a birch. 



^ ^ .i6*lHHK'b (and not AibdnuKs), an iceJwuse, . 

%. yiBepjHTb (and not y^eapdumb), to affirm, 

'"•yrHCTeHie (and not ytHnuneme), persecution. 



8 .164^ {primitive), ice. 

« TBep4HH {primitive), firtn. 

3 '^-THeT'B {primitive), stick for packing. 



E. 3. — The vowel 9 is used at the beginning of the 
Russian words 3h, ho! 3X1, hey! ilOTh, this; aKOil and aiaKOii, 
oh what! also at the beginning of foreign' words and after a 
vowel; e. g. 3KBaT0pi, the equator; 3eiipT>, ether; uOdUdi, a poetn ; 



2 14 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

noaTT), a poet. After i we can in this case employ the vowel 
e, as in nieca, a piece. Such words as had been incorporated 
into the Russian language before the vowel 5 was in use, 
are written with e; as: eeaHre^ie, the gospel; eniiCKOm>, a bishop; 
enapxia, a diocese; eBHyxT>, an eunuch; Eepona, Europe, and 
some others. The vowel e is further used for the Latin or 
German letters je, gl and ge; as npoeKTT., a project; peecipi, 
a register; e*ecx, the sword-hilt, e*peHTOpT>, a corporal {Lat. pro- 
Jectum, register; Germ. ®efd§, ^efreiter). 

H. I. — The vowel i is used, instead of u, before all the 
vowels and before the semi-vowel U; as: cie, that; nply^axb, 
to accustom; npiflTHMH, agreeable; renifl, genius, as also in the 
word Mipi), the rvorld, and its derivatives: MipCKOfl, worldly; 
BCeMipHMil, universal; B.ia4iiMipT>, Vladimir, to be distinguished 
from MHpT>, peace, and its derivatives; as: MiipHMH, peaceful; 
MHpiiTL, to reconcile; CMiipHLlfi, calm. In words formed from 
the numerals, as : naTH-apuiHHHBlfl, of five yards; ceMH-yr6.itHblfi, 
heptagon, &c. , the letter u is retained, but a hyphen must be 
placed between the two parts of the word. In the word 
Mvpo, the holy oil, and its derivatives: MVponOMaaame, unctimi; 
MVpOHOCHUa, bearer of aromatics; MVponOMasaHHHKT. , the Lord's 
anointed, the Slavonic letter UOicuu^a has been retained. 

H. BI. — The vowel hi is formed by the union of a and 
u; in compound words however it is necessary to retain the 
form of these two letters, and write, for instance : DpeAtH^ymifi, 
preceding; 6e3T>HMaHH£.m , anonymous. Sec. It is only in the 
words compounded of HCKaib, to seek, and HrpaTL, to play, that 
the letters 3 and u are joined and form W, e. g. CbilUHKl, an 
emissary; pd3MCKl>, the inquiry; CLirpaTbCa, to play quits; paSbl- 
rpaib, to rq0e for {instesid oi cmiu,UKd, poSZUCKZ, C&mpdmbCR, 
paezuepdmb). — In foreign words after Uf the vowel u is 
employed, although pronounced w; thus we write Me4HmiHa, 
medicine; i^iipKyjb, compasses; UH*pa (which some persons write 
Ubi*pa), a cipher; excepting itbiraHX, a gypsy, and qbl^iipb, 
ciphers. — In the adjectives it is necessary to distinguish the 
terminations hllb and iU., as: noCTHblH, of Lent; j-bthIh, of 
summer, and its compounds: COBepffleHHOjilHiH, of full age; 
CTO.l'BTHiH, centenary; Sec; the word MOJlOJiiTHbiii , young is an 
exception. 



Orthography. — USE OF the letters. 215 

87. — The semi-vowels (t,, b, ii), the two first of^^^™; 
which are placed after consonants, and the last after 
vowels, are vowels only half uttered (§ 9), 3 being 
half of the vowel 0, b and ii half of the vowel \i. 

The semi-vowel 3 at the end of words may be used after 
all the consonants, while the semi-vowel 6 cannot be placed 
either after the gutturals (r, K, X) or the lingual (u). The hard 
or liquid sound of these two letters, which is generally per- 
ceived after consonants, as: dpail., the brother, and 6paTb, to 
take; m>MT>, flame, and nbUb, dust; CiaiTb, the stature, and CTaHfc, 
become, is not distinguished after the hissing letters (JK, % 
ffl, m), as in the words: hojkt>, a knife, and JOHtt, a lie; Me^t, 
a sword, and CB^b, to cut; KaMblim., the reed, and MbllUb, a mouse; 
TOmi), fasting, and HOlUb, the night. 

In the middle of a word the semi-vowel 6 is placed after 
all the consonants, excepting r, K, X, q; e. g. cy4bda, destiny; 
BeCbMa, vety; odeSbflHa, a monkey; ^eHbrH, money; nHCbMO, a 
letter; noJbSa, utility; ceJb^b, a herring; TwpbMa, the prison, &c. 
The semi-vowel 8, in words formed with a preposition, is only 
retained before the vowels, e, U, lb, fo, h; as: OTieMJH), / take 
away; npe4T)H/iymiH , preceding; Blixaib, to enter; ofillopo^-BTb, 
to become a fool; odiaBiiTb, to announce. The same is the case 
with the Latin prepositions ad and ob, as in the words a4T>K)- 
TaHTT>, an adjutant; od'LeKTiiBHblH, objective. 

The semi -vowels 6 and u are sufficiently distinct; the 
former (b) can only be used after a consonant, the latter (fl) 
only after a vowel, as we have already seen, § 9. 

88. — The feeble consonants (6, b, r, 4, 5K, 3), consonants. 
which, at the end and in the middle of* a word 
before a strong letter, are articulated like their 
corresponding strong consonants (n, <D, K or x, i, 
in, c, § 10), may be distinguished from the latter 
by an inflection of the words. Thus: 



2l6 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

6o<5'b, a bean, and ^■Bmb, a Jiaih > , 6o6a and U'Bn&. 

I ^OBl, capture, and rpa+l, a count, i6Ba and rpa*a. 



Kpyrl, a circle, and KpiOKl, a hook, • Kpyra and KpiOKa. 

I Bor'b, God, and 4yxTi, spirit, > on account oi geti. sing. ■{ B6ra and jyxa. 



•• K.ia4'b, treasure, and 6parb, brother. K.la4a and 6p&Ta. 

.^ I HOSKT*, a knife, and KOBUili, a scoop, HO»ca and KOBUia. 



Tyai, 2!4^ ace, and ycB, /^^ inttstache, ^ Wy3& and yea. 

TpydKa, a pipe, and nianKa, a cap, "^ fTpy60KTb and uianOKl. 

J&BKaj a be7ich, and ♦6H*Ka, a blow-pipe.^ .laBOK'b and ♦eH*OK'b. 

6yJKa, sentry-box, and yTKa, a duck, \o\\ account of gen. pl.{ 6y40K'b and vTOK'b. 

Yi^^-KMidi., a goblet, and MyniKa, //Vz"/^ ^. I KpyKCKTb and MymeKT). 

CK&3Ka, a tale, and nJflCKa, a dance, ) IcKdaoK'b and n-iflcoKT.. 

In cases where the change of inflection fails to 
indicate the doubtful letter, recourse must be had 
to etymology to discover the root from which the 
derivative word is formed. Thus: 

I np6ci>6a, a prayer (and^not npoahffa), . . . flipoCHTb, to pray, from the root npoc. 

;KeHHTbfia, marriage (and not »cenubh6a), . ^KCHHTb, to marry (in 5/. oiceHiimea). 

I 6y40iHHK'b, a sentry (and not fffmoHHum), . 6y4Ka, sentry-box, gen. pi. 6y40K'b. 
: npHcyiCTBle, presence (and not npucjrdcmeie), ■■ < cyTb, ^d pers, pi. of eoib, / am. 

aCHCeHHWH, burnt (and not coicenHbiu), . . . | ;K;KeiUb, 2d per s. sing, of ;Kry, I burn. 

pafiqHK'b, a hazel-hen (and not pAnuuKi), . . *- pfl66H, with variegated feathers. 
I -^ rp6'JHeBMH, <7/"^<<r^-wAM^(and not ?pej««e«w«). s -n rp6ia, buck-weatJt, u being immutable. 



CB-feqa, a candle, from CB'liT'b, light. 
ry46K'b, violin, m and k change into v. 
BdTOmb, a rag, from B^rxlB, old. 
yxo, the ear, x changes into w. 
Bo.l6x'b, a Walachian, x ch, into iji. 



CB61HHKI, a candlestick (and not ce/6tttKt<K8), c 
ry46iHH'b, violonist (and not ty7i6mHUK%)^ . . ^ 
BeidniHHK'b, rag-gatherer (and not eemduHUKz), « 
HaymHHK'b, slanderer (and not HafHHUKTi), . 
Bo.l6niCKiH, Walachian (and not eoAOMCCKiu), 
I, B6.iMCCKiH, of tJte Volga (and not eoAmcKiu), LB6.ira, the Volga, t changes into oic. 

The present orthography of the word nopy^HKl), a lieutenant 
(from nopyiUTb, to commit, from pyKa, the Jiand), is not in con- 
formity with its etymology; for the termination being H.UK'6 
(as in nOTai^llKt, an indulger, from noxaKaib, to connive , from 
TaKT>, thus), it ought to be written nopyTqHKi>, as some persons 
still write, it. Another exception is CBa^bSa, wedding- {{ormerly 
cedmb6a), from CBaiaib, to ask in marriage. 

The word CTOJin>, a column, is written in Slavonic with a n, 
as also its derivatives: CTOjnHHKl, the stylite; CTOJUOTBOpeHie, 
the building of the tower of Babel; but in Russian it is written 
with a 6, CT0J[6'b, a consonant which is retained in the words 
CTO.160BOU, columnar; GT0.i6^aKT>, basalt; CT0.i6hhkt>, tetanus; 
OCTO.ideniTb, t<r be stupefied. 



Orthography. — use of the letters. 2 1 7 

3. — The feeble consonant 3 of the preposition B3 or B03, 
H3, H113, pa3 or po3, is changed, in derivatives, before the 
strong consonants K, n, T, X, into its corresponding strong 
consonant c; thus we write: BCnoMHHTb, to remember; eOcnH- 
Tanie, education; HCKJIO^iiTI. , to exclude; hhcxoaiiTL, to descend; 
paCTOprHyifc, to tear up; pocnilCb, a catalogue (instead of e3noM- 
Humo, eoanumdHie, usKAfomnib, Huaxodiimb, paamopzHynib, 
poanucb). Before the strong consonants C, \y, q, Ul and m, 
the letter 3 keeps its form, as in ri3CTapii, formerly; pa3UB-BCTli, 
to open; 03^e3HyTL, to disappear; BOSllieCTBie, accession; pa3mem>, 
a slit. The prepositions 6e37> and H.pe3Z in this case remain 
unchanged; thus we write: SesnojodHMil , incomparable; qpes- 
^ypT>, excessively (and not 6ecnod66Hblu ^ upecijrpz). It is the 
same with the preposition C3, which retains its form before 
a feeble consonant, although it then takes the pronunciation 
of 3 ; thus we should write : c6aBHTb , to diminish; C4'B.iaTb , to 
make; crOHHTb, to drive off; CJKHMaTb, to compress (and not 36d- 
eunib, 3dibJiamb, 330HAmb, 3oicuMdmb). 

I],. — The compound consonant ^ cannot be used instead 
of mc or dc, when m and d are radical letters, and c belongs 
to the termination of the word; thus we write: U.IOTCKifi, 
carnal, fromn.iOTb, the flesh; nepciUCKift, Persian, from the 
Latin Persis, sidis (and not nAOU^CKiu, nepcuUfCKiu); but we 
write: HtMemdil, German, from HiMeut, a German; KasaUKiil, 
Cossack^s, from Ka3aKl>, a Cossack. In the numerals we write 
dUf, as : O^iiHHajuaTb, eleven; 4Ba4UaTb, twenty, words contracted 
from the Slavonic oduHZ-Ha-decHmb, ded-decamb. 

\\\ — The compound consonant m,, in the derivatives, is 
the commutation of CK and cm, or else it supplies the place of 
the consonants 3K, O/CH, CH, as: BOmHTb, to wax, from BOCKt, 
wax; yMaiuaib, to anoint, from MaCTb, balm; npilKaii];HKT>, a clerk, 
from npiIKa3'b, an order; p'BmiiK'b, a cutter, from p'B3aTb, to cut. 
But the form of the radical letters is retained in the Avords 
C^aciie, Jmppiness; c^iiTaib, to count; c^eTT), pa3CqeTT., an account; 
My/KiiiHa, a man, which must not be written w^dcmie^ UtfUmdmb, 
lUfemz, pa3Uifemd, though we also write Mymfiua. 

<I>. 0. — The consonants (p and e are used, the former for 
Russian words , and such Greek and other words as are 



2 1 8 RUSSIAN ■ GRAMMAR. 

written with cp, / or ph, and the latter for Greek words written 
with % or th; thus we write: ♦y*aMKa, a jacket; «aMHjlifl, a 
family; ^\\Z\\Y^^, physics; <l>iuiinm), Phillip; ^oxiii, Photius; and 
pHeMX, rhythm; prieMa, rhyme; Mlieo.ioria, mythology; 8e046pi>, 
Theodore; 0OMa, Thomas. 

Doubling of 89. — The consonants are doubled in Russian in 

consonants. ,--,,. \ t 1 1 • 

the following cases: i) In the words in HWft'3, cmeo^ 
Hbiii, Hiu and CKiiii the radical of which terminates 
in « or c; e. g. h.I'BHHIIK'l, a prisoner, from nJi'feH'L, 
captivity; iiCKyccTBO, art, from iiCKyCL, an essay; 
HCTiiHHLiH, true, from HCTima, the truth; oceHHin, 
aiitiminal, from oceHB, autumn; PyccKiii, Russian, 
from PyCL, Russia. The same takes place in ad- 
jectives in eHHbiu, and passive participles in aHHbiii, 
HHHhiii, eHHUii, TbHHbiu^ e. g. iiCKyccTBeHHLiH, arti- 
ficial; ^i-BJiaHHBiii, made; aaciiyjKeHHBiii, merited. 
These participles must not be confounded with the 
qualifying and possessive adjectives; as: yHGHBiii, 
learned; sacJiyHceHHii, emerited; KO^aHLifi, of skin ; 
cepe6pflHHH, of silver, which are written with a 
single «. — 2) In such words as are formed with a 
preposition, where the initial consonant of the pri- 
mitive is the same as the final consonant of the 
preposition; e. g. 5e33y6Hn, toothless; BBo;iHTt, to 
introduce; no/t^^aHHufl, subject; ccbLiKa, exile. — 3) In 
the preterit of the pronominal verbs, when the verb 
ends in the consonant c; as: pasnecca, it has 
spread itself; cnacca, he has saved himself. — ^4) 
When by the change of a commutable letter two 
consonants come together, as in the verb Htry, / 
burn, which, by the change of z into dic^ is in the 
second person HCSKemt, and in the passive participle 
jKJKeHHBiii ; and in BOHCHca, a rein ; Boacacaifc, to bi'idle. 



Orthography. — division of words into syllables. 219 

from BO^HHTL, to lead, by the change of d into die. — 
5) Lastly consonants are doubled in some foreign 
words; e.g. Si66siTb, an abbot; cy666Ta, Saturday; 
aKKyjia, a shark; KjaccL, a class; kojoccl, a colos- 
sus; KOJwerifl, a college; MeiaiiJi'L, a 7netall, &c. 

90. — The capital letters (nponiiCHwa 6yKBBi) are \l^^^^l_ 
employed, generally speaking, in Russian as in 
English. Thus a capital letter is placed at the 
beginning of every sentence, of every line of poetry, 
of all the proper names of men, places, nations, 
rivers, mountains and winds, as also of all those of 
a science, an art or a profession, if taken in an 
individual sense which distinguishes the particular 
science, art or profession from every other. All 
titles and ranks joined to a proper name must also 
be distinguished by an initial capital, and the same 
is the case with the appellative names of tribunals, 
companies and corporate bodies. 



DIVISION OF WORDS INTO SYLLABLES. 

91. — The division of words into syllables, when 
one part has to be carried on from one line to 
another, is marked by the hyphen, and is performed 
according to the following rules which are based on 
the etymology of the words: 

1. Monosyllables, as: CTipacTb, passion ; 3jii3aBi>, in 
health; nyBCTBi*, of the semises {gen. pL), cannot be 
divided. 

2. Prepositions and every other affix, whether 
initial or final, may be separated from the rest of the 



2 20 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

word; e. g. OT-pa^a, mitigation; o-ipaBa, poison; 
6e3-KOHeq-HLiH, infinite; boctokt,, the East; Mej- 
BiijL, a bear; pas-yMi), reason; cbohctbo, property; 
aM-miiKi), a postilion; seM-CKifi, terrestrial; 4pyai- 
6a, frie7idship; Ilapt-rpait'L, Constantinople, &c. 

3. The compound consonants dic^^ cm, as also 
KC, K3j nc and do/c in foreign words, cannot be 
divided; e. g. Me-Hc;iy, between; Tpw-cxa, ///r^^ 
hundred; Ajie-KcaHitp'L, Alexayider ; a-KaaMeHX, ^;irrt- 
mination; K.ie-ncHApa, a clepsydra; P6;tacep'L, Roger. 

4. The final vowels, as: CBoa, Jiis; Kpyioe, steep; 
as well as the terminations of the verbs, as: nowTt, 
they sing; cipoflT'L, they bnild; aca-iieTi., he regrets, 
cannot be separated from the rest of the word. 

ORTHOGRAPHY OF ISOLATED WORDS. 

^"o^rds" 9"^* — Every Russian word is written as a single 
word, if by the loss of one of its component parts 
the sense would be changed; e. g. coyHacTHiiKi), 
an accoinplice; HSopaHHtiH, elected; OTHeTi>, an ac- 
count; npH6HJiB, a gain; Mopexo^ti), the navigation; 
BOitonpoBo^'L, an aqueduct, &c. On this subject 
the following rules must be observed: 

i) The prepositions which are employed both 
conjointly and separately (§ ^6)^ are written con- 
jointly: a) Before the verbs and words derived 
from them; e. g. npimocHTB, to bring; npimocB, a 
gift; npiiHomeme, the offering; npiiHOCMTe.ii>, a 
bearer, Sec. b) Before such other parts of speech 
. as are not used without the preposition ; as : HaBLiKi), 
the habit; iiSB-BCTHMii, known; BCiapL, anciently; 



Orthography. — orthography of isolated words. 221 

HaB3HiiHb, backwards : oaeML, on the ground, c) Be- 
fore nouns, adjectives, pronouns and adverbs as 
form with the preposition an adverb or a conjunc- 
tion; e.g. '&Q,i2c^\YSS , formerly ; wssr^, from without ; 
CHaHa.ia, in the first place: BC.i'£;t'B, ifi the foot- 
steps; noTOMy, hence. If the noun from which the 
adverb is formed, is determined by another word, 
the preposition is written separately ; e. g. cs uandAa 
B-BKa, at the beginnirtg of the century; no mOMy 
ciynaio, 071 this occasion. The adverbs BO-nepBBiX'B, 
firstly, BO-BTopbiX'L, secondly] no-pyccKii, in Russian; 
no-coj/iiaTCKii, like soldiers, and others similar, as 
also the compound prepositions iiSTj-aa, from behi7id, 
and ii3'L-n6;t'B, from imder, are written with the 
hyphen (§ 94, 2). 

2. The prefix particle UJb is always written con- 
jointly with the pronoun or the adverb following; 
as : HiKTO, some one; HiKOToptm, some; HiKor^ia, 07ice. 

3. The particle uu is written conjointly in the 
words HiiKTO, nobody; hh^to, nothing; Hiir^ti, hh- 
KYita^ noivhere; HHKor;i;a, never; HiiKaK'L, not at all, 
and separately in all other words ; as : nn KOiopHH, 
none; hh aepna, not a graiyi. 

4) The negative ue is written separately before 
verbs and the circumstantial adverbs; as: He cm-bk), 
/ dare not; He s^t-fect, 7iot here, with the exception 
of verbs whose proper meaning is changed by the 
negative ue, or which are not used without the ne- 
gative ; as : He^tocTaBaiB, to be wajiting; HenaBH^IiTB, 
to hate; He;^OB'£pflTL , to distrust. It is written 
conjointly with nouns, qualifying adjectives and 
adverbs, when the negation refers to the object 



22 2 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

or to the quality, and not to the verb; e. g. 
uepdeeHcmeo npaBOB'L 6uBaeTi. npiiHHHOio cnopoBi,, 
dissimilarity of character is the cause of the quarrels; 
uecHocnaR CKyKa y6nBaeT'i. Mena, an unbearable 
ennui is killing me; fl ryjiflK) ueoxomHO, I walk 
against my will; and also when the noun has no 
meaning without the negation; e. g. Heionbipt, a 
bat; Hero^flH, a good-for-notlmig; He^tyrx, a disease. 
With the participles the negative m is written con- 
jointly when, like the adjectives, they serve to de- 
termine the nouns; and separately when, like the 
verbs, they have a complement; e. g. Hesnaiouiiil 
He-iOBiKT*, an ignorant man; HeJiOBiKT>, ne SHammiu 
CBOHXT> o6a3aHHOCTeH, the man who is ignorant of 
his duties. 

5. The particle 6hi or 03 is written conjointly 
only in the conjunctions HTo6bi (or hto6'l) and iia6bi, 
that; everywhere else it is written separately. It 
is necessary to distinguish the conjunction %mo6bi 
from the pronoun %mo with 6hi; e. g. Htejaio, 
%mo6bi OHt 4a.n> Te6i axy KHHry, / zvish him to 
give you this book; %mo 6bi ;tajn> a aa axy KHHry, 
what would I have given for this book! In the 
latter case 6hi is written separately. 

6. The conjunction oice or oiC5 is conjointly written 
in the words yace or yacL, already ; ;taate, even; 
HiiHce, not even, and separately in the other words; 
as: HJH me, or even; o^iHaKO aie, however; xoxt ace, 
the same. It is also written conjointly in the copu- 
lative conjunction xaKate, and the adverb xojKe, too; 
but it is written separately in the comparative con- 
junction xaKi) ate, as well, and in the pronoun xo 



Orthography. — orthography of isolated words .223 

ace, the same; e. g. oht. maKZ oiCe xopomo nHiuexi,, 
KaKT> HiiTaeTt, he ivrites as zvcll as he reads: OHi) 
mdKOice iiBopaHHH'B,//^ is also gentleman; a 66ji^wh 
II OHT, modice, I am sick and he too; a roBopib 
mo oice^ HTO 11 bh, / say the saine thing as you. 

93. — Foreign words are written with those letters ^°ordf° 
of the Russian alphabet, which give as closely as 
possible the pronunciation of these words in the 
language from which they are borrowed: the rule 
is the base of the orthography of foreign words. 
Such are for instance the words: enapxia, a diocese; 
Kaeejpa, the pidpit {Gr. iTtapyia, Kahslpa) ; ceaa- 
Topx, a senator ; Kopona, a crown (Lat. senator, 
corona) \ aacio, the agio; Kapexa, a carriage {Ital. 
agio, carreta)] oyxt, a foot; cn.iiiH'B, the spleen 
(from the English) \ aKxep-L, an actor; MejiaiiB, a 
medal (Fr. acteur, medaille) ; 6pycxBep'L, the parapet; 
KyHepx, a coachman {Germ. S3ru[tn:)e^r, totjd^er); 
BaxepnaCL, a level; oapBaxepx, the channel {Dutch : 
waterpxs, vaarwater)\ BenseJiB, a cipher; xpaKxapi), 
an eating-house keeper {Pol. w^zel, traktyer). Some 
of these words in passing into the Russian language 
have taken terminations peculiar to it, while others 
have undergone an alteration both in their pro- 
nunciation and orthography; such are: oiiXHJib, a 
match; oonapL, a lanthorn {mod. Gr. (f)UTiXi, (pavd- 
piov); aJixapL, an altar; MpaMop-L, marble {Lat. al- 
tare, marmor) ; axxa, a yacht; MHHMan'L, a midship- 
man (from the English); ninara, a sword {Ital. 
spada) ; caJia>exKa, a 7iapkin ; xaoaKepKa, a snuff-box 
{Fr. serviette, tabatiere)\ 6iipaia, the exchange; xa- 
pejiKa, a plate {Germ, ^orfe, Xeller); niKHnepi,, 



2 24 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

master of a merchantsJdp ; lu.iioa'L, a sluice {Dutch: 
s chipper, sluis), &c. 

The same thing takes place in the Greek and 
Latin proper names; as: A-ieKcaH^ipT,, Alexander; 
M\v&QKk% Nicholas ; OiiJuinn'L, Philip; naBejit, Paul; 
E^iena, Helen; A'BrycT'L, Augustus; ICjiIh, Jtilitis; 
Haia.iia, Nataly. Some follow the pronunciation 
of both Greek and Latin; as: OMHp-L and FoMepT,, 
Homer; kmxas\kKh and Ajimi6ia;i'L, Alcibiades; 
OiiBT* and <l>e6'L, Phoebus; Bioxia and Beouia, Beo- 
tia. Others are formed from the Greek or Latin 
genitive; as: BiaHTi., Bias; Uimep6Hi>, Cicero; 
ApxeMH^ta, Artemis; Iljiiaita, the Iliad; Benepa, 
Venus; IJepepa, Ceres. 

The proper names of lands, countries, rivers, 
towns and other names of modern geography, some 
retain their Latin denomination; as: FepMania, 
Germany; AecTpia, Austria; CimiiJiia, Sicily; 
HeanoiiL, Naples; <I>JiopeHnifl , Florence; BesyBiii, 
Vesuvius, &c. Others are written as they are pro- 
nounced in the language to which they belong; as: 
^d'&jifswh^ London; Hejitcii, Chelsea; FpHHiiH'L, Green- 
wich; MiOHxeHT,, Munich; MaiiHii'L, Mayence; Bpibc- 
ce.iL, Brussels; ^laacL, the Meuse; IIIeJiMa, the 
Scheldt; PeiiHi), the Rhine; Kop;^6Ba, Cordova; Xe- 
pecB, Xeres; Ba^axocL, Badajoz; CxeBeHPmrein., 
ScJievening; KejiLHi., Cologne; PereHc6ypr'L, Ratis- 
bon; .Ihttiix'l, Liege; A'xeHT), Aix-la- Chape lie ; 
KapJicpya, Carlsruhe; IliaHeHiiia, Piacenza; JiiBopHO, 
Leghorn; Bop;t6, Bordeaux; Mapcejib, Marseille; 
.loapa, the Loire, &c. Some of these names have 
passed into the Russian through another language ; such 



Orthography. — orthography of isolated words. 225 

are : IlapHHx'L, Paris (from the Italian Parigi) ; PiimT), 
Rome (from the Polish Rzym) ; KonenrareH'L, Copen- 
hagen (from the German ^opett^agen, instead of the 
Danish Kiobenhavn). Some German names of 
countries and towns inhabited by Slavonian tribes 
have been replaced by Slavonic names; as: Bina, 
Vienna; BpeciiaBJifc, Breslau; TopynL, Thorn; ^Ilbob'B; 
Leinberg; Benrpifl, Hungary, and some others. 

The proper names of historical persons and others 
in modern languages are written in Russian accord- 
ing to the pronunciation of the language to which 
they belong; such are the English names : IIIeKcniip'L, 
Shakespeare; BefipoHi., Byron; Y)wh, Hume; iI,Hi6H- 
coHTb, Johnson; Hliotoh'l, Newton; the French names: 
PiimeJiLe, Richelieu ;Jl,2iS^, Davoust; V^cco, Rousseau; 
PoJUieHt, Rollin ; /(eJiHJiB, Delille ; the German names : 
Bjuoxepi), Blucher; BiiiiaHit'L, Wieland; Feie, Goethe; 
PaHAH-L, Haydn; the Italian names: Xepy6HHH, 
Cherubini; ^iiMapoaa, Cimarosa ; the Polish names : 
^apTopbiCKiii , Czartoryski; IIoTonKaa', Potocka; 
HtMueEHHi., Niemceiuicz, &c. 

We may here remark that the proper names of the Russian 
language, the alphabet of which differs from that of the other 
European tongues, ought to be written in each foreign language 
in such a manner as to give as closely as possible the Russian 
pronunciation. Thus the Russian proper names : KapaMSiiHt, 
nyuiKHH'L, JX'd'^-Xs.k^wwh ^ lUiiLUKOB'L, /KyKOBCKlii , MemepcKlii, 
HiiiepiiHTi, Kaaa-HB, BnaLMa, PaceBi., iKHTOMiipi), are written in 
English: Karamzin , Pushkin , Derzhavm, Shishkqf, Zkukovski, 
Mesicherski, Tchiicherin, Kazan, Viazma, Rzhef, Zhitomir, in French: 
Karamezine, Poiichekine, Derjavine, Chichekof, Joukovski, Mestcherski, 
Tchitcherine, Kazan, Viazma, Fj'ef, Jitomir; in German: ^arantfilT, 

^i'ufc^fin, %tx\\)OXm., ©c^ijc^fotr), 6lf|u!otu§!i , 9JJefd)tf(^ergEi, 
Xfd^itjc^erin, ^ajan, SSjafnta or 2Bafma, Wfc^eo, ©iiitomir, and 

15 



22 6 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

the same in other languages. Exceptions will be found to 
this rule in certain proper names which have been adopted , 
long ago; as: MocKBa, CaHKTneTep6ypn>, Bapiuaea, MHTaea, 
and some others; in English: Moscow, Saint- Petersburg, Warsaw, 
Miitaii; in French: Moscou, Saint- Pctersboiirg, Vai-sovie, Mittau; 
in German: SJJJogf'QU, St. ^eter^burg, SSorfcf)QU, SOZitQU. See 
the particular Vocabularies of the Parallel Dictionaries of the 
Russian, French, German and English languages. 



ORTHOGRAPHIC SIGNS. 

94. — The oj'tJiographic signs (anaKU npaBomicanifl) 
of the Russian language are: the accent (y/tapenie), 
the hyphen (e;iiiHMTe.iBiii>iii snaKX or nepTo^Ka), 
the sign of brez'ity (KpaiKaa) and the diceresis 
(Hai^CTp6HHoe ^Boeio^ie). 

1. The accent (') serves to distinguish the homo- 
nyms or words which though written alike have a 
different meaning, as also the similar inflections of 
the words; as: aaMOKX, a castle, and saMOK'L, a lock: 
noAaifc, the tax, and no^aTL, to give: 016111!), it 
costs, and ctoht'l, he is up; Bbixo^HTB^ to obtain, 
and Bbixo^tHTB, to go out] CJiOBa, of the word {gen. 
sing.), and CJiOBa, the words (noni. plur.). The 
accent is further placed on the relative pronoun 
HTO, to be distinguished from the conjunction ^to; 
e. g. 3HaeinL Jiii nmo Te6i noJiesHO, dost thott know 
what is useful to thee"? and 3HaeniL jiii, nmo Te6'B 
noJiesHO yqenie, dost thou know that study is itseful 
to theef 

2. The hyphen (-) is used to mark the connec- 
tion between two or more words; e. g. A.ieKcaH- 



Orthography, — marks of punctuation. 227 

;ipo-HeBCKaH .laspa, the monastery of St- Alexander 
Nevsky; renepaj'L-Maiop'L, major general; iiiTa6'L- 
omim^i^, field officier ; HBaH-L-ita-MapLfl, cow-iuheat. 
The hyphen is also used with the adverbs formed 
from the prepositions eo and no^ with the com- 
pound prepositions (§ 92. i), and with the particle 
mo; as: KaK'L-TO, such as; hto-to, something. It is 
also used at the end of a hne, when a part of a 
word has to be carried on to the line following. 

3. The sign of brevity (^) is placed over the 
vowel u (ii), converting it into a semi-vowel, which 
joined with the preceding vowel forms only a syl- 
lable; as: MOH, my; cen, this; HeHiteTT,, he does not 
go; HafixH, to find. This mark is also used in pro- 
sody to indicate the short syllables, as we shall 
see when speaking of Russian versification. 

4. The dicer e sis (••) is a double dot which is 
placed over the vowel e (e), when it has the sound 
of io or 0; e. g. ciesti, tears; i^ejiifciH, yellow. 
The letter e is also used as the equivalent of the 
French eu and the German 0, as in the words 
MoHiecKLe, Montesquieu; 2iKT:e^T},player (Fr. acteiir) ; 
Feie, Goethe {Germ. @ot^e). 



MARKS OF PUNCTUATION. 

95. — The marks of pimctuatiori (anaKii npenii- 
Hanifl) are the same in Russian as in English, viz: 
the comma (sanHiafl ,), the semicolon (xoHKa cl 
sanflToio ;), the colon (iiBoeioqie :), the fidl stop or 
period (xoHKa .), the note of interrogation (sHaKt 

15* 



2 28 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

BonpocHTeJiLHtiii ?), the note of exclamation (anaKX 
BOCKJiHii,aTeiibHi)iH !), the points of suspension (anaKt 

npectKaTejBHHii ), the dash (snaKt mhcjigot- 

^l-feJiHTe.ibHBin or Tiipe — ), the parentJiesis (bm^cth- 
TeJLHtiH 3HaK'L ov CK66Kn ), the inverted commas 
or quotation (bhochhii anaK'L or KaBbiHKii «») and 
the paragraph (Kpacnaa cxpoKa). The use of these 
marks of punctuation is nearly the same in all 
languages. 



Prosody. — orth oepy. 229 



FOURTH PART 



PROSODY. 

96. — Prosody consists of two parts : i) orthoepy ^^^^^^l^^^ 
(cjioroy^apeHie), or the measured pronunciation of 
syllables and words, and 2) versification (cTiixocJio- 
Hveme), which teaches the laws of writing poetry 
correctly. 

ORTHOEPY. 

97. — In the pronunciation of words attention must Prosodicai 
be paid not only to the particular articulation of accent. 
each of the letters of which they may be composed, 
but also and especially to the accented syllable. 
The prosodical or tonic accent (yitapenie, § 12) is 
a stress of the voice v;hich is heard in one of the 
syllables of a polysyllabic word, so that this syllable 
shall strike the ear more forcibly than the others 
and appear to predominate over them. Thus in 
the words Bo;ia, water; He6o, the sky; CBo56;^a, 
liberty; npeBOCXoMTe.iBCTBO, excellency, the voice is 
raised in the syllables da^ He, 60 j du. The accented 
syllable is, in prosody, called strong" or long, and 
the unaccented syllables weak or short. 



230 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

^^"l-Sem^^ 98. — The accent, in polysyllabic words, is found: 
i) on the radical syllable: nijiSLTh, to know; BB^to- 
MOCTL, information; HesiHiecTBO, ignorayice; iicnoB-B- 
4aTL, to confess; yB-B^OMiiTB, to inform; HSBiciie, 
news; 2) on the termination: Bt/tyHt, a sorcerer; 
BtCTOBOH, orderly; nsBliCTHTB, to notify; aanoBt/lHoii, 
interdicted; 3) on the preposition: BbiBtAaiL, to ex- 
plore; 3anoB'£;ib, commandment; noBliCTL, a tale; 
coBtCTfc, conscience; 4) on the prefix in compound 
words: 6jiaroB'£CTiiTB, to ring to church. 

These examples show that the accentuation of 
words in Russian is very variable; and practice and 
the dictionary can alone enable us to place the 
accent correctly, as no fixed rules on the subject 
have hitherto been discovered. We may however 
remark that a word, when standing alone, may be 
accented differently to what it is, when joined to 
other words ; thus the pronouns at times lose their 
accent; again, the nouns and the numerals which 
have the moveable accent, in the other cases often 
transfer it to the preposition; in like manner the 
apocopated adjectives and the verbs transfer it to 
the negative; e. g. hth OTiia TBoero 11 MaiepL tbok), 
honour thy father and thy mother; itpySBfl moii, my 
friends; no 6epery, along the shore; 3a Mopesii), 
beyond the sea; oh'B He BeceJii), he is not gay; a ne 
6pajl'L, / have not taken. We may here repeat, 
what we have already indicated in the declensions 
and conjugations, that, in the change of inflections, 
the accent is often transferred from one syllable to 
another. 



Prosody. — versification. 231 

VERSIFICATION. 

99. — The Russian versification, which, like that Jj°^^^^ JJ^- 
of England and Germany, is based on the prosodical 
accent, is termed tonic versification; while that of 
French language and various other modern tongues, 
depending on the number of syllables employed, is 
called syllabic, and that of the Greeks and Romans, 
which is based on quantity or the length and brevity 
of the syllables, is termed metrical. 

100. — In the tonic versification the verses are also ^'^l^^^ 
measured by feet, as in Greek and Latin. T\\^foot 
(CTona) or metre (pasMipi.), in Russian poetry, is 
formed by the union of two or three syllables, one 
of which has the prosodical accent. The feet em- 
ployed in the structure of Russian verse are six in 
number, viz: 

1. The iambus (flM6'L), composed of two syllables 
with the prosodical accent on the last, ^-: 3iiMa, 
BecHa. 

2. The choretLS (xopeii) or trochee (xpoxen), con- 
sisting of two syllables with the accent on the first, 
^-: .lixo, 6 cent. 

8. The pyrrJiic (niippuxiii), formed of two unac- 
cented syllbles, ^ ^ : such are the two first syllables of 
6e3no.ie3Hi>iH. The pyrrhic in the middle of a line 
is used instead of an iambus or a trochee. 

4. The dactyl (iiaKTiOfc), formed of three syllables 
with the accent on the first, -^^: na.iima, pa- 

;tOCTHHH. 

5. The amphibrach (aM«i>ii6paxiH), formed of three 
syllables with the accent on the second, ^-^: 
npiiHUHa, u-fe-iyio. 



232 • RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

6. The anapcBst (aHanecT'L), formed of three 
syllables with the accent on the last, ^^-: HejiOBiKi,, 
BpeMena. 

J^o"°^'"J; 1 01. — The verse or line of poetry takes its name 
verses, {^q^^ ^^ nature of the feet of which it is composed. 
There are verses of six, five, four, three, two feet, 
and even of one, which are termed iambic, choraic, 
dactylic, ampJiibrachic, anapcestic, dactylo-choraic, 
a7iapcesto-iambic, according as they may be formed 
of a single one of these metres or of a combination 
of several. The lines which have not the same 
number of feet are termed fire verses (BO.iLHbie 
ctiixm). 

The verses most commonly employed in modern 
Russian poetry are the following: 

I. The Jiexameters or the dactylo-choraic verses 
of six feet, of which the four first are dactyls or 
trochees, the fifth a dactyl, and the sixth a trochee. 
This line is an imitation of the Greek and Latin 
hexameter, from which it differs only in the employ- 
ment of trochees instead of spondees, which do not 
exist in Russian. It is used in epic poems, especi- 
ally in such as are translations from the ancient 
languages. Ex. 

I ' — WW : _ u 

FeKTopi) repoii cl KO.iecHi'mbi ci, opyadeMi. cnpaHy.it Ha scm.ik) ; 
O'cTpbifl Konta KOjeS.ia, noTeKT> no pa4aMT> ono.iqeHiii. 
Bt> 6011 pacna.^aa Tpoani; 11 B03/Ken> jKecTOKym ci^y; 
Bcs o6paTH.«ict OTi dircTBa 11 CTa.111 bt. Jime ApriiBaHaMt. 



Prosody. — versification. 233 

2. The iambic verses of six feet, or alexandrine 
(ajieKcaHjupiiiCKie), are used in great compositions, 
such as epic and didactic poems, tragedies, come- 
dies, satires, epistles, elegies, idyls, &c. ; e. g. 

w— c—iv— |u— Ky— Ivy— I 

Yate Sj-BAHieiT, aghl, cKpbiBaacb 3a ropoto; 
UlyMamia cra^a TOJinaTCH HaAT> ptKofl. 

TKyKoecKiii. 

3. The iambic verses of five feet, but seldom 
used; e. g. 

Tm roBopuuiL, ^TO Myqyct naAi. ctiixomi, 
Ito He HHuiy ero, a cotohak). 

KHR3b BAaeMCKiu. 

The iambic verse of five feet is sometimes used 
alternately with that of six; e. g. 

KaKoe TopmecTBo roTOBHTi. ^peeHlH Phmi>? 
Ky^a leKyxT) napo^a uiyMHw bojhw? 

EdmfoiuKoez. 

4. The iambic verses of four feet are used in 
odes and other lyrical poems; and those of three, 
two and even a single foot, in songs and other light 
compositions ; e. g. 

TBI, qxo BT> ropecTH HanpacHO 
Ha Bora ponmeuib, ^e^OBiKi)! 

BHIIMau, KO.IL BT> peBHOCTII yHiaCHO 

Oht> kT) I'oBy ii3T> Ty^n peKT>. 



Yaie CO tmok) hoiiiii 
ripocTep.iacb TiiiUHHa; 
Bbixd4HTT> ii3T>-3a pdmii 
Heqa^LHaa .lyna. 



AOMOHOCOeTi. 



KanHUcrm. 



2 34 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

Ilrpaii, A4ejfc, 
He SHail ne^lin! 
XapiiTH, .le.ib 
Te6a B'BHqa.in. 



Aa. nfUlKUHZ. 



Ciynaii, 
Csbieaii 

Cl. .l-BCOBT. 

Bcbxtj ncoB-b 
Ha Kpafi 
All, aii! 

/lepoicdeuHZ. 

5 . The free iambic verses are employed in fables, 
tales, epigrams, epitaphs, inscriptions, &c.; e. g. 

Bt. npHxdateii na no.iy, 

Bt> yr.iy, 
nycTou M-BuioKi ea.ia.ica. 
y caMwxT, Hii3KHXT> ciyrt 
Oht> Ha odTiipny Hort Hep'B4K0 noMbiKa^aca; 
KaKT. B4pyn, 
M-BuioKT. Haun> bt. qecTb nona.!ca, 
H Becb ^epeoimaMii HaSiin.: 

Bt> 0K6BaHH0M1> .^apui BT> COXpaHHOCTH jeH{HTT>. 

KphiJioez. 

6. The cJioraic or trochaic verses of six, five, 
four, three and two feet, sometimes of the same 
length and sometimes of a different length, are 
used in various poems. The choraics of four feet 
are chiefly used in songs; e. g. 



H-BTT. no4pyni HijKHOil, hstt, npe^ecTHOu .lilibi! 

Bee ocnpoTi.io! 
Ria^b, JrodoBb n ^PY'Kfit'' n.iaqb, TuMeHt yHtuwii! 

CqacTbe yMeii-io! 

EdmioiuKoez>. 



Prosody. — versification. 



235 



Eo^poez. 



/iMumpieez. 



/iMumpieed. 



CjaBLCfl, AjeKcaH^pt, E.iiicaBeTa, 
40 Be^epnefl TiixiixT> Aneii aapii; 
H cianie bt> CTpany no^CBiia 
Ct. BMCOTb'i npecTOja pacnpocxpii. 

CioHei'L cii3Hu ro^ySo^eKT., 
CxoHeTt OHT. H Aenb 11 iioit; 
MiLieHbRiii ero ApyJKeqem, 

OTAGT-hATy ndAOATO npO^IB. 
BCBXt UB'BTOqKOB'L 66 A% 

Posy a jK)6iLn>; 
E'k) To^fcKO B^ no.i^ 
Baopt Moil Bece.«i.i^. 

Mm cepAuaMii 

H cjesaMii 

Mo.iiiM^ Bac^, 

Bora rniBd 

H 3peBa, 

Bt. cipaiuHMH ^acL. 

KapaMSiim. 

7. The dactylic verses, composed of dactyls alone, 
are only used with two, three or four feet, when 
longer they become fatiguing to the ear; e. g. 

_OW _UW —WW —WW , 

BoHce! Ltapa xpami! 
CiutHUM, Aep«aBHbiri, 
I^apcTByfl Ha c.iaBy HaMi.; 
lJ,apcTByH Ha CTpaxT> BparaMT.; 
I|apB npaBOCiasHbur. 
BoHte! I^apa xpami! - 



AOMOBHiaa jacTOTCa! 
Ma^CHbKa, CHSeHbKa niikKa! 
FpyAL KpacHodi-ia, KOcaio^Ka, 
.liraaa rociba, nsHiiqKa! 



MyKoecKiU. 



/lepo/cdeuHZ. 



236 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

Poaa Ab, Tbi pdaoiKa, posa 4yuiiicTaa, , 
Bc^M'L TM Kpacaeima, poaa ub-btoki, 
Beflca, nAeiuca. ct> MiAeeu ii jiaHAwmeMi., 
Beflcfl, njeiHca bt. moh nLiiuHwii b-bhokt,. 

EapoHZ /leAoeuzz. 

8. The dactylo-choraic verses of four, three and 
two feet, are more commonly met with than the 
pure dactylics, and are used in songs, odes and 
other lyric poems; e. g. 

Fa-b th, npenpacHaa, r4'B odHiaeuitV 
TaMT> JH, FA'S nicHH noeTT> <I>HjoMeja, 
KpoTKaa Hoqii ntBiiua, 
Ciua Ha MiipTOBOu b-btbh? 

KapaM3um. 
n^ejKa 3.iaTaa, 

^TO Ttl JKyHtHdilUL? 

Bee BKpyrT) Jieiaa, 
Ilpoqi. He .leTiiniB. 

/lepjicdeum. 

9. The amphibrachic verses of six and five feet 
are employed in idyls, epistles, elegies; and those 
of four, three and two feet in various lyrical com- 
positions; e. g. 

Bt, qacBi nnpoBaHta, npn cia^ocTHOMi niHin cipyH-B ojKHB^ieHHBixT,, 
yHbiHie MpaiHO Ha MHri ne ociaBiuo Mi'uaro rocia. 
CnsAaioma ropecTL .lejKiiT'L r^iydoKo bt> ero cep^U'B! 
yMojKHHTe, nicHii! Aa ^liCTyio paAOCit paSA-BjaxT, cor.iacno. 

MepajiRKoeTt. 

Bja^biKa MopeeHbi 
^Khjit. Bt Ai^oBCKOMT, saMR-B Mory^lft Op^a^ix. 

Ha/n> osepoM-L ciiHti 
Sydiartia 3aM0KT> cb xo.iMa B03Bbiu]a.n>. 

TKyKdecKW. 



Prosody. — versification. 237 

Bt. to BpeMfl CT. eecHOH) 
.IrodoBb Hact HtAa.ia: 
Bt TO BpeMa .... CO mhoh) 
no4pyra wnja. 

Mux. ^Mumpieez. 

10. The anapcBstic verses from one to four feet 
are used in odes and also in fables j e. g. 



EocMOTpii, 

H 4ep5KH TM BT, yMS, 

Heci MyH{HKi> ny^a Tpn 
Ha npoAaacy CBHHi^y bt. Hedo^buioft kotom-b. 

CymapoKoez. 

The anapaestic line is sometimes used alternately 
with the amphibrachic ; e. g. 

He CTpeMHCL AodpoA'BTe.ib nanpacHO 

.IioAefl 0TT> HenpaB4M ynflTb. 
Bt, Hiixt nopoKH n^o^aTca Bce^iacHO: 

Hejb3a Hxt HiiiiM-L HcnpaBjaTb. 

EozdaHoeuKZ. 

II. The anapcesto-iavibic verses are oftener em- 
ployed than the above rnentioned; e. g. 

WW — w — jww — w — 

Tbi fi-Bni, d-Bni, Haun> s.iOAiii ott. eaci.; 
He Aa^iiMT. Tedi nopyraTbca naM-b. 
Tbi B3r.iaHii, BSrjaHii na co.iAaTi. cbohxt> 
MeHCAy peSepi. hxt. y)KT> Tpasa pacTCTi.. 

UlyjieriHUKoe'b. 

102. — The ccesiira (npecfeHenie) is a rest which caesura. 
divides the line of poetry into two parts, each of 
which is called a hemistich or half verse. This 
rest, which is only found in the iambic verses of 



238 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

six and of five feet, and in the trochaic verses of 
six feet, requires the word to be finished after the 
third foot in lines of six feet, and after the second 
in lines of five. Ex. 

Es-b Mpa^Htixi H'BAP'B 3eMHbixT> ! HCx64nTT> OypHBifl n.iaMeHb; 
KycTapmiKH ApoH^ait, KaMent dteica KaMenb. 

XepdcKoez. 

H milTT. II Me^T. 6pOCaH)TT> CT> SHaMGHaMH; 

BeSAi nyTii \ noKpb'iTu hxx KOCiaMii. 

HCyKoecKiii. 

S^xcb FuMeHT) npiiKOBaHT,, (iA%mh\\i H 6e3r.iacHbiH, 
FacFiTT) y rpodHiiubi cboh CB-BTiUbHUKi) flCHbiii. 

EdmwiuKoez. 

Though it is not absohitely necessary that the ccesura should 
be always marked so distinctly, still the syllable terminating 
the first hemistich can never be united with that commencing 
the second; thus the caesura can never come between a pre- 
position and its complement. 

Termination 103. — The Syllable terminating a line of poetry 
verses, may be either strong or accented, or it may be 
weak or unaccented. In the former case the termi- 
nation is masculine, and in the latter feminine] e. g. 

.-IioS.iH), .iH)6iiTb BBtKT. 6y4y ! /^W- i^^^' 
K.iainiie cipacib mow, masc tertn. 

Be3/Ka.i0CTHbia AyuiH, fefti. term. 

/KecTOKia cepAUa! itiasc term. 

KapaM3um. 

From this double termination it results that lines of the 
same metre have not always the same number of syllables. 
Iambic verses of six feet have twelve syllables with the 
masculine termination, and thirteen with the feminine; those 
of four feet have eight syllables with the masculine and nine 



Prosody. — versification. 23 9 

with the feminine. Choraic verses of four feet have seven 
syllables v^'ith the masculine termination, and eight with the 
feminine. The same rule applies equally to the other verses. 

104. — The uniformity of sound in the words termi- Khyme. 
nating lines of poetry forms rhyme (pneMa), which 
is also masculine or fefninine, according to the ter- 
mination of the verse; e. g. 

Ktu 6y4eTi> npHHiiMaTB MOii nene.iL ott> Kocpia?! 

.. . , / , . . , ^ \ masc. rhyme. 

Kto oy4eTT> oe3T> leofl, Miuaa cecipa, j 

3a rpoSoMT. wi^oeaTt bt> 04e5KA'B iiorpeda.ibHOH, 1 . , 

xr , . . . .. n > fern, rhyme. 

n Mvpo ii3.inBaT£. Ha4T> ypnoio ne.ia^ibHOii t* j 

EdmroiuKoe'b. 

Rhymes were introduced into the poetry of such modern 
tongues as could not imitate the Greek and Latin versification, 
because, the language of poetry differing in them but little 
from prose, something was requisite to please the ear; in 
Russian however, where the accent is strongly marked and 
supplies the place of quantity, rhyme is not absolutely neces- 
sary; the same is the case in English and German, while in 
French rhyme is indispensable. Poetry without rhyme is called 
blank verses (6i.lbie CTiiXii). Verses which in Russian poetry 
are always written without rhyme, are the hexameters and 
those imitating metres of the ancient languages. 

105. — According to the various combinations of^^J"J'\°'" 
the masculine and feminine rhymes, they are devided 
into consecutive' (napHBie ctiixh), alternate (nepe- 
CTvnHBie) and mixed (cM-BinaHHLie). This combina- 
tion of rhymes is used chiefly in stanzas. A stanza 
or strophe consists of a number of verses express- 
ing a complete idea. It varies in length from four 
to fourteen lines. We here give an example of 
the strophe of four lines in alternate rhymes, and 
another of the strophe of fourteen Hnes, in mixed 
rhymes and choraic metre. 



240 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



Bee BOKpyn> yHb'i.io! ^yib 3e*ripi. BeceHHifi 

naMaTHiiKT> .iod3aeTT> ; 
SAtCb Ely HdLinm-B Riaia, Tiixiu CMepiii reniu 

Posy o6pLiBaeTX. 

BdnifoiuKoez. 

Pa3i BT, KpemeHCKiil BeqepoKi 

^iByiiiKii ra^a-iu: 
3a Bopoia 6auiMa^6KT>, 

CnaBt CT) Honi, 6poca.«i; 
ChtTl, UOAOAU; noAT> okhomi 

Ciyma.iii; KopMii.iw 
C^cTHbiMt Kypimy aepHOMi,; 

fl'pKiil BOCKT> Tonii.m; 
Bt> qauiy CT> qiicTOW 804611 
K.ia.iH nepcieHb 30.101611, 

Cepbrn n3yMpyAHbi; 
Pa3CTii.ia.in d-B-ibifi n.iaii, 
II Ha4'b lameii ni.m Bb .laAi 

niceHKH noA6.iK)4Hbi. 

^KyKoecKiU. 



Poetic 
licenses. 



102. — In following the above rules of versification 
the poet is at time compelled to sacrifice some of 
the minor principles of grammar, to syncopate ter- 
minations, and to place words in an inverted order. 
These sacrifices to number, harmony, rhyme and 
elegance, are termed poetic licenses (cTiixoTBopHeCKia 

BO.IbHOCTIl). 



CORRECT CONSTRUCTION 



EXERCISES 



We started for Potsdam on horseback yesterday at six Reading- 
Exercise, 
o'clock in the morning. Nothing can be duller than this road; -p. i8. 

there is nothing but deep sand everywhere and not a single 
object of interest meets the eye. The view of Potsdam how- 
ever, and particularly that of Sans-Souci is very fine. We 
stopped at an hotel, before arriving to the gates of the town. 
After resting ourselves and ordering our dinner, we entered 
the town. At the gate our names were written down. On the 
parade square, opposite the palace, which is adorned with 
Roman colonnades, the guards were exercising: the men are 
superb, and the uniforms splendid. The view of the palace 
from the garden is very fine. The town is generally speaking 
well built; in the principal street there are several magnificent 
houses constructed on the plan of the largest palaces of Rome 
at the expense of the late king: he gave them to any one 
he chose. At present these vast edifices are empty or only 
occupied by soldiers. — At Potsdam there is a Russian church 
under the care of a Russian soldier, who has lived there 
from the time of the Empress Anne. We had some difficulty 
in finding him. The decrepit old man was seated in a large 
arm-chair, and having heard that we are Russians, he extended 
his hands towards us and exclaimed with a trembling voice: 
"Glory to God! Glory to God!" He tried at first to speak 

i6 



242 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

with us in Russian; but we had difficulty in understanding 
each other. We were obliged to repeat almost every word. 
"Let us go into the temple of God", said he, "and let us pray 
together, though there is no church festival to-day." My 
heart was filled with devotion, when I saw the door of this 
church opened, where solemn silence has reigned so long, 
scarcely broken by the low sighs and the feeble voice of the 
old man in prayer, who comes every Sunday to read in this 
spot the holiest of books, which prepares him for a happy 
eternity. In the church every thing is neat and clean. The 
books and the church ornaments are kept in a trunk. The 
old man arranges them from time to time reverently praying. 
"It often grieves me to the heart", said he, "to think that after 
my death, which cannot be far distant, no one will take care 
of this church." We remained half an hour in this holy spot ; 
then bidding the venerable old man adieu, we wished him a 
peaceful death. Karamzin. 

Exercises on XoSflHHt Ca^a U XOSflllKa AOMa. Ca^t X03ailHa II AOMt 
declension of . „ , . . . . , . , , 

substantives XOaailKII. PLlKaHlG .ltBOBT>; nSHie CO.IOBLfl; MHiaHie OMKa, BO.ia 

P- 5^- II KopoBLi; pjKaHie .lOuiaAeii; .lail co6aKii; BopnoBaHbe ro.iyda; 
KiipKaHLe BopoHOB-L; KBaKaHbe .laryiueKi; boiI Bo.iKa; HtyHC/Kame 
nqe.n>, HcyKOBi ii MyxT>; C.ieaHie SapanoB-L h OBei^T>. KaMimi, 
6e3i. orHH; OKHa 6e3T> ctcko.ii; Kama deat Mac.ia; CBA-ia 6e3T> 
CTpeMeHT>; 3apa4i> 6631. ny.iii; ocipoBa ii .lyra 6631. AepcBLesi.; 
riOBapa, Kyiepa ii padoiHHKii 6e3L pa6dTLi; xiiw 6e3T> Maiepn; 
co.i4aTbi 6e3-b pyjKeii; pyacba 6e3i> KpeMHeil: cfaTva 6e3i> pyKT> 
II 6e3i> yuieii; MeABSHvaia ii .itBeiiKii 6e3i> uiepcTii; Kopa6.ui 
6e3T) K6eKT>; cyAa dest Bece.n>; qaft 6e3'i> caxapa ii 6e3T, ciii- 
BOK-L. IlyKi. nepBeB-L; AEOHdiiia qameKi., Tape.iOKT> n CTaKaHOBT>; 
coTHa *ope.ieH; MecaTOKt awhb; MHO/KecTBO ryceii, yTOKT> h 
.ledeACfl; ciaAa CKOia; TaSyHt'i .lomaAefi. MyjKH ApeBHOCXii, ii 
MyjKbH HfeHT,. D.B'BTbi caAOB-b, H w^ik paAyni. .IiiCTb'i 6yMarii, 
n jiiCTba AepeBT,. 3y6bi bo piy, ii 3y6ba y rpeSna. Ko-iina 
H3paii.ibTain., ko.i-biiii y ^e.iOB-BKa, ii KO.iiHba pacTenia. .Iobt> 
ce.ibAeii y deperoBi. AMepuKii (suxh oienb Bb'iroAeH'b A-ia AHr.iii- 
qaHT>, IIlBeAOBT>, Fo.i.iaHAueB-b ii 4>paHqy30BT>. . 

CoB'BTT> ApysbHMi.. CiaBa Bory. Tope eparaMi.. JIpnKas-b 
BofiCKy. IIoBiiHOBeHie sanoiiaM^. ^^ail •BCib rycHMT., KvpaMi,, 
r6.iy6flMi> ii meHKaji-b. IIocTynaTb cooTBircTBeHHO npaBii.iaM-b 



CORRECT CONSTRUCTION OF THE EXERCISES. 243 

»iecTn. /KuTb npii.iiiiHO cocioaHiK). SaKoiib, 4aHHLifl KaKb 

JBOpiiHaMT,, laKT. II M^maHaML. flpOTliBIITLCa )KejaHiflMT> A-BTeil, 11 

Bo.is po4iiTe.ieii. KHiini; nepta 11 Teipa^ii npHHa4.ie/KaTT. y qeHiiKaMi, 
a He yqiiTe.iflMT>. Ho.ih 11 .lyra npnHa4.ie/KaTT> omy 11 Maiepii, a 
ca4w, Kant 11 .itca, ctmoBBaMt 11 4oqepa]vn>. HpaBiiTtca Mym- 
qi'iHaMi, II He HpaBiiTLca HceHmimaMi. Se^enb iipaBiiTca r.iasaMt. 
KapTiiiiM Hpaeaica cecipaMt, a UBtTW SpaitaMT.. IIo.ieSHtiu 
OTe^ecTBy; npiaTHbiil Bory h ji04aMT.; BipHbifi rocy4apK); 
.iH)6e3HLiii 4py3i.HMi.; MiUbiii 4'BTaM'b. ^e.iOB-BKT. nosHaeTCfl no 
.limy, no r6.iocy, no pociy, no nox64K'B 11 no TiB.i04BiiH{eHiaMi>. 
TypiiCTH nyiemecTByioTT, no IllBefmapin, 4>paHuiH, HTa.nH, Fep- 
Manin, AMepHK-B 11 Eniniy. 

BpaiLa KyniWH 40Ma, ca4bi, 4epeBHH) n noja, a np64a.iii 
dbiKOBi., KopoBT., .ioma4ei1 h napeiy. ^Hiaib dacHio, pncoBaib 
KapTHHy, niicaib niictMa, nrpaib nicHio, ^iiHiiib nepba. HoctmaTb 
6paTbeBT> H cecTepi., Maxepeii n 40iepeii, omesi 11 CbiHOBeil. 
KyniiTb m.iany n uianKy, nep^iaTKH u 6amMaKii, ^y.iKii 11 n04Ba3Kn. 
SaBoeBaie.ib no6'£4ii.n> BoiicKa, h noKopii.ii> HapoAi.. Deip-b 
pa36ii.n> IllBe40Bi., saBoeea.n, 3cT.iaH4iK) n Au^aAbaiv), ocHOBa.n. 
r6po4T, CaHKinexepdypn. , n npocB-BxiLn, Pocciio. PocciaHe 
no6^7KASLAii Taxap-b, TypoKi, lllBe40BX, 4>paHuy30Bi. 11 HepciflHT.. 
4oiK4ri ocB-BHcarox-b 3eM.iK), a X0wi04a ncxped.iaiox'b capaniy. 

4'Bxii, 6y4bxe npH.ie)KHbi ! HsaH'b, npiiuii CH)4a I Bohhm, cpayKafi- 
xecb xpadpo! BoHce, cnacii I^apa! r6cno4n, noMiLiyfi Mena! 

y^eHiiKii nHuiyxi rpii^e.ieMi. ii.ni nepoMX. n ^epniuaMn. Ileani 
urpaexx. ex. A.ieKcieMX) 11 ex. BaciuieMx., a Mapba nrpaexx. ex. 
C6*be^ u ex, .IiodoBbK). Ilnporx. ex. MHH4a.ieMx; ropmoKX, ex. 
HB-BiaMH; Ka4Ka ex. B046H); lejOBiKX. ex. yMOMX. h ex. renieMX.; 
ra.iepeH ex. KapTiinaMii. ropo4a ex. KpeM.ieMx, h raBaubio; 
4epeBba ex. .iiieibaMH, UB'BTaMH 11 n.i04aMii; KHsepa ex. ey.ixa- 
HaMH; KOMHaia ex. 4BepaMH; x.i'Bdx. ex. eo.ibio; B04a ex. bhhomx.; 
BiiHo ex. B04610; npo^-eceopa ex. yiemiKaMH; niiebMo ei. 4eHb- 
raMn. Pneosaxb KapaH4aiueMx. , niieaxb Kiiexbio u KpaeKaMii. 
Kyneqx. lopryei^ ea.ioM'b, Mb'uoMx,, mo.iokomx., MyKoio, Kpynoio, 
BiiHaMH, DHBOM'L, eyKHaMH, no.ioTHaMH li KpyateBaMu, a eoei4H 
Kyniia lopryioTx. BO.iaiviii, dapanaMn n .iouia4bMii. ^Bopuw ex. 
damiiaMn; qepKBU ex. KO.iOKO.ibHaMu; 40Ma ex. OKnaMu; 34aHia 
eb ra.iepeaMii; no.iKii ei. SHaMeHaMii. Fopbi nsodii.iyioTx. 36.10- 
T031X., eepedpoMi, MB4bK); H;e.it30MX., pxyibio ii CBimueMx.. 

16* 



2 44 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

BacHH 6biKi u dapans, odi. ocii ii co.iobl-b; o KySHeqHK-B 

II MypaBbi; 4y6'B » ipOCTHIIKi; O .WCl'm-B II BOpOH-B, BO.IK'B 

H arHeHK'B. CKaSKii o6t> aiire.i-B-xpaHiiTe.is, o6t> IlBan-B ii Mapbt ; 
noB-BCTii Cepriii nycTb'iHHiiKt, o repo'B ii renin. FoBopiiTb 
o6i iirpaxT), o6t. yp6KaxT>, o BpeMCHii, o MicT-b, o6t. oSctoa- 
Te.ibCTBaxT>. Bt. coqiiHemii roBopaTT, Miioro o ^eciii ii deaieciiii, 
AodpoAtTe.iii n nopoK-b, o xpadpocin ii Ma.io^ymiii. Bt> BO^i 
HciiByTT> pb'idbi, jaryuiKii h ciiiSHn, a bt> .ncy /KiiByn, .ibBbi, 
Me4Bi4ii, Micmbi II saiiubi. 

KHiini yqennKa HpaBaica yqi'iTCiio. Cb-bti co.iHiia oaapaerb 
3eM.iH) .lyqaMii. IlB-bia posbi npiaxHbi rjaaaMi. 4py3i>^ ^e.iOBi- 
qecTBa Ai.iaioTx 4o6p6 .iio^aMi. Bt> ca^y UB'bTyT^ posbi c^ 
miinaMii; lido mi-b posbi desi miinoBT,. /[%m yaibiBaioTca 
B046K) p-BKii. CiaKaHi CT> B04610 ctoiiti Ha cioji KOMHaibi. 
Ciesti pa40CTH 6.iecTaTT> bt> r.iaaaxi Maiepii. CiaBa 3.i04'BeBi> 
Henp040.1aj1iTe.ibHa; HO HMena d.iaro4'bTe.ieft ciaioTi bt> Bi^iHOCTn. 
C^acxie na acM.ii coctoiittj bt> cnoKoucTBiii 4yxa 11 bx incTOii 
coBSCTH. lO'Homn aMrtl ninie co.ioBba, na depery pyiba, 
npii CBiT-B jynb'i. FoBopiiTb npaB4y ecTb 40.in> 4^x611. .'liodiiTb 
Bora cep4UeMT. n 4ym6io. MypaBbii 11 dodpb'i MdryTT> ciyHiiiTb 
npHMipoMT. qe.iOBiKy. noi34Ka bt, Mockb) ii bt. KieBi.. Bxo4^ 
BT> diid.iioxeKy 4.1a qxenia. no4ari yiiixe.iio TeTpa4b co cxnxaMU 
Ha c^Viafi npa34nnKa. Ha4odHO BCxaBaxb yxpoMi), padoxaxb 
4HeMi, 0X4bixaTb Be'iepoMi, 11 cnaxb Hoibio. TpoMi. nymeKT> 11 
3B0H'b ko.ioko.i6bt> B03B'bcxii.iii rpayK4aHaMT> npiidbixin nod'B4n- 
xe.ia BparoBi. oxe^iecxBa. 

Exercises on Ilycxoil KapMam>; KapMam> nycTT>. KpinKiit saMOKTj; aaMOKb 
tives.^ p.^83. KpinoKT). BipHbiil c.iyra; c.iyra dbi.n> Bipem,. MarKiil bockt>; 
B0CKT> MaroKT>. CnoKoiiHuii corn.; coht> cnOKoeH-bj 4ocx6nHbin 
cbiHT); cbim> 40cx6nHT.. IfcxnHnbiii 4pyn.; 4pyn> licxHRem,. 
CoBepmeHHbiil noKofi; noKoii dy4eTi. coBepmem.. Ilpospaqnoe 
cxeK.io; cxeKJo npospa^HO. /l^eBuee npe4aHie; npe4aHie dbi.io 
4peBHe. Ten.ioe .lixo; .lixo dy4ex'b lenjo. Tynoenepo; nepo 
Tvno. Bexxaa xiiJKima; xiimma Bexxa. Ciinaa dynara; dyMara 
CHHH. HoBbie 40Ma; 40Ma hobw. Boraxbia ceMbii; ceMbii db'i.in 
doraxbi. Kpacnwa SHaMena; 3HaMeHa dy4yTT. KpacHW. 

Bi^aa dynara; d-B.iiiiuiaa dynara; canaa di.iaa dyMara. 
Hesa dbicxpa, a Bo.ira dbicxpie. Mo.ioko H{ii4K0, a B04a jKii/Ke. 
r.iydoKift pyqeii; r.iydoqaflmaa psKa, 4oMa BbicoKn, a damnn 



CORRECT CONSTRUCTION OF THE EXERCISES. 245 

Bbime. Xopouiiu ^aii; .iyq:mi» ^afi; caMwil .lyimiil ^aii. Co6aKn 
Ma.ibi; KoiuKii MeHtme; ho Mb'iuiii Ma.iiiimia. OTeut m6jo4t>; 
Maib MO.ioH^e; HO cecTpa caMaa M0.i04aa. Cino 4oporo, a co- 
.lOMa AopoHje. Mo.iOKu ciaAKO; caxapT> ciame; ho Me4'b cawbift 
i\ia4Kiii. 

B'BJOBaTaa dyMara; SypoBaxbia qepniua; qepHOBaiaa B04a; 
Kpacna ciiHeBaia. BypeHbKaa KopoBKa; Ma.ieHbKaa ^oma4Ka'; 
n-BreHbKaa .lomajKa; Oi4HeHbKaa 4'BBO^Ka; CTapnqeKi ciapeHeKi: 
ciapyuiKa 466peHbKa. IlpeOi^iafl 6yMara; dyaiara du.iexoHbKa ; 
npecyxifl 4poBa; 4poBa cyxouieHbKH. 

Xo3HnHT> oduiiipHbix-b ca46BT>, u xosfluKa HOBaro 40Ma. Cia- 
KaH'b xopouieii B04bi n Kpacnaro BHHa; Hi.ibie ropuiKii CBHHdro 
ca.ia n e.ioBoii CMO.ib'i. 4'^^iau 4o6p6 6i4HbiMT) 4'BTaMT> n 4pax.!biM'b 
CTapHKaMT>, n ne X04ii no qyiKUMb no.iaMT>. Bott> 40Mt> Knasa 
4ojropyKaro ; BOi-b 4Bopeu'b rpa^i'iHii Towicioit, a bott> oduiiipHbie 
ca4b'i ^10^104^x1. Fpa^OB-b 3aBa46BCKuxT>. fl 4HBH.ica npiaiHOMy 
oiHiK) npom.ior64Haro co.iOBba. ^HHiiib je6e4iiH0e nepo TynbiMT> 
HoHCHKOMT). BoTT> ryciiHbia nepba, KpacHbie KapaH4amii, xojCTbia 
TeTpa4H, 4y66Bbia .HmiuKH n 6o.ibUjie i^iipKyjii, a bott. cyKOHHbie 
Ka^iaHbi, Ta*T>iHbie n.iaTKii, me.iKOBbie qy.iKii, nyxoBbia m.ianbi, 
ToHKia no.ioTHa n TOHqafimia KpyaveBa. .1k)6h nenopo^Hbie 
HpaBbi; mnia no.ieSHbia KHiini; qin CTapbiXT> .11046 li; XBa.Hi 
466pbia 4'B.ia; depeni qeciHaro n Bipnaro c^yry. no4apu 
HOByw KHiiry caaioMy npiLiea{HOMy y^ieHiiKy. Tbi XBa.inuib 
BeceHHiOH) nor64y, acHOCib .i-BTHnxT> Hoqeil, oceHHWio npox.ia4y 
u 3iiMHie xo.i04a. fl yBaH{aK) c.iaBHbixT> MyHteft 11 3HaMeHiiTbixT> 
no.iKOBojueB'b 4peBHnx'b BpeMeHi.. Bo.ibuiie MaHespbi HbiHS- 
uiHaro r64a 6y4yTT> bt> KpacHOMi, Ce.i-B n na 4y4epro*CKOii Fopt. 

Oht> Bbi-Bxa.!!, \\3T> oxqeBa 46Ma, 11 4'B.!aeTT> 4odp6 cecTpoHOH 
46qepH. Ofl-b np64aj'b jKeHHHO HMinie dparaiiHy cb'my. IIo- 
c-Bmaib rocn64Hn xpaMw n BoHvin HepKBn. HoBiiHOBaTbca Toc- 
n64Heil BOA-h, 11 noSHaBaib Be.iiinecTBO B6}Kia liMGHii. IlepBaa 
PyccKaa FpaMMainKa dbi.ia Haniicana deacMepTHbiM-b .Iomoho- 
coBbiMT,, II PoccifiCKaa Ilciopia HiiKOjaeM-b Mnxaii.ioBiiqeMT> 
KapaM3nHbiMT>. CpaH{eHia Cb 4>paHqy3aMu nponcxo4ii.iu no4T> 
Bop04nHbiMi) n 0041* EopiicoBbiM-b. H /KiibIit. bt, HoBtr6po4-B 
II Bi) Bt4'B63ep'B. 4^P"^'^"" KHaniHii CajTUKOBoii .leacan, no4T> 
r6po40MT> KamiiHbiMT>. 



246 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

BoT-L .iiicLa my6a, codo.iba uianKa, niiiibe rH-BSAo, saa^Lii 
M-Bxa II cwHOBBii 3) 6ti. TlYA'h o^ieHbaro Maca, apmim'L BO.ioBLeil 
KoacH, II *yHTT, Te.ia%iixT> Moaroei). He xoAii no eo.iqLiiMb 
CA'h/i.m'b, H He BxoAii bt> MeABijKbio dep.iory. PaacyjKAeme o 
qe.jOB'BibeMi. rjaa-B ii o pbiObeft ro.iOBi. Oht> xopryei-b pbi6biiMi. 
KAeewb, 6biiaibiiMT> cLiom-b, Kosbiiivin uiKvpaMii ii n^BTyuibiiMn 
rpe6HaM«. 

XBaciym noxom'b na coio, yKpameHHyio naB.iiiHbiiMii nepbaiMii. 
Cocbaobtj Opaii npi-Bxa.iTj ii3t> Aa.ibHaro ropoAa, a cecipa iisb 
4a.ibneri 4epeBHii. IIuanoBO n.iaxbe ySKO, ho rieipoBO eme y/KC. 
/46opeHbKaa ciapymKa HcnBeit b-l cwpoMi aoms, jexameMTj 
no4T> lJ[aprmbiHbiMT> ce^joMT.. R Kynii.n> MeABiHibio my6y ci 
6o6p6BbiM'b BopoTHHKOMi, II OodpoByK) uianKy ct> me.iKOBOK) 
jieHTOH). BoTT> npeKpacnaa KHiira bt> 6oraTOMT> co*BaHHOMT. 
nepenjiei-B. Fa-b HaiueMi, mbi npiiMipij qiicTifimaro caMOOTsep- 
Hvenia, Bbicmeii aio6bii kb oTeiecTBy? 

Exercises >' qe^JOB-BKa OA»HT> a3bIKT>, 04HHT. HOCT>, ABa TjaSa, 4Ba VXa, 

on the - . , , t 

numerals. A^'^ meKH, m% pyKH, ^B-fi HOHI, AGCaTb najbUeBT> Ha pyKS II 

p-97- AecaiB najBiieBT> na Hori, TpiiAuaib 4Ba 3y6a, ii ceMb no3BOH- 
k6bt>. BT) BncoK6cHOMT> r04y ^eibipe BpeMenu, AB-BHajuaib 
MicaqeBT., naiBAecaT'b ab'B hba-b.iii ii ^sa 4Ha, ii.ui Tpiicia 
uiecTb/iecaT'b meciB AHeii, luii bocbmi ibicaiT. ceMbcon, b6- 
ceMbAecaii ^eibipe naca, luii naibcon, 4Ba/maTb ceaib ibicaib 
II cdpoK'b Miniyxi.. Bi> KHiir-B cto .iiictob-b 6e3T, 04Hor6. 06a 
dpaxa II oC-B cecxpb'i. Ilo^ixopa qaca, ii no.ixopbi Miinyxbi. 4^3 
py6ja CT. no^oBiinoK) ii xpii KoniilKH ciy no.iOBiiHOio. Bt> 6ep- 
KOBu-B 4ecaxB ny46B'b; bt> ny4'B copoKb <&yHX0BT>; bt> *yHxt 
xpiUuaxB 4Ba .loxa; bt> jiox-b xpii 3o.ioxHiiKa; bt> *yHx^ 4eBa- 
Hocxo mecxb so^ioxhukobti. 

/1,b-b nyxoBbia m.ianw, xpii mejKOBbie njaxna, iiexbipe nepo- 
qiiHHbie HoaviiKa, naxb *ap*6poBbixT> qameKX> ii mecxb npenpa- 
CHbix.1, KapxiiHT>. Giii 4Ba qepnbie Bopona, xt xpii dlibia nepa, 
Moii qexb'ipe HOBbia Kniirii; 3xii naxb pi3BuxT. 4'Bxeii. 0(5a 
6i4Hbie ciipoxbi II od-B HeciacxHbia cnpoxbi. /|,B6e ciyr-b, xpoe 
MacxepoBbixi., ^exBepo 4'BxeH, mecxepo co^iAaxi., 4b6ii ^lacbi, 
xpoii o^Kii, naxepbi iioHvHiiubi. IlepBbie no.ixopa qaca. IlepBbie 
c6poKT> 4Heii; Bxopoe cxo e^iiMKOB'b, ii nociiAnaa xb'icaqa 
r}\ib4eH0BT>. 



CORRECT CONSTRUCTION OF THE EXERCISES. 247 

K Kyiiiut OAHoro dbma 11 04Hy AouiaAh, oahhi ctoat, h oaho 
3epKajo. 4B^4UaTb oai'iht, pyd.ib, naTB4eca'n, 04Ha KoniiJKa. 
Tb'icflqa II 04Ha hoil. M0.1046H ^e-iOBtKT> Tpiuuani 04Hor6 r64a 
6e3T. 4Ba4uaTn 04Hor6 4Ha. He cy4H ^eAOniKii no 04HOMy 
npociynKy 11 no 04H6i1 omiidK-B. 0*nnep'b ct> 4Ba4uaTbib 04HiiMi 
C0J4aT0MT.. IleTpT> riepBbul H EKaiepiiHa Biopaa uapcTBOBa^in 
btj 0CbMHa4uaT0MT> BiK-B. lLlBe4bi yBajKaioTi Kap^a 48^44113- 
xaro, a 4>paimy3bi nociaBiuii naMaiHHKT. FeHpiixy ^eiBepiOMy. 
CxaibH 6bua ni'icana naTHa4uaTaro micAk HnBapa Micaua ibicaia 
B0ceMbc6TT> 4Ba4uaTb ipeibaro r64a, 11 npoHSmecxBie OTiiociiTca 
K-L mecTOMy b-bky, a iiMeimo kt> naibcon. ceMb4ecaT'b ipe- 
TbGMy r64y. 

lIlKam> Cb 4H)iKHH0K) *ap*6pOBbIXT> TapeJOKT>, HJli Cb 4B'B- 

Ha4uaTbK) ^ap^opoBbiMH lape^iKaMu. /tpoH^KH, aanpajKennbia 
napoK) BopoHb'iXT> .lomaAeii, iLiii 4ByMa BopoiibiMn J0ma4bMii; 11 
Kapeia, sanpaJKeHiiaa mecTbio pb'miiMH ^oma4bMii, uaii mecxep- 
KOK) pbiHJiix'b .ioiiia4eii. r6po4'b Aemih-b 0TCH)4a bt, ibicaqt 
BepcTT,, ce.i6 bo cia Bepciaxi, a 4epeBHa bt, copoKi Bepciax-b. 
Bt> MocKBi 6buo Tbicaqa mecTbcon, uepKBefi, luii copoKi, co- 
poKOBT, nepKBeu. H 40B6.ibCTByH)Cb 0CbMii4ecaTbH) pyC.iaMii (iLiii 
4ByMa copoKajnH pySjieii) bt> M-Bcam,, to ecTb 4eBaTbK) ciaMH 
mecTii4ecaTbK) pyS.iajun bt, r04T,. Oht, ne 40HviiBeTT, 40 copoKa 
jcBTT,; II ona yMep.ia copoKa ipexT, .i'Btt,. Ona 40B6.ibHa copoha 
KontiiKaMH, H ona y4iiBruacb cia KapxiiHaMii. Oht, ne MojKen, 
npoaciiTb Men-be cia Tb'icaqT, py6.iefl bt, ro4T>. r6po4T, Cb 
4ByMa SamnaMH; KOM64T, ct, mecTbib amiiKaMH; 40511 ct, copoKa 
oKHaMn; KpinocTb co cia nyuiKaMn'; nepKOBb naiii r.iasaxT,; 
40MT, TpexT, apycaxT,; 4epeBHa ct, ^eibipbMa BiipanbiMn 
MejfbHnuaMn. H ak)6aio paBHo 06611XT, CbmoBeft n o6'Bhxt> 
40qepeH. Oht, HM-Beii, ^leTBepo 4'BTeii, a ona ociaBiua naiepo 
ciipoTT,. Moii dpaiT, ne moft, c.ia4HTb ct, aiHMn 4ByMa ynpaMbiMii 
.ioma4bMii. Oht, mwb 46.110 ct, cboiimh naibib 4B0ibp04HbiMH 
dpaiLaMH. Kt. 3'TOMy Mili.doHy CTapwxT, IIpyccKnxT, e^i'iMKOBT, 
Ha4odHO npndaBiiTb Tbicaiy t'Bxt, hobmxt, pyd.ieil. 

KajK40My no cxy pyd-ieft 11 no copoKy KonieKT.. Bt, h-bko- 
TopbiXT, M-BcanaxT, no Tpmiiaiii 4Hefl, a^BT, 4pyriixT, no TpiuuaTii 
04H0My 4HH). Bt, Ka}K40MT, capa-B 6biA0 no 4B'B Kapeibi, a bt, 
Ka}K40fl Kapei-B no ipn MyHC^ihibi n no ^leibipe HceHmnHbi. KaHC- 
40My no ciy no 4eBaH0CTy pyd.ieil 11 no copony no naiii KoniSKT,. 



248 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

y Hact no 4Ba4uaTn no ceMii ohkobi. KaHi4aa qacib coquHema 
npo4aeTca no no.iyiopy pyd.ia cepedp6MT>. 

Ilo yipy He aoajHho cy4iiTb no.iy4Hii. Bt, nepewe no.i4Ha 
OUT. He 3Ha4T. 1T0 4t.!aTb. Bt qeiLipe laca no no.iyHoqn, n.iii 
BT> naib qacoB-L no no4y4Hii. 3'to c.iyiii.iocb B-b noc.i'B4Hie 
n6.iro4a Twcaqa BOceMbcoit copoKi, ^eTBepiaro r64a. FlepBbie 
no.iqaci npoui.ui cnoKofiHO. Bt> npo40.i/KeHie nepBHXT> nojyiaca. 
3a MHOK) 6b'uo no.iTopacia Tbicfm-b pyS.ieii ro40Baro 40x64a. 
Exercises fl ,!K)6jib leda, a Tbi MCHa o6n/Kc4emb. Mbi ysaJKaeM-b erd, 

on the , ^ , -,r . , , ^ . 

pronouns, a Ce MM wnoonM-b 4yuieBH0. y Mena MHoro 4eHen>, a y leoa 
p. 107. jj^^^ jjjj KoniuKH. 3acTyniiCb 3a nerd, 11 nona4'Brica na nee. 
nocn4ii CO MHOH), n npiixo4ii ct. hhmi. CKajKii eil, ^1061. ona 
npnuua ko mh^. Be3T> Hero, 6e3'b nefl n desi sacb }Kii3Hb mh^ 
CKy^na. H^ne Biiaty hxt>, a a C4i.iaio ece aao. mixb. Mm 
yBajKaeM-b Bac^, a bm 3a6b'i.Hi nacx. By4b bo mh-b yBipeH-b: a 
noroBopib leSi. Mhb npiaino dbiib ct> neio. H ne 40B'BpaH) 
ce6-B, a Tbi 40B6jeHT> codoio. Mm depeaceiMT. ce6a, a ohii cedi Bpe4aTT>. 

Moil SpaTT), TBoa cecipa h ero cmht> bm-bct-b yqii.iHCb. H 
ciapaiocb yro4iiTb sameMy yqiiie.iH) 11 Hauieiviy CMOTpiiiejio. 
Moil 40MT> KpaciiB-Be TBoero, a leoa codana Menbuie Moeil. fl 
/KHBy 6e3T> mixi, 11 Mory odoiiTiicb desi. iixt> noMomii. He 
XBajiicb CBOiiMH Tpy4aMii, a no4yMari CBOiix-b j-Biax-b. flo- 
4011411 K-b MoeMy CTOjy, 11 no4apri 4eHen> CBoeii cecip-B. Mbi 
roBopiiM'b cBOiixT> 4'B.iax^, a bm samiMaeiecb cboiimt. ypoKOMi' 
y^enie rdpbKO, ho n.i04M ero c.ia4Kii. Tboi'i ca4M npeKpacHbi; 
a y4nB.iaiocb iix-b KpacoiaMi. 

BiUnuib .III axy codaKy n aioro KOia, ainx^ AWAcn n t'Bxi 
4epeBbeBT.? Bt, s'thxt. seauaxi. h-bti 36jOTa, h bt. t-bx-b h-btt, 
cepedpa. H c.ibiiua.i'b 3to oi-b samero dpaia, ho a aiOMy 11 e 
BipK). H XBa.iib same naMipeme; 4aBH6 a npe4Bii4'B.i'b onoe. 
^aBHo .111 TM /KUBeiub B-b ceM^ r6po4'B? H y4HBjaK)Cb aiOMy 
ca4y, a TOT-b .lyquie. 3'th nepba lynbi; ciii 40Ma KaivieHHbie; 
T-B yjimbi ySKH. TaKie r.ia3a npoHiinaTe.ibHbi ; laKia 4'B.ia He 
npnHocai'b qecra. TaKOBM .110411. 

^e.iOB'BK'b, KOToparo bm BiUiiie, o^enb yMem,. Kniira, ko- 
Topyio BM qniaeie, o^enb npiaina. H 3Haio 4'B.io, KOTopoMT* 
Bbi roBopiiie. Bo4a, KOiopoio a Mowcb, o^enb xo.io4Ha. Bepenicb 
Tord, KTO .ibCTnTT> ledi. Tott>, y Koro mhofo 4'B.ia, ne 
4yMaeTT> sadasaxi). y^iiiecb lOMy, ^erd bm ho snaeie. 



CORRECT CONSTRUCTION OF THE EXERCISES. 249 

BoTi laKoe cyKHo, KaKoe a Kyniut. KaK6BT> 6bU'h Boenaqa^b- 

HIIKT), TaKOBb'l II BOHHM. BOTT> ^pyn., BT) qLHXT> pyKaXT> MOH 

cy4b6a. G.iymarica Toro, bt> ^heub AOMi th mwb. Boit KHiira, 
KaKiixt mAao, II cjyiail, KaKoewe p-BAKii. 

KoToptiii iiacT>, II BT. KOTopoMt ^lacy npifiAeuib? KaKiiMii 
KHiiraMH saHHMaeuibca, 11 Kanie moa^ za'^cl Htiieyxb? no4'b 

KOTopblMT. Haiia.lbIIHKOMT> TbI CJyHtHIIIb, H KaKOMy flSblKy Tbi 

yqiiuibca? Hbii am 40Ma? Gt. qberd nosBOjeHia ibi Bb'iiue-n> 
CO 4Bopa? H He BiiAajii., qbio m.iany dpocHJH iia nojT>. fl ne 
3HaK), ci. ibiiMH A-BTbMii OHT. ry.iaeTT>. qeMi, tw saSoTiiuibca, 
II q-BMT. a 3ac.iy}Ki'uT> tbok) 4py}K6y? Gt. q-BM'b mojkho no34pd- 
BiiTb Te6a, II orb ^ero tm no^yiiu-b 3th jeHbni? GKOJbKO 
BepcTT> OTi. 3Toro r6po4a 40 loro? Hsb CKo^bKiixi, tomobt. 
cocTOiiT'b cie coqimeHie ? Ho CKo^ibKy pyd^efi AOCTaneTca BaMi. 
ii3T> aiOM npii6bUH? 

Tbi cdiM-b corjaciiuibca co mhoh): caMbiii SByKi. ero ro.ioca 
npiaieHT.. H HaHHMaio ciw KBapiiipy y caMoro xo3aHHa. GaMbie 
nopoKii Hax64aT'b y BacT> iiSBiiHeme. Oht. Bcer4a roBopiiT-b 
cedi caMoMT.. Bbi He40B6^bHbi codow caiviiiMii. Mbi bh4'BJ[h ee 
caMoe. CaMaa cMepib lie cxpauiHa. Mbi bcb AOBo^bCTsyeMca 
04HiiM'b H{a.iOBaiiieMT). TaKi. 4^^10x1. 04H'Ei HfenmuHbi. Mm 
66a xoxiiMT. cjyadixb e4iiH0My Bory. Btj Kaa(40M'b codpaHiu 
6bi.in rpaH{4aHe o66ero no.ia. Ohii pa3C'BaHbi no BceMy CBSxy. 
Ha4odHO npiiBbiKaxb ko BcaKOii niim-b. 

H-BX'b HiiKoro 34'BCb; He npocii noMoiuii mi y Koro. Tbi ne 
■Buib HHiero, II axo ne r04iixca hh ki. qeaiy. Yqiicb ^eny 
Hii6y4b, n CKaacii axo KOMy Hn6y4b. fl ne npo4aM'b CBoero 
46Ma Hii 3a ^To, II Bbi np64ajii CBofl 3a hh^xo. H3t> Hinero 
He C4'B.iaemb HH^erd. Bx. xe^enie HicKO^bKiixi. MicaiteBx. oht. 
ejKe4HeBH0 noKynaji, no HicKO.ibKy cox-b 4yiin>. 

O'S'B cecxpbi 4ypH6 rOBopax-b 4pyn> Apyr-B. AHr.ni^aHe n 
4>paHny3bi HeHaBii4ax'b 4pyn> 4pyra. Mbi xd4HM'b ryjaxb 4pyn> 
Cb 4pyroMx.. Ciii 40Ma Aemii-h 04iiH'b 3a 4pyriiMT.. /I,dcKii 
Ha6pdcaHbi 04Ha ex. 4pyrdH). 

fl 4'BJaio 4o6pd, CKdjbKO a aiejaio. Tbi acejaeuib y^iixbca. Exercises on 
Oht> 4yMaexT., qxo 3Haerx> bcb nayKii, u XBacxaexx, cboiimii ^^^^^55^^' 
ycnixaMii. Mbi ne 4ep3aeMT> sipiixb eauinMi. c.iOBaMi,, xoxa bh 
roBopiixe npaB4y. Moii coci4ii niixaioxca 04HnMT> x.iidoMT>, n 
ynoBaioxT, na npoBii4iHie. Bbi xopryexe cyKH<5MT., n bh xpeCyexe 



250 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

MHoraro. To^iydL BopKyeit; ropjima cTOHen,; codana .laen,; 
meHKH 6pemyTT>; jaryuiKii KBaKaiOTi>; Boponw KapnaiOTi; jLBbi 
pbiKaH)TT>; o.ieiib TOKyeiT.; Kypbi Ky4axiyn.; KoiiiKa mnymiTb; 
6biKn MbiTOTT.; nqeja HtyjKJKi'iTT,; SM-bh iimniiTT, ; op^ibi xpySHTi; 
co.ioBbii iue6eqyTT>; oBUb'i 6.ieibTb; CBUHbii xpioKaion,; ^iici'ma 
Bii3H{iiTT>; oce^T> peBeiT.; KajKyHT> K^ioxieiT,; nepenejKa saHa- 
KaeiT.; n^TyxT> KyKypeKaeTT>; copona CKpeKoien,; nonyrafi 
6o^TaeTT>. rpoMT> rpeMi'iTT,; BO^a KiiniiTT>; ^Bepn CKpiinHXi; 
pyqbii TKYXM'dTh', oroHb Tpemiixi; SBiSAbi CBepKaioTT>; co^jHue 
CB-BTiiTi; m'GAbi poaica; a^iMaSbi CAeciArb; cyxie jiicTba xpy- 
maix; B'BTep'B CBncTaen>; CH'Bn> laeiT). Co.mue oaapaeTi 
3eMJK) CBOiiMii .jyiaMii, rpieii 11 h{iibutt> ee. 3eivua o6pa- 
maexcfl BOKpyri. cd^iHua. Bbi Hanpaciio ropibeTe. 

a ry^iHjiT. Bqepa no 6epery ptKii, KorAa co^wqe caAiUocb. 
Moa cecipti ciiAi.ia no^T. 4epeB0Mi>, Koidpoe Ka^a^jocb BiipoMi. 
Bqepa MM MHoro padoia^n, mniAu, micajii h pncoBaju. OBUbi 
MpyTT> OTt ciyjKH. Erd aiaib ^aBHo ynep^a. Henpiaiejii 
3anep.jii ero bi KpinocTii. 3'TOTb qe.ioBiK^ oc.im'b, 11 ero 
jKeiia OTAOXASi. Moii ^epeBba Bbicox^in 11 MOii i^B-BTbi saBaJiii. 

MocKBa AOATO 6yAeTT> KpacoBaibca bo r.iaBi ropoAOBi) Pycc- 
KiixT,. Tbi 6y4efflb iirpaib, n a 6y4y nocaib. PocciiicKoe rocy- 
AapcTBO 6yAeTT> 6e3npepb'iBH0 BOSBLiiuaxbca, n Bcer^a npio0p-B- 
t5tT) doji-Be ciubi 11 c.iaBbi. Be^iiiKiil rocy/iapb miKorAa ne 
yMpeiT). 

/1,'B^ail, qio Te6i roBOpan,, 11 ne ^VMaii ynpaMnibca. He 
xepafl HaAGHJAW, n ynosaft 11 a Bora, Cxynarixe 40M611, 11 iie 
TO^Kyiixe cxojbKO. He xpaxb BpeftieHii, 11 ne Myib jKnuoxHbixX). 
FoBopiixe Bcer/ia npaB4y, 11 ne cnopbxe nycxAKaxx.. 

CojiOBeil noexT>; jouia^b p5Kexx>; bojkx. Boexi.. Ecxb SBipii, 
Koxopbie cnax-b bck) siiwy. Tbi 6epeiDb Miioro na ce6a, 11 a He 
depycb 3a axo a'^ao. Sa^iM^ bh Miiexe 3xy KHiiry? Oht> 
jKiiBexT, BT> MocKBi, 11 c.ibiBeXT> 6oraxbiMT> qe^OBiKOMi.. Eacxyx'b 
cxpimex'b OBeuT.; Kpecxbane npa^yx-b Aen-b ii XKyxT> xojicxt.. 
Ohx> xoqexi. cnaxb, ii bh xoxiixe iirpaxb. Moil cocbai* 6epen, 
Meiia, KaK-b po^naro Cbina, ii ne Mon. co mhoh) pascxaxbca. 
Henpiaxe.iii coHtr.iii Miiorie ropo^a; omi yB^ieoiicb a.iodoio ii 
MmenieMi. Hacxyxi nacT> OBeu-L na Jiyry. H nom^ib 3a .li- 
KapeMT), H xbi npHuufeiub mh-b Aenen,. 3'xoxt> r6po4T> iiB'Bxexb, 
II OUT) AOATO 6yAexT> uBtcxii ci'mofo II 6oraxcxBOMT>. fl 4a3n> 



CORRECT CONSTRUCTION OF THE EXERCISES. 25 1 

Te6i KHiiry, a ^to tu ^aiiib MHt? Tsi ne M6?Keiiib roBopiiii,: 
qio OHT> 4acTT> MH-B 3a 3T0? He 6epH Ha ce6H loro, qero tw 
He MOHteuib Hcnd^HiiTb. /l,iTn, jKimiiTe MiipHO, ne K^ainixecb, 
HHKorAa He Auhe, n Be/inie ce6H xopomenbKO. 
Sfiipii x64aT'i> H d-BrawTT., nTiiuLi AerdwiTy, pbi6bi ruaBawn., 

H ^epBH ll6j3aH)TT>. rioCMOTpii, CWAa IIAeTT> C0J4aTT>; 3a HHMT, 

C-BadiT-L coCana. BiiAiiiub, KaKt 6b'icTpo ^eniTi oia ^acxoiKa; 
OHii Bcer^a xaKt ^^eiawT'L. Ceu MopHKT> Ao^ro n^aBa.ii) no 
^epHOMy Mopio. Hto xaivn. n^biBeTi na boat, ? iKenbi GjaBHHT> 
HOCii.Hi BOAy 11 xacKa^ii 4poBa. 'Ixo xbi necemb bt> axoMt 
M-BiuKi? CMOxpii, KaKyro BasaiiKy ApoBt axoxi. qe.iOB-BKTj xamiixT>. 
BiUuiii xor4a, qero He Bii^ajH aoxo.i-b. 

Henpiaxe^ib piiHyjica bt> ropoAi. 11 Kiiny^ica na Kopwcxb. Mo.iHia 
saceepKa.ia. Mo.inia csepKHy.ia, rpaHy^^b ciMbntifi rpoM-b, seM.ia 
Apornyjia, uepKOBb 3axpacjiacb. BpaxT> moh wien> 11 saxpanijii ; 
OHT> rpoMKO xpanny.it h npocny^ca. Mory mi naAiaxtca, mo 
.iiipa Moa xponexTj eme Bame x^aaAHoe cepAUe? CojHue 3cl6m\- 
cxajo, HO He HaAo.iro: 6.iecHpo h CKpbuocb. Mbi Bb'idpoca.^ii 
3a OKHO Becb copT>; BT) copy Mbi Bbi6pociLiH H BaHiHyH) dyaiary. 

Ilpoui.iaro roAa a xajKHBa^n. bt. r6poAT>. GoKpaxt roBapiiBa.n,. 
HiMiibi H3AaBHa HviiBajiii BT. HoB'BropoA'B. yKneyqii bt> MocKBi, 
a tSHca^T) BT, TpoiiUKyH) .laBpy. Bt> MOjOAua j-Bxa a >KiiBa.iT> 
BT> AepeBH-B. 

E'cm 6li KaMHii roBopiixb Mor.iii, OHii nayqiruiii 6bi xe6a 
ocxopo/KHOCxii. E'c^ii 6li kxo HiidyAb Bome.iT, kt> HaMT> bt> 3xy 
Mimyxy, oht> yBiiA'BJT. 6bi nacT. bt> oxiaaniii, 11 yc^bima.iT> 6bi 
Hainii cxenaHia 11 namu b3a6xii. Ecxb Ma^jo npeAMexoBT> bt, 
CBix-B, Ha Koxophie a ne o6pamajT> 6bi BmiMaHia. He 6bM0 
xaKoro KaMeHHaro cepAiia, Koxopoe ne iis^iiiBajocb 6li bt. c.iesaxT,. 

CojAaxT. 9X0XT, c^LyaciLiT. Ao.iro, h BbiCAymiwh neHciro. He 
BcaKiS Bbic.iyjKiixT. ee ct. xaKiiMT. oxjuWieMT.. Oht. Sbma.n. bo 
MHoniXT. cpa/KeniaxT., h BeSAi oxjiiia.ica d^incxaxe.ibHOio xpaO- 
pocxbH). OcodeHHO ox^imilica oht. npii BSaxiii oahoiI nenpia- 
xejbCKOii daxxapen. Oht. nepBbiii B3o6paj[ca na SpycxBepi., 
y61i.1T, nenpiaxe^^ibCKaro co.iAaxa n B3a.iT. nyuiKy. 3a axo ero 
narpaAii-in opAenoMT,. Hoxomt. Harpa}KAa.iii ero 11 Apyn'iMii 
oxjiiiriaMH. Tenepb oxnpaBiixca oht, bt, poAHny, noce.iiixca bt, 
cBoeil ceMbi, n dyAexT, pa3CKa3biBaxb cboi'ixt. noxoAaxT., Kam, 
xajKHBa.1T. Ha TypOKT. n 4^paHLiy30BT., Kam, Cnea.iT. BparoBb, 



252 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

KaKi> Tepni.n> r6.iOAT>, cipaAln, oti> paHi>, 11 yT-Biiiajca Mbicuw, 
^TO ciymuTb cBoeMy rocy^apio cep4ueMi> 11 Ayiuoio. VnoBau 
Ha Mena. 
Exercises qe.iOBiKTj, .iwdamiii npae^y, HeHaBii4BTT> .lOJKb. Kynaiomeeca 

on the ■ e ' n ' ' ¥' ' 

participles. AiiTa; cooaKa, opocaioiuaaca Ha npoxoacHXi). Kyneui), no.iyqaB- 
p- 176. miii Toeapw n3T> .loHjona, npo^aea^b iixt> Bb'iroAHO. Kyneui), 
no.iyquBiuiii Toeapbi h3t> .loHAona, npo^aji uxt> Bb'iroAHO. Cipa- 
/Kjymiil dojisHiio, iimeTT> oS.ierqeHia. Sa/Kni noxyxuiyio CB^qy, 
II Bbiipii 3aM6p3iuee cxeKJO. C^asa repoio, cnacmeMy CBoe 
oie^ecTBo. PbiKaromiii .leBi,, Mbiiamiii 6biKT>, jaiomaa cooaKa, 
noibmiii n-Bxyxi, BopKyiomiii ro.iydb, BbipaiKaioTi. cboi'i qyBCTea 
II jKe^ania. 

Mope, BO.myeMoe BiipaMii, ycTpauiaen. n.!0BueBTi. A^^^^ 
.iK)6iiMaa 0TueMT>, ciapaeicb sacjyHtiiBaib ero jiodoBb. 4<^-*^h^ 
noMoraib neciacTHOMy, roHiiMOMy cy4b56io 11 npec^iAyeMOMy 
Hey4aiaMii. 9'to cnaxoe mo.wko, ii boxt. xepxbiii xa6aKT>. 3'xo 
sapaateHHoe pyatbe. Ha pbiHRt npo4aK)xca diixbie rycii, cmo- 
.lewbia BepeBKii, oxKopauenHbia nopocaxa 11 cxpiiaienHbia obum. 

Poccia odiixaeMa aiHoruMu Hap64aMii. 4odpbie rocyaapii 
.iiodiiMbi CBOiiMn n644aHHbiMii , n yeaiKaeMbi coc'B4aMii. Taxapbi 
db'LM nodsH{4eHbi 11 pa3diixbi na Ky4UK6B0MT> no.i-B. Tpy4bi 
TBoii dy4yTT. yB-BHqaHbi ycnixoMi. IbieHa dbiBaiox-b CK^onaeMbi, 
a YAdxoAhi cnparaeMbi. Ceil Be.^iiKiu nojKOB64eu'b dy4exT> 
qxiiMt B^ noxoMcxB^. MocKBa dbua pa3opeHa n coaiaceHa 
BparaMii. 3'to pyacbe 3apaH{eH6. 3'xa KHiira npenpacHO nepe- 
njexena. 

Exercises on n04li CI04a, lidO a 34'BCb HvIIB}'. r4'B Baiin> dpaXT>? ErO H'BX'b 

'"'Jerunds"'^ 46Ma. Ky4a OHT, noixa.!!, B^epa BeqepoMT>? Tbi cy4rimb yMHo, 
p. 181. a dpaxT. XBOil cy4riXT> yMHie. fl xoaty uiiidKO, a xbi x64Huib 
miidqe. Bbi roBopiixe no-pyccKn qiicxo, a cecxpiiqa sama eme 
qiime. SaBxpa noi4eMT> mm 4a4eK0, a qpe3T> ro4'b eme Aajbuie. 
Tbi noeuib xopomo, no ona noexi* .lyquie. fl npouiy Bacb 
yd:B4iixejbH'Bume. H d.iaro4apK) BacT> noKopR-Bume. 

Tyjaa na depery p:BKii, a Hac.iaa{4aK)Cb npox.ia40H) Beiepa. 
/Ka-iia HecqacxHbixT>, ciapaiixecb noMoraxb iimt>. fl Bacb 
yiy, ace.iaa BaMi, 4odpa, h Ha4'Bacb, qxo bm ycniexe B-b HayKaxT>. 
He yMia c4'B.iaxb qero Hiidy4b, npocii coBixa , ne Kpacnta. 
4i.!aii 4odp6, He doacb miKoro. He 40.IJKHO tcxb .leata. C.iyHia 
oxeqecxBy 11 yainpaa 3a nero, mh iicno.maeM'b cbou 40.in>. 



CORRECT CONSTRUCTION OF THE EXERCISES. 253 

nojiyqiiBT> EHCtMo Bauie, 11 y3naBT>, ^ero ew /Ke^aaete, a neMe- 
4jeHH0 OTB-h^kn'b. OTo6i4aBiiin, ocianLca AOMa. HanncaBiiin 
DHCtMO, nojiOHdiBuin Bi KyBepTT> H saneqaTaBuiii, OTAaii ero na 
noTry. IlpiiuieAiiiii aomou, a c-bj^ nucaiL. HveHiiBiuncb, oin> 
noixa.!!. bt. AepeBHio. npocHAiBuiii qaci, y nero, a noineji. 
40M6fi; paSAiBUincL 11 .leruiii, a CKopo ycny.ii. 

Best naACKAbi ne.iLsa jkiitl bt> cb-bts. Ott, p-BKii a6 ^"^^Y^^Q^p^ll^X 
AB-B BepcTLi. newb Bbi roBopiiie ? Mbi xpyAiiMca A^a odmaro tions. p.185. 
6jiara. MeacAy aomomi h caAOMt npocTpaHHbiri ABOpT> ct. kohwiii- 
HaMH. Bora paAii ne yHUBan. Am66\ih kt> rocyAapio n oie- 
qecTBy. Oht> )KnBeTT> y CBoero a^Au- Co^Aaxi BbiCKoqiuT> liai.- 
3a Kycia. Ay^'b co.ineqHHil npOHiiKaeii ckbosb BOAy. 3'tott> 
qe.iOBiKT> npn CMepiii. flTiiqa .leTaen, noAT> o6.iaKaMii. H 
noAomiiA'b KHiiry noAT> cto^t>. CaAiirect 3a cto^t,, h CHAUTe 3a 
CTo.ioMT.. BpaTT> Mofi %A^Th BT> MocKBy, DOTOMy ^TO ero atena 
miBeiT. B^ MocKBi. Opewn> cnAiiTT> Ha Aepes-B. 3'Ta pioMKa 
pa36iijiacb na Me.iKia lacTii. H AOcaAyiocb Ha 6paTa Moero 3a 
ero j-BHOCTb. He 3a66Tbca qyaciixi. At^axi.. Mou Apyrfa 
yuiiiSca 06^ yro.iT> tioja. BoAa Teq6TT> ch KpoB.Hi. Bott, 
AepeBba ct. jiicTbaMH, ho 6e3T> i^b-etobi.. 3 la codana CvAen. 
CT> KopoBy. 4"^^™ 6iraK)T'b no ABopy n no caAy. Mw pa66Ta.iii 
OT^ nepBaro no naioe inc.io A'srycTa. On-b hociiti ipaypi 
no CBoeMT. dpai-B. 

Moil AaAa poAn.ica n hjiijt> bt, MocKBi, a ne bt> TBepn. SHaembJ^^^^J^jyj^"^" 
jiii qio naui-b yqiiie-ib He3Aop6BT,? E'acejn bm ne npiiAeie, to tions. p.iss. 
a ocepjKycb. Cnpocii y nero, xoien, jh oht> ixaib, n.iii 
HaM-BpesaeTca ocTaibca AOMa. Oht> sadoTHxca 66A%e dpai-B 
HejKe.in cecip-B. npiaTH-Be A'S-iaib Ao6p6 ApyniMb, q-BMi, caMOMy 
no.iyqaib 6^aroTBopeHia. IlycTb oht> npinAex'b; nyCKafl OHii 
y-BAyTT.. 4a cojiHne Baci, ne sacTdneTT, na .iojk-b. 4^ 3ApaB- 
CTByerb L[apb. ^-bmi npn.ieHtH-Be tm 6yAemb yqiiibca, T-hWb 
jer^e fiyAeii. ajih Te6a yqeHbe. 

3HMa npiaXHa. AhOA\l CyXb CMepTHbl. HoBrOpOAl 6bl.nj Exercises on 

6oraxT>. Poccia ecxb odunipHaa nnnepia. Bojra ecxb napiiqa of^ords^ 
ptKi PyccKHXT>. npiaxe.ib mou, bm 6yAexe AOBo.ibHbi. Y mcb p- ^92- 
ecxb dojbuiie sanacbi. Y Mena 3aBxpa 6yAyTT> Aenbrn. Ea 
Be.iiiqecxBO (IlMnepampuu,a) Bbi-Bxa.ia. Ero npeBOCxoAiiie.ib- 
cxBO {rehepdjiz) yixajx.. Ero IlMnepaxopcKoe BwcoqecxBO [Be- 
jiuKiU KHH3b) dhwh AOBOjeHi. Feorpa^ia n Hcxopia cyxb 



2 54 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

BecfcMa no.ieSHwa siiaHia. Mo.iqaib ipyaHO. Cko.ibko Ob'i.io laMi* 
4BTeii? MocKBa SHaMeHiiia; r6po4T. MocKsa SHaMeHiiTT,. KuTaii 
MHOrojib/ieHT.; rocy4apcTBO KiiTaii MHOro.iiOAHO. Y Hero ecxb 
TpH4iiaTb 04Ha j6iiia4i>. Kmira, KOidpyio bli mnieie, onenb 
3a6aBHa. Boti> qe.iOBBK^, ^bi'iMH Tpy4aMii no.iayeMca. 

Exercises on B04a eCTb CTIIXia. A.ieKCaH4pT> MaKe46HCKill 6bUT, Be.lHKifl 
dependence ' m ' ^ ' 

of words. rio.iKOB04euT>. Taiapbi Ob'uii CBiipinbi. Moii 4'B4T> o*HuepT>; 
p. 200. ^Qj'j ^^^^ 6bLn. Tor4a o*imepoMTi. FoBopHX-b, ^to KOMeibi 
6bi.m H.iii em6 6y4yTT> n.iaHeiaMH. 

405K4b OCB-ByKaeiTj 3eM4I0. 3.104'BH HeHaBli4aTT> qeCTHMXT> 

.iH)4efi. Bypa, onycTOiuiiBiiiaa Hamii nojia, pasopii.ia MHonix'b 
noce.iaH'b. FoBopii Bcer4a npaB4y- Mofl dpai-b ObJA-h 66.ieH'b 
BCK) siiMy. R -hXdLA-b u-Liyio Bepciy BepxoM-b. Teda XBa.iaxij 3a 
npiLieacaiiie. Ont y4apH.«ca 061, ci-BHy. Mbi CH4iiM'b bt. bo4'B 
no lueio. GbiH-b pocxoM'b Cb oxua, 11 jyo^b noixii ct> naxb. 

CKyneu'b npe4noqiixaex'b 4eiibrii c.iaB-B, a bohht, ciasy 4eHb- 
raMT>. Mo.iHia npe4iiiecxByexT, rpoMy. 4"B.iibcb sameMy xepni- 
hIh). HpaBaxca .«i BaM'b 3x11 Kapxiinbi. He mcxh xBoeny iienpia- 
TGAV), II 4'B.iari Aodpo odiU^HuieMy xedfi. Bbixb qy4y. Jrixbca 
ropioTOM'b c.ie3aMT>. PedeHKy xoiexca niixb. Cii.ibHOMy qe- 
.lOBiKy He npiMii^HO o6ii}Kaxb cjiadaro. no4pajKaHie lacycy 
Xpiicxy. yliodoBb K'b 40dpo4'Bxejn h HenaBucxb Kb iiopoKy. 

BiiH{y r.ia3aMii, oca3aK) pyKaMH, c.ibimy yuiaMu, odonaio hocomi, 
BKyiiiaio aSbiKOMT,. IIsMaiui, 6bU'b BSaxb CyBopoBbiMi, n Ona- 
KOBT, noxeMKHHbiMT>. 3 xiixT> o*HuepoBT. BCB HasbiBaiox'b rcpoaMH. 
Bo.ibHofl e4Ba meBe.iiixb rydbi {uau rydaMii). rnymaiocb 

OOMaHOM'b II AOmiV). 34'BCb 4b'liUaX'b qiiCXbIMT> B634yXOMT>. 

Ilo/KepxBOBaHie HCii3HiK) sa rocy4apa h oxeiecxBO. Ohi. 4odpb 
cep4ueMT>, HO cjad-b toaoboio. yxpoM-b Ha4odHO BCxaBaxb, 
4HeM'b padoxaxb, BeiepoMT> ox4bixaxb, h h6%k) cnaxb. IloMnpii 
Moero 4pyra cb ero 434610. Uuiio ^ecTb no34paBHXb Bacb cb 
BauiiiMH ycn-BxaMii. 

GbiHT. Moero licKpenHaro 4pyra Biepa yBxa.n>. 4'^tii do.ib- 
maro yMa Hep'B4K0 dbiBaioxB xiLibi. CocxaBwieHT) cniicoK'b 0*11- 
uepaait Hauieii 4iiBH3iii. HeieHie x.iida. H KyniuT> ^ynx-b 
qaro u cajKeHb 4poBT). Gx6.ibK0 xpy46B'b h 3ad6xT> npona.io no- 
nycxoMy. PyccKie BSa.in HapiiMT. ocbMHa4iiaxaro Mapxa xb'iac^a 
HOCBMbCox-b nexbipHa4uaxaro r64a. H ne "BM-b xjida, ho niio 
B64y. H ^M-b x.i-Bdb, ho ne obio B04b'i. H ne no.iyia.n, Hir 



CORRECT CONSTRUCTION OF THE EXERCISES. 255 

niictMa, Hir nocLLiKii. Bt> aioMt niicbMi hbt'i> hii oahou oiuiiCkii. 
4ocTaHb MH-B Aenerb. Bohhm s^e.iaioTt 6iiTBbi h liuiyTb c.iaBbi. 
C.iaB0.iK)6eii'b HcajKAex'b noqeciefl. Tbi xo^euib 6oraTCTBa, ii 
6oiiuibca ipyAa. BdqKa ncwa BWHa. ^^^pbift qejOBiKb qyHC4T> 
3j6dbi II saBiicTH. 36.10TO 4op6/Ke cepe6pa; cBHiieui, TaHte.iie 
Hcej-Bsa. Oii-b npocHT-b MiuocTbiiiu pa4ii Xpiicia. TAbixT> npi- 
flieH-b nocAt, paCoTbi. B^o^b aioro Oepera THHeica u-Bnb ropi. 

B6.IKII 6p04HTT> OKOJO 4epeBHii. 

Moil dpax'b xpaiiiiTi. npiicyiCTBie AY^a npn bcbxi HenpiHT- 
HOCTflX'b BT> HtiiSHii. Ceil ropoA'b nocTpoeHT. Ha KpyioMT, depery 
6b'icTpoii p-fiKii. IJ,epKOBb naiii rjaBaxT>. Oht, n^aieix no 

CBOeMT. OTUi. 



BojiniEBHimA. 

OAHa BAOBa iiiMi^a AByxb AOiepefl : cxapuiaa dti.ia noxo/Ka na 
CBOH) Maib H j[nueMT> II iipaBOMT>, TO ecTb, OHa 6bua xaKT) Hve 
Aypna h lan-b me 3.ia, Kani. ea Maib. Hiikto He .iMdiu-b nx-b; 
BC^ OTx Hiixb dirajii. MeHbuiaa jkc 6bua npeKpacna ii 4odpo- 
AyuiHa. Bc-B ee jh)6iuii. Ho 3jaa Maib ii 3.iaa cecipa ee neHa- 
BiiA'B.aii; 6e3npecTaiiH0 fipamuii; OAua ona AOAmm 6bui pado- 
Taxb BT> AOM^, Toni'iTb ne^b, Meciii ropHuqbi, CTpanaib bt> 
KyxH-B. B-BAHflHCKa n^a-Kaja ct. yipa ao Beqepa, ho ne .itniuacb 
padoiaib; d.iUa noc^yiuHa, Tepn-B.iiiea, ii Bce to 6buo nanpacHO, 
lido HiiqiMb He Mor.ia yrOAiiTb na 3.iyK) MaTb h Ha 3.iyK) ce- 

CTpy CBOH). 

EaieAHeBHO axa diAHaa A^ByiuKa AO.iJKHa dbua, cb do-ibUHiM-b 

KyBIUliHOM-b, XOAl'lTb 3a BOAOK) BT. d.IimHIOH) pomy, BT, KOTOpOll 

naxoAilica qiicTbifl hcto^hukti. OAHaacAW nouua ona, no odbiKHO- 
Beniio, K-b OTOMy ucToimiKy. /l,eub 6biA'h oqenb acapOKi.. Ha- 
no.iHHB'b KyBuiHH'b BOAOM), OHa B03Bpama.iacb AOMOH. BApyn, 
BiUiiTT. nepeA'b codoio CTapyuiKy. «4HTa Moe!» — CKa3a.ia eil 
CTapyuiKa: — «Aafl mh-b naniiTbca. R ycTa^ia; mh-b 3KapK0.» — 
wGtj oxotoh), da6ymKa!» cnasaja A'BByuiKa: «bott.! Hanerica!» 
H ona noAa.ia CTapyuiK'B KyBuiiiHT>. 

CTapyuiKa ott, c.iadocTii ci^a na Tpasy, a Mo.iOAaa KpacaBima 
CTa.ia nepeA'b Hero na ko.i-bhh, u ocToponmo noAAepatiiBa.ia 
KyBuiHHX, noKa ona mi.ia BOAy. — «B.iaroAapro Teda, Miuaaiw 



256 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

CKasa^a crapyuiKa, HaniiBuiiiCL : wBiiHcy, 'ito tm 4o6poe, .mcKOBoe 
4HTa, II xoqy Te6a narpaAHTt 3a xeoib ycjy/KJiiBOCTb. 3Hafi 
H{e, a BO.imedHima, 11 napo^HO BSaja iia ce6a bii4t> CTapyuiKii, 
qiodti Te6a Hcnbiiaifc. Pa^yiocE., qio tm laKaa AoSpaa, 11 bott,, 
qio a xo^y 4-^h Te6a c^'B^axt : Bcaidfl paai., Kor^a tw CKaHvemt 
c.iobo, 1130 pia y leda Bb'ina4eTT> luii npeKpacHwu ub-btoki, luii 
AparouiiiHwil KaMGHb, luii 6o.ibiiiaa weMqyjKiiHa. IIpocTii, ^py- 
jk6kt>!» H BO^meOiiiiua H3ie3.ia. 

IlpeKpacHaa AieyiuKa BOSBpaiiLiacb ^OMoii. wFAt rw TaKT> 
Ao.iro 6bLia?» cnpoci'ua y nea ct> cep4uean> maib. — «^to tm 
xaKT) AOAro Ai.ia.ia bt> point ?» sanpiiqlia 3.!aa cecipa. — 
wBiiHOBaia, 3aMimKa.iacb!» oxB'Bqajia 6'B4Ha}KKa, 11 bt> xy caMyio 
Miniyxy cb npeKpacHbixT. ryS-b ea CKaxiMiiCb ab^ p63bi, ab^b 
)KeM^yH(HHbi 11 ABa 6oAbmie iisyMpyAa. — «^xo a BHa(y?» Bocoii- 
KHy.ia yAHB.ieHHaa Maxb. «3'xo UB-BXbi! 3'xo Aparou-Bimbie KaMHii! 
^xo CT> xo66k) CAi.ia.iocb!» — KpacaBima npocxoAyiuTio pa3CKa3aja 
eil CBoeft Bcxpiq-B ex. BO.ime^Hnueio , a MejKAy x'Bmx> UB-fiXbi, 
a.iMa3bi II }KeMqyn> xanx. h cbinajiicb ct> ry6T> ea. — «Xopom6 
Hce!" npoBop^aja Maxb : «3aBxpa noui.iib bt> pomy cxapiuyio mow 
Aoib, II CT> Heio xo me 6yAexT>.» 

n Ha Apyroe yxpo, ona CKasa^a CBoefl Aoqepii: «HbiHb^e 
noiiAeuib 3a boaoio xm: B03bMi'i KyBmiiHT>; ho CMOxpii me, eciii 
BCxpixHuib y HCxoiHHKa cxapyiiiKy, Aaii eft iianiixbca h npii- 
jiacKafica kt> nefl xopoineHbKO.» 3jaa A'BB^oiiKa naxMypiuacb, 
Cb AOcaAOK) B3aj[a KyBuiiiHX) ; nexoxa noin.«a bt> pomy, h bo bcw 
Aopory Bopqa.ia. CxapyuiKa CHA^^a yace y HCxoiHiiKa. «3a- 
^epnHii MR-B BOAb'i, Moa Miuaa!» CKasa.ia ona A^BOiKt : wacapKO, 
xoiy Haniixbca.w — «KaKx> 6bi He xaicb! fl ne 3a xtMT> npiim.ia 
ciOAa, ixo6b'i yc.iYHdiBaxb cxapbiMi dpoAaraMX.. Haobeiiibca n 
6e3T> Meiia!» — «KaKaa me xm rpy6aa!» CKa3a.ja eii cxapyiiiKa: 
«a HanaHty xe6a. Ct> axiixi nopx., npn KaHtAOMx, ciob-b xboSmi., 
6yAexT> BbinaAaxb y xe6a h3o pxa luii SM-Ba uau. .laryuiKa.n 
Ona H3qe3.ia, a 3.iaa A'BB^OHKa no6t.msiAa. aomoiI, paadiiBiiiii Cb 
AOcaAM KyBuiiiH'b cboh. «^xo CKameuib, Mi'uaa AoiKa!» cnpocii.ia 
Maxb, yBUA'BB'b ee ii3Aa.ieKa. — «He^ero CKa3aTb!» oxB-Bqlia 
AO^b, H BApyn> Bb'iCKOiiLiii 1130 pxa ea ab^ 3M'£ii h ab'B ma6bi\ 
— «^xo a Biiacy! KaKofl cxpax^!» 3aKpnqa.ia Maxb. «Ho bo 
BCeMT> 9X0MX. BHHOBaxa xBoa cecxpa! H AaMX> en snaxb.n H 
OHi dpoauHCb 6iixb MeiibiiiyK) AO^b. 



CORRECT CONSTRUCTION OF THE EXERCISES. 257 

Ohe, HcnyraBUiHCb yrpost, CKpb'uacb bt> pomy, ^o^ro 6tmiAa, 
He cMia orjiflHyTLCfl, aaS'BHca.ja Aa^ieKO, h naKOHeuT. noiepfl.ia 
4op6ry. Ho aio 6biM kt, ea cqacTiro. ElapcKifi cmh-l, KOTopbifi 
Tyxi 3a6aBjajca oxotoio, naxoAH^ca bt, 9to BpeMa b-l pom-B; 
OHT. yBHADjiT, KpacaBHuy, KOTopaa, cuah na ipaBi, roptKO n^ana^a. 

— «^T0 CT. T06610 c^i^a^jocb? ^cMT. TBI n^aqeuiB, MH.«aa?» 
cnpociuT, OHT., BSSBT, ec jacKOBO 3a pyKy. — «B6)Ke mom ! KaKi. 
MH^ He n^aKait! MaxyniKa BBirna^ia Mena liai, AOMy.» Ona 
roBopi'ua, a ub'Btli h AparouiHHBie KaMmi cbina^iicL ct. ea poao- 
Bbixx rydi), h ciesbi o6painajHCb bt> jKeM^iyHtHHbi. — «Mto 3to 
3Ha^HTT> '?» cnpociUT, iiapoKifi CbiHT. : «OTT> lero axH UBtibi, ateM- 
^yrn H KaMHH?» B-BAHaacKa paacKasa^a i^apcKOMy Cbiny tomt., 
^To CT> HCH) CAymiAOCh. — On'b no^Ki6H^T> ee, h noAm6uA'h emc 
66A%e 3a to, ^to ona 6bua TaKT> 4odpa h MH^ja, uemeAvi aa ea 
iiB-BTbi H ^paroniHHbie KaMHH. Oht> B3ajn> ee ct> codoio, npe^- 
CTSLBUA-h ee IJ,apib, oiuy cBoeiviy, KOiopoMy ona T&Kme noHpa- 
BHjiacb, H Uapb no3B6^H.«T> cb'my na Hefl jKeHHibca. TaKHMi. 
66pa30MT> OHa CA^ja^acb IJ,apeBHOio, a no CMepiH I^apa, Kor^a 
ea MyHCb B3oinejT> na omoBCKift npeciojri., Ltapiii^eio, h 6bui 
I^apHueio AodpoH). A 3Jiaa cecipa ea? ^to CA'B.iajiocb ch Hero? 

— Ona JKajocTHbiM'b 66pa30M'b KOH^Hja cboh) jkhshb. Maib, 
KOTopyro ona deanpeciaHHO cep^iua h oropqa^a, npHHyacAena 
dbua ee BbirnaTb hst. AOMy; hhkto He xoi-hA-b eft ^aib npHCia- 
HHiua, H ona CKpbuacb bt. a^cl, r^t CKopo ynepjia ct> AOcaAbi 
H rojo^a. 




17 



S^^5S^S5S^B^^S^55^SiS5^B«&^Sfi5^3i 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

FIRST PART 

LEXICOLOGY. 

Page 

Division of the Grammar I 

Sounds or letters 2 

Alphabet 2 

Division of the letters 6 

Pronunciation of the letters 7 

Vowels 7 

Semi-vowels II 

Consonants 13 

Syllables and words 17 

Tonic accent 17 

Reading- Exercise 18 

Elements of speech 22 

Division of words 23 

Roots of words 24 

Inflections of words 26 

Metaplasms of words 26 

Permutation of letters 26 

Epenthesis and prosthesis 28 

Apocope and Syncope 29 

THE SUBSTANTIVE 29 

Division of substantives 29 

Properties of nouns 30 

17* 



2 6o TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page 

Genders 30 

Aspects 34 

Numbers 36 

Cases 37 

Declension of substantives 39 

Regular substantives 39 

Rules of the declensions 40 

General rules 41 

Special rules 42 

Paradigms of the declensions of substantives .... 43 

First declension 43 

Second declension 48 

Third declension 50 

Irregular nouns 54 

Exercises in the declension of substantives 58 

THE ADJECTIVE 65 

Division of the adjectives 65 

Qualifying adjectives 65 

Possessive adjectives 65 

Properties of adjectives 67 

Gender, number, case 68 

Apocope of the termination 68 

Degrees of signification 69 

Declension of adjectives 75 

Paradigms of the declensions of adjectives 76 

First declension 78 

Second declension 80 

Third declension 83 

Exercises on the adjectives 83 

THE NUMERALS 88 

Division of numerals 88 

Cardinal and ordinal numerals 89 

Declension of the numerals 91 

Paradigms of the declension of the numerals .... 92 

Special rules of the numerals 95 

Exercises on the numerals 97 

THE PRONOUN 102 

Division of the pronouns 102 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 261 

Page 

Paradigms of the declension of the pronouns . . . 104 

Declension of the pronouns . 105 

Exercises on the pronouns 107 

THE VERB 112 

Division of verbs 112 

Inflections of the verb 1 13 

Tenses 1 13 

Aspects 113 

Moods 116 

Persons, numbers and genders 117 

Forms derived from the verb 118 

Conjugation 118 

Regular verbs 122 

Formation of the inflections of the verb 123 

Paradigms of the conjugations of the regular verbs . 125 

First conjugation 128 

Second conjugation 130 

Third conjugation 136 

Irregular vewbs 137 

Conjugation of irregular verbs 138 

Delineation of verbs 142 

Simple verbs 143 

Prepositional verbs 150 

Exercises on the verbs 166 

THE PARTICIPLE 1 73 

Division of the participles 173 

Active and neuter participles 173 

Passive participles 174 

Declension of the participles 175 

Passive verbs 176 

Exercises on the participles 1 76 

THE ADVERB AND THE GERUND 1 78 

Division of the adverbs 178 

Formation of the adverbs 179 

Degrees of comparison 180 

Gerunds 180 

Exercises on the adverbs and the gerunds 181 

THE PREPOSITION 183 



262 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page 

Division of the prepositions 183 

Government of the prepositions 185 

Exercises on the prepositions 185 

THE CONJUNCTION 187 

Exercises on the conjunctions 188 

THE INTERJECTION 188 

SECOND PART 

SYNTAX. 

Division of syntax 189 

CONCORD OF WORDS 189 

Exercises on the concord of words 192 

DEPENDENCE OF WORDS I93 

Nominative 194 

Vocative 195 

Accusative , 195 

Dative 196 

Instrumental 197 

Genitive 198 

Prepositional 200 

Exercises on the dependence of words 200 

CONSTRUCTION 2IO 

THIRD PART 

ORTHOGRAPHY. 

USE OF THE LETTERS 212 

Vowels 212 

Semi-vowels 215 

Consonants 215 

Doubling of consonants 218 

Capital letters 219 

DIVISION OF WORDS INTO SYLLABLES 219 

ORTHOGRAPHY OF ISOLATED WORDS 220 

Russian words 220 

Foreign words 223 

ORTHOGRAPHIC SIGNS 226 

MARKS OF PUNCTUATION 227 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 263 

FOURTH PART 

PROSODY. 

Page 

Division of prosody 229 

ORTHOEPY 229 

Prosodical or tonic accent 229 

Place of the accent 230 

VERSIFICATION 23I 

Tonic versification 231 

Foot or metre 231 

Denomination of the verses 232 

Csesura 237 

Termination of the verses 238 

Rhyme 239 

Stanza or strophe 239 

Poetic licenses 240 

SOLUTION OF THE EXERCISES 24 1 




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